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Lexical analysis

C sharp

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Tokens - Unicode character escape sequences
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Methods - Method parameters
Namespace and type names
Definite assignment

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Lexical analysis

The input production defines the lexical structure of a C# source file. Each source file in a C# program must conform to this lexical grammar production.




input:
input-sectionopt

input-section:
input-section-part
input-section   input-section-part

input-section-part:
input-elementsopt   new-line
pp-directive

input-elements:
input-element
input-elements   input-element

input-element:
whitespace
comment
token

Five basic elements make up the lexical structure of a C# source file: Line terminators (§2.3.1), white space (§2.3.2), comments (§2.3.3), tokens (§2.4), and pre-processing directives (§2.5). Of these basic elements, only tokens are significant in the syntactic grammar of a C# program (§2.2.3).

The lexical processing of a C# source file consists of reducing the file into a sequence of tokens which becomes the input to the syntactic analysis. Line terminators, white space, and comments can serve to separate tokens, and pre-processing directives can cause sections of the source file to be skipped, but otherwise these lexical elements have no impact on the syntactic structure of a C# program.

When several lexical grammar productions match a sequence of characters in a source file, the lexical processing always forms the longest possible lexical element. For example, the character sequence // is processed as the beginning of a single-line comment because that lexical element is longer than a single / token.

Line terminators

Line terminators divide the characters of a C# source file into lines.

new-line:
Carriage return character (U+000D)
Line feed character (U+000A)
Carriage return character (U+000D) followed by line feed character (U+000A)
Line separator character (U+2028)
Paragraph separator character (U+2029)

For compatibility with source code editing tools that add end-of-file markers, and to enable a source file to be viewed as a sequence of properly terminated lines, the following transformations are applied, in order, to every source file in a C# program:

If the last character of the source file is a Control-Z character (U+001A), this character is deleted.

If the source file is non-empty and if the last character of the source file is not a carriage return (U+000D), a line feed (U+000A), a line separator (U+2028), a paragraph separator (U+2029), or a carriage-return character (U+000D) is added to the end of the source file.

White space

White space is defined as any character with Unicode class Zs (which includes the space character) as well as the horizontal tab character, the vertical tab character, and the form feed character.

whitespace:
Any character with Unicode class Zs
Horizontal tab character (
U+0009)
Vertical tab character (U+000B)
Form feed character (U+000C)




Comments

Two forms of comments are supported: single-line comments and delimited comments. Single-line comments start with the characters // and extend to the end of the source line. Delimited comments start with the characters /* and end with the characters */. Delimited comments may span multiple lines.

comment:
single-line-comment
delimited-comment

single-line-comment:
//   input-charactersopt

input-characters:
input-character
input-characters   input-character

input-character:
Any Unicode character except a new-line-character

new-line-character:
Carriage return character (U+000D)
Line feed character (
U+000A)
Line separator character (
U+2028)
Paragraph separator character (
U+2029)

delimited-comment:
/*   delimited-comment-charactersopt   */

delimited-comment-characters:
delimited-comment-character
delimited-comment-characters   delimited-comment-character

delimited-comment-character:
not-asterisk
*   not-slash

not-asterisk:
Any Unicode character except *

not-slash:
Any Unicode character except /

Comments do not nest. The character sequences /* and */ have no special meaning within a // comment, and the character sequence // has no special meaning within a /* */ comment.

Comments are not processed within character and string literals.

The example

/* Hello, world program
           This program writes “hello, world” to the console
*/
class Hello

}

includes a delimited comment.

The example

// Hello, world program
//         This program writes “hello, world” to the console
//
class Hello // any name will do for this class

}

shows several single-line comments.



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