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Microsofta Flight Simulator 2004: A Century of Flight Software Development Kit - Aircraft Editor (FSEdit)

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TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

Microsofta Flight Simulator 2004:

A Century of Flight
Software Development Kit

Aircraft Editor (FSEdit)


Aircraft Editor Overview.. 1

Introduction. 1

Installing and Starting FSEdit 1

What This Document Contains. 2

Basic Guidelines. 2

The .air File. 2

Creating New Components from Scratch. 3

Modifying and Deleting Default Aircraft 3

Creating New Aircraft from Templates. 3

Modifying Add-On Aircraft 3

Tips. 3

Modifying .cfg Files. 3

Adding or Deleting an Aircraft 4

Introduction. 4

To add an existing aircraft using FSEdit 4

To add a new aircraft using FSEdit 4

To delete an aircraft using FSEdit 5

Aircraft Info. 6

Modifying a Panel 7

Introduction. 7

Undoing Changes. 7

Panel Guidelines. 7

To open a panel 7

To view the name of a gauge. 7

To navigate though the gauges. 7

To increase the viewing area of the gauge area. 8

To resize the view of the panel 8

Inserting a Gauge. 8

To copy and paste a gauge from another aircraft panel 8

To copy a gauge from the gauge area onto your panel 8

Changing a Gauge on a Panel 9

To view the name of a gauge. 9

To increase the viewing area of the gauge area. 9

To see how the gauge will look from within the cockpit 9

To test a gauge. 9

To reload an aircraft 9

Tips. 9

Sounds. 10

Introduction. 10

Modifying a Sound. 10

To listen to the existing sound, replace it, or remove it 10

Textures. 11

Introduction. 11

Flight Dynamics Editor (FDE) 12

Introduction. 12

Additional Considerations. 13

Configuration Tab. 14

Table 1: Reference Datum Properties. 14

Table 2: Wing and Tail Geometry. 14

Controls Tab. 16

Table 3: Controls Geometry. 16

Flaps Tab. 17

To add a flap set 17

To delete a flap set 17

Table 4: Flap Components. 17

Table 6: Airspeeds. 17

Weight and Balance Tab. 18

Table 7: Gross Weight 18

Table 8: Empty Weight Parameters. 18

Table 9: Moments of Inertia Parameters. 19

Engine Tabs. 19

Piston Engine Tab. 19

Table 10: Piston Engine Properties. 20

Table 11: Turbocharger Properties. 20

Table 12: Engine Position Properties. 20

Turboprop Engine Tab. 20

Table 13: Turboprop Engine Properties. 21

Table 14: Turboprop Engine Position Parameters. 21

Jet Engine Tab. 21

Table 15: Jet Engine Parameters. 21

Table 16: Jet Engine Position Parameters. 21

Propeller Tab. 22

Table 17: Propeller Properties. 22

Fuel Tab. 23

Table 18: Fuel Properties. 23

Gear Tab. 23

Table 19: Gear and Scrape Points. 23

Table 20: Static Geometrical Parameters. 24

Tuning Tab. 25

Flight Control Effectiveness. 25

Table 21: Flight Control Effectiveness Tuning Parameters. 25

Stability Characteristics. 26

Table 22: Stability Tuning Parameters. 26

Lift Forces. 26

Table 23: Lift Tuning Parameters. 26

Drag Forces. 26

Table 24: Drag Tuning Parameters. 26

Engine Parameters. 27

Table 25: Engine Tuning Parameters. 27


Aircraft Editor Overview

Introduction

The Aircraft Editor (FSEdit) in Microsoft® Flight Simulator 2004 is a tool with a graphical user interface. You can use it to:

·         Modify, add, or delete aircraft.

·         Add, delete, or change aircraft panels, including gauges, instruments, and radios.

·         Change, play, or remove sound files.

·         Modify aircraft textures.

·         Alter flight dynamics.

To make the changes, FSEdit modifies the following files: Aircraft.cfg, Panel.cfg, and Sound.cfg.

To use this editor, you need basic knowledge of aircraft and aerodynamic terms and concepts. You may also need a Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) or similar reference material for the aircraft you want to modify, or you can use the default values provided by the editor.

Installing and Starting FSEdit

By default, the following files were installed to your c:fs2004sdkfsedit_sdk directory:

·   readme.txt

·   eula.rtf

·   FSEdit.exe

·   FSEdit.exp

·   FSEDIT.HLP

·   FSEdit.lib

·   FSEditSDKFS2004.doc

Move (or copy) the following files to directory in which fs9.exe is installed (by default, it would be C:Program FilesMicrosoft GamesFlight Simulator 9).

·   FSEdit.exe

·   FSEdit.exp

·   FSEDIT.HLP

·   FSEdit.lib

Once you have placed these files in this directory, you can launch the editor by double-clicking the FSEdit.exe file.

This editor does not provide a visual model for your aircraft. To create a visual model, you must create a new 3-D model or edit an existing visual model with the gmax tool created by discreet and provided in Microsoft Flight Simulator 2004.

What This Document Contains

·         Basic guidelines
Basic information on FSEdit.

·         Adding or deleting an aircraft
Instructions on how to add or delete an aircraft.

·         Changing panels and gauges
Instructions on how to modify panels, gauges, instruments, and radios.

·         Replacing sound files
Instructions on how to delete, change, or add sound files.

·         Modifying textures
Instructions on how to modify the textures (graphics) on the exterior of the aircraft.

·         Altering flight dynamics
Instructions on how to alter the flight dynamics.

Important! The information included in this SDK is not supported by Microsoft Product Support Services.

Basic Guidelines

Introduction

With FSEdit you can add, delete, or modify the following parts of existing aircraft:

·         Panel
Replace and modify panel bitmaps representing panel backgrounds, or add/delete individual gauges, instruments, and radios.

·         Sound
Delete .wav (sound files) and replace them with new .wav files.

·         Textures
Modify the textures (bitmaps) representing the exterior of the aircraft (using Microsoft Paint or another graphics application).

·         Flight Dynamics
Alter the flight dynamics by modifying the aircraft geometry and/or tuning scalars.

The .air File

The .air file for each aircraft controls how the aircraft flies. You cannot modify the .air file directly, but some of the parameters from the .air file are incorporated into each aircraft’s .cfg (configuration) file. Many of these .cfg parameters are modifiable in FSEdit. The changes you make in FSEdit alter the aircraft’s .cfg file, which in turn creates new aerodynamic parameters in the .air file.

For more information about the aircraft configuration (Aircraft.cfg) file, see the Aircraft Container SDK.  The aerodynamic parameters in the .air file can be modified only by using the FSEdit program, which contains an internal function that determines the aerodynamic coefficients based on the changes you make in FSEdit.

Creating New Components from Scratch

FSEdit is not a tool for creating new components of aircraft from scratch. To create new panels and/or gauges, or for more information on panels and gauges, see the Panels and Gauges SDK.

Modifying and Deleting Default Aircraft

You can modify any aircraft except the Flight Simulator 2004 default (read-only) aircraft. You can, however, make a copy of read-only aircraft (using the Save Copy As command on the File menu), and then modify that copy. For example, if you want to customize the panel in the default Cessna Skylane 182S, you can use FSEdit to copy the default (read-only) Cessna Skylane 182S and give it a new name. Then you can modify the panel in this new Cessna.

You cannot delete the default (read-only) aircraft. You can delete only aircraft that you have added.

Creating New Aircraft from Templates

You can create a new aircraft based on a template of the type of aircraft you want to create. These templates, however, contain no visual model. To see your new aircraft from an exterior view, you need to create a visual model using the gmax tool from discreet, which is provided with Flight Simulator 2002 Professional Edition.

Modifying Add-On Aircraft

You can use FSEdit to modify add-on aircraft created for Flight Simulator 98 or later versions. Aircraft created for versions prior to Flight Simulator 98 must be converted. For more information, see Adding and Deleting Aircraft later in this document.

Tips

Remember the following tips as you modify aircraft:

·         There is no Undo command. To undo changes, exit FSEdit without saving the aircraft.

·         Be sure to save your work often. The Save command saves all the changes you have made in the current session.

Modifying .cfg Files

The .cfg files (“configuration” files) referenced in this document are text files with a .cfg extension. You can view and edit them with any text editor such as Microsoft Notepad. They are located in the appropriate aircraft subfolders of the Flight Simulator 9Aircraft folder. These files should be modified-and only-with caution--by experienced developers, because changes could render aircraft inoperable.


Adding or Deleting an Aircraft

Introduction

There are two ways to add new aircraft to Flight Simulator 2004.

To add

Use

A new aircraft

The New command (on the File menu), which creates aircraft templates to help you start the design process.

Aircraft that are compatible with Combat Flight Simulator: World War II European Series, Flight Simulator 98 (or any newer version of Flight Simulator)

FSEdit (These aircraft do not require conversion. FSEdit converts them for you).

Note: Because of the large-scale changes that were made in the aircraft system, aircraft not compatible with Flight Simulator 98 or with the original Combat Flight Simulator are not directly supported in Flight Simulator 2004 or FSEdit 2004.

Name of folder affected by adding or deleting aircraft in FSEdit

Location on your hard disk

Aircraft

C:…Flight Simulator 9Aircraft

Note For more information about configuration files, see the Aircraft Container SDK.

To add an existing aircraft using FSEdit

1.      On the File menu, click Open.

2.      Navigate to the location of the folder that contains the aircraft you want to add.

3.      Click the aircraft folder (the one that contains Panel, Texture, Sound, and Model folders) for the aircraft you want to add, and then click OK.

The contents of the aircraft container are copied to the location where you installed Flight Simulator 2004. You can edit the aircraft contents and then take the new aircraft for a test flight in Flight Simulator 2004.

Note Make sure you select the aircraft’s main folder. If you select a subfolder, the OK button will remain unavailable.

To add a new aircraft using FSEdit

1.      On the File menu, click New.

2.      Select the aircraft template you want to start with (engine type is the most important feature to select).

3.      Click OK.

4.      In the Save Copy As… dialog box, enter a new name for your aircraft or keep the suggested name.

5.      Click OK.

A complete aircraft container is created for you, except for a visual model (you must create the visual model using the gmax tool from discreet, which is included with Flight Simulator 2004, or by using another compatible tool for editing 3-D models).

To delete an aircraft using FSEdit

1.      Open an aircraft you have modified or created. (You cannot use FSEdit to delete any of the default aircraft.)

2.      In the left pane, select the aircraft title under the Aircraft folder.

3.      Press the DELETE key, or on the Edit menu, choose Delete.

Note: You will see only the Save and Delete menu commands if you have made a copy of a default Flight Simulator 2004 aircraft, have made a new aircraft using a template, or are selecting an aircraft that is not read-only.

Save your work often.


Aircraft Info

This section provides information that helps you add unique identification properties to your aircraft. The following table lists the properties and how you can use them.

Menu item

Description

Title

The title of your aircraft. This must be a unique name (it cannot be the same as any other name in the Aircraft folder for FS2004). FSEdit suggests a title when you create or copy an aircraft.

Manufacturer

The main category used to identify aircraft in the Select Aircraft dialog box within Flight Simulator 2004. You can use an existing manufacturer (e.g., Cessna, Bombardier, etc.), or you can create your own categories (these will be listed under “unknown” in the FS2004 folder).

Type

The Model that appears in the Flight Simulator 2004 Select Aircraft dialog box.

Variation

A brief description of the “variation” of this aircraft. You can use this field to help identify an aircraft that you have created from a copy of an existing aircraft.

Description

A description of the aircraft. Whatever you place here will be visible in the Select Aircraft dialog box in Flight Simulator 2004 when you select the aircraft.

Performance Specs

The design performance specifications. You can use these design performance properties, in addition to the description of your aircraft, for reference.

You can also use FSEdit a to modify the ATC (air traffic control) properties for your aircraft. The ATC system in Flight Simulator 2004 references this information when communicating with your aircraft.

Menu item

Description

Airline

A drop-down list of available airline callsigns used in the ATC system. The names supplied with FS2004 are fictional, but you can add the names of real-world or virtual airlines by entering an airline name. For the name you enter to be used as an airline name in Flight Simulator, the name must be listed as an airline in the ATC voicepacks. You must also give your aircraft a flight number using the Flight field below. For a list of airlines included with Flight Simulator 2004, see the ATC Voicepack SDK.

ATC Type

A drop-down list that identifies the available aircraft types you can use in Flight Simulator 2004. If the type of aircraft you’re creating does not exist in the drop-down list, you can add it by typing in the box. As with the Airline field, the type you enter must be present in the ATC voicepacks in order for the ATC system to use it. If the type you enter is not found in the ATC voicepacks, the ATC system refers to your aircraft as “Experimental.”

Model

A drop-down list of aircraft model designations. The model you choose is appended to the ATC Type field when ATC gives traffic calls about your aircraft and when using flight following.

Flight

The flight number for your aircraft. If you do not assign a flight number, your aircraft will be identified using its “civilian” callsign.

ID

The identification number for the aircraft. ATC uses this identification number in “civilian” callsigns.

Heavy

A check box that indicates to the ATC system if this aircraft is a “heavy” aircraft (i.e., in the U.S., an aircraft capable of taking off with a gross weight of 255,000 lbs. or more). If you select this option, controllers add the word “heavy” to your flight number.

Modifying a Panel

Introduction

You can use the Panel feature in FSEdit to change the gauges, instruments, and radios that appear on your aircraft’s panel. The only restriction in adding a gauge is that your aircraft must be equipped to drive that gauge. For example, if you add an engine gauge to a glider, the gauge will not work.

Important Note: Some of the newer aircraft (Beech Baron and Boeing 747-400) contain gauges that are incompatible with FSEdit. For more information on how to modify gauges for these aircraft, see the Panels and Gauges SDK.

You cannot use FSEdit to create new panels or gauges. For information about creating panels or gauges, see the Panels and Gauges SDK.

Name of file affected by Panel modifications in FSEdit

Location on your hard disk

.cfg section (representing the various panels)

Where to get more Panel and panel.cfg information

·   Panel.cfg

·   [name of bitmap].bmp

·      C:…Flight Simulator 9Aircraft
[Name of aircraft]Panelpanel.cfg

·      C:…Flight Simulator 9Aircraft[Name of aircraft]Panel{Name of bitmap].bmp

[Window00]
[Window01]
[Window02] …

·         Panels and Gauges SDK

·         Aircraft Container System SDK

Undoing Changes

FSEdit does not include an Undo command. To undo changes, exit FSEdit without saving.

Note: After you add a gauge, you can use FSEdit to test its operation (see below).

Panel Guidelines

The Aircraft folder contains a Panel folder. The Panel folder contains the aircraft’s Main Panel plus one or more sub panels (such as Radio Stack, GPS, or Compass).

To open a panel

·         In the left pane of FSEdit, double-click the panel icon. The panel opens in the upper-right portion of the screen, and the gauge well opens in the lower right.

Note: The gauges are not listed in a particular order.

To view the name of a gauge

·         Click on a gauge in the bottom portion of the FSEdit window. The name (label) appears below the gauge.

To navigate though the gauges

·         Use the scroll bars at the bottom of the FSEdit window or use the arrow keys.

To increase the viewing area of the gauge area

·         Move the horizontal and vertical window frames.

The View menu allows you to choose various views (resolutions). These resolutions enlarge or reduce the size of the panel view. Choosing Auto-Fit resizes the entire panel to fit in the size of the viewing area that you have chosen.

To resize the view of the panel

·         Click the View menu and choose the appropriate resolution.

Note Although all the gauges are stored in the Gauges folder (C:…Flight Simulator 9Gauges), there is not a one-to-one correspondence between the gauges in the gauge area and the Gauges folder because one .gau file may contain more than one gauge.

To modify a Flight Simulator 2004 default (read-only) panel in FSEdit, you must first make a copy of that aircraft and then modify the copy.

Right-clicking a gauge in the right panel window displays the following menu choices.

Menu item

Description

Reset size

Resets the size of the gauge to the last saved size

Restore aspect ratio

Restores correct gauge proportions prior to new panel edits

Delete

Deletes the selected gauge

Copy

Copies the selected gauge

Inserting a Gauge

There are two ways to insert a gauge in an aircraft panel:

·         Copy and paste the gauge from another aircraft panel.

·         Drag the gauge from the gauge area onto the panel.

To copy and paste a gauge from another aircraft panel

1.      Select the aircraft from which you want to copy the panel.

2.      Right-click the main panel and choose Copy on the shortcut menu.

3.      Open the aircraft to which you want to paste the panel.

4.      Click the Panel icon (not a subpanel), and on the Edit menu, click Paste.

To copy a gauge from the gauge area onto your panel

1.      Locate the gauge using the scroll bars or arrow keys.

2.      Drag the gauge onto the panel and resize it if necessary.


Changing a Gauge on a Panel

To

Do this

Delete a gauge

Click it and press the Delete key, or right-click the gauge and then click Delete.

Resize a gauge

Click it in the Main Panel view and use the handles to resize.

Change a gauge’s location

Drag the gauge to a location on the panel background in the Main Panel view.

To view the name of a gauge

·         Click on a gauge in the gauge area. The name (label) appears below the gauge.

To increase the viewing area of the gauge area

·         Move the horizontal and vertical window frames.

Use the selections in the View menu to change the resolution of your viewing area.

To see how the gauge will look from within the cockpit

·         Click the View menu, and then click Auto-Fit.

To test a gauge

·         Click the Test Aircraft icon on the toolbar.

If the gauge does not look right on the panel, you can change the panel background in FSEdit or resize the gauge.

To see the effects of a change in Flight Simulator 2004, you must reload the aircraft.

To reload an aircraft

1.      On the Aircraft menu in Flight Simulator, click Select Aircraft, and then choose another aircraft in the dialog box.

2.      Choose the original aircraft again.

Tips

·         Remember to save your changes frequently and before you exit FSEdit.

·         Any changes to the gauge layout on the panel since the last save cause the aircraft’s name and the panel name to appear in bold until the current changes to the aircraft are saved.

·         After you add a gauge to a panel, the gauge name appears at the bottom of the list in the [Windowxx] section of the Panel.cfg file for that aircraft.


Sounds

Introduction

You can use FSEdit remove, replace, or play a .wav file, but you cannot create a new sound event. Clicking the Sound icon in the left panel of FSEdit opens two lists in the right panel:

·         The Section list refers to the section parameter in the aircraft’s Sound.cfg file. This list lets you set when you’ll hear the sound during flight.

·         The File Name list contains the names of the .wav (sound) files that you can replace.

Name of file affected by Sound modifications in FSEdit

Location on your hard disk

Where to get more information on Sound and the sound.cfg file

sound.cfg

C:…Flight Simulator 9Aircraft
[Name of aircraft]Soundsound.cfg

The Sound.cfg file section in the Aircraft Container System SDK.

Files with similar names may represent similar events or simultaneous events. For example, the files listed in the Combustionxx parameter may represent:

·         The engine sound on startup.

·         The engine sound while airborne.

·         A mix of two .wav files that play simultaneously for a layered effect.

Modifying a Sound

To listen to the existing sound, replace it, or remove it

1.      In the left pane of FSEdit, click the Sound folder.

2.      In the right pane, right-click a sound file and on the shortcut menu, choose Change Sound, Play Sound, or Remove Sound.

Note: The Change Sound and Remove Sound commands are not available for default (read-only) aircraft. For more information, see Modifying and Deleting Default Aircraft earlier in this document.


Textures

Introduction

Use the Texture icon in FSEdit to modify the exterior appearance of an aircraft.

You can only modify writable aircraft. To make a read-only aircraft writable, on the File menu of FSEdit, click Save Copy As. For more information, see Modifying and Deleting Default Aircraft earlier in this document.

Name of file containing the .bmp file names

Location on your hard disk

Where to get more information on Textures and the .mdl file

[Aircraft name].mdl

C:…Flight Simulator 9Aircraft
[Aircraft name]Model

The Texture folder section in the Aircraft Contain SDK.

When you open a bitmap that represents the exterior of the aircraft, you see 2-D images wrapped around the 3-D model.

Each image in the bitmap contains coordinates that map to a location on the 3-D model of the aircraft. If you move an image, you may lose its coordinates and the image will not appear.


Flight Dynamics Editor (FDE)

Introduction

The Flight Dynamics Editor (FDE) portion of FSEdit helps you create custom flight models.

Notice the row of tabs at the top of the right-hand window when you choose the Flight Dynamics icon. The first of these tabs, the Configuration tab, is the default tab when you open or create an aircraft for the first time. The other tabs open pages that present additional information about specific aircraft characteristics and systems (e.g., the Fuel tab presents information about the fuel system). By adding and changing information in these tabs, you can create a new flight model with FSEdit.

The following flowchart below (Figure 1) diagrams the arrangement of the Flight Dynamics Editor.

Figure 1. How the FDE

As is evident from the diagram, the aerodynamic coefficients that control the flight characteristics of an airplane are computed when you save the aircraft. This information is then placed into the aircraft’s .air file, which is not editable. The input values, however, are placed into the Aircraft.cfg file, which can be viewed and edited with any text editor (such at Microsoft Notepad).

Most of the information you require should be readily available from any Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) or Flight Manual for the particular aircraft you are interested in creating. If you cannot find certain information, you can use the enhanced Tuning tab to adjust the flight dynamics of your aircraft.

Note: The theory used to determine the aerodynamic coefficients is based mainly on the conventional configuration of an aircraft (i.e., wing in the middle of the fuselage and tail in the rear). This model also works for a so-called canard configuration with the horizontal tail in front of the wing. However, the model may not provide the stability found in conventional aircraft if you create an aircraft that uses a flying wing, rockets, or a no-tail configuration. Most such unconventional aircraft require a Stability Augmentation System (SAS), which has not been incorporated into this version of FSEdit. If you create an unconventional aircraft, you might need to do a great deal more tuning to achieve the stability you want.

Additional Considerations

First, note that the type of engine used by the aircraft is the most important variable to consider when deciding how to design an aircraft. Whether you start from scratch (using a template), or start from an existing aircraft, make sure that the type of engine you want to use on your aircraft is the same as the one you start with. This is important because the tabs in the FDE are determined directly by the type of engine your aircraft uses.

Second, if you do not save your aircraft, the changes you’ve made are not incorporated, and the new aerodynamic coefficients are not computed. In addition, we recommend that you make a copy of any existing aircraft you want to modify, because once you save a modified aircraft, there is no way to revert to the previous aerodynamic coefficients. After you save changes to the FDE section, additional changes cause the aircraft’s name and the word “flight dynamics” to appear in bold until you save the aircraft again.


Configuration Tab

The Configuration tab contains the fields with which you can edit the geometry of the lifting surface and the empennage (“tail feathers”). You can also change the Reference Datum location of your aircraft. During the following discussion, refer to Figures 2, 3, and 4.

The visual model of every aircraft has a center. To ensure that the behavior of the aircraft in the simulation matches that of the visual model, you must define a reference datum relative to the visual model center point (see the table below). You can choose any reference datum. However, most aircraft reference documents define the position of certain parts of an aircraft relative to a reference datum, so choosing a similar location may make it easier to design your aircraft.

Once the reference datum is set, all dimensions you provide in FSEdit should be relative to this reference datum, not relative to the visual model center. For example, you might define the longitudinal reference datum 35 feet forward (positive) of the visual model center. If your wing position is 7 feet forward (positive) of the visual model center, then the longitudinal position of your wing would be -28 feet behind (negative) of the reference datum (28 + 7 = 35). For help regarding these definitions, refer to Figures 2 through 4.

Table 1: Reference Datum Properties

Parameter

Description

Reference Datum Longitudinal Position from Visual Model Origin

Offset (in feet) of the aircraft's longitudinal reference datum from the visual model center point. Typically, for aircraft shipped with Flight Simulator, this point is on the aircraft centerline, ¼ chord aft of the leading edge. By setting the Reference Datum Position, actual aircraft loading data can be used directly according to the aircraft's manufacturer. If not specified, the default is 0 (Flight Simulator's visual model default center).

Reference Datum Lateral Position from Visual Model Origin

Offset (in feet) of the aircraft's lateral reference datum from the visual model center point. Typically, for aircraft shipped with Flight Simulator, this point is on the aircraft centerline. By setting the Reference Datum Position, actual aircraft loading data can be used directly according to the aircraft's manufacturer. If not specified, the default is 0 (Flight Simulator's visual model default center).

Reference Datum Vertical Position from Visual Model Origin

Offset (in feet) of the aircraft's vertical reference datum from the visual model center point. Typically, for aircraft shipped with Flight Simulator, this point is on the aircraft centerline. By setting the Reference Datum Position, actual aircraft loading data can be used directly according to the aircraft's manufacturer. If not specified, the default is 0 (Flight Simulator's visual model default center).

In addition to the reference datum, the wing and tail geometry are needed.

Table 2: Wing and Tail Geometry

Parameter

Description

Wing Area

The area of the top surface of the entire wing (tip-to-tip), in square feet.

Wing Span

The horizontal distance from wing-tip to wing-tip, in feet. Refer to Figure 2.

Root Chord

The length of the wing chord (leading edge to trailing edge) at the intersection of the wing and the fuselage, in feet.

Dihedral

When looking at the front of an aircraft, the angle between the wing leading edge and a horizontal line parallel to the ground, in degrees. Refer to Figure 4.

Incidence

When looking at the side of an aircraft from the wing tip, the angle the mean wing chord makes with a horizontal line parallel to the ground, in degrees.

Twist

The difference in wing incidence from the root chord and the tip chord of the wing, in degrees. Also known as “wash-out”.

Oswald Efficiency Factor

A measure of the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing. Also known as the Span Efficiency Factor. A theoretically perfect wing has an OEF of 1.0.

Winglets?

Boolean to indicate if the aircraft incorporates the use of winglets; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE.

LE Sweep

When looking down on top of an aircraft, the angle the wing leading edge makes with a horizontal line perpendicular to the fuselage, in degrees. Refer to Figure 2.

Wing Apex Longitudinal Position

The longitudinal distance of the wing apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, in feet. This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. Refer to Figure 2.

Wing Apex Vertical Position

The vertical distance of the wing apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, in feet. This distance is measured positive in the up direction. Refer to Figure 3.

Horizontal Tail Area

The area of the top surface of the entire horizontal tail (tip-to-tip), in square feet.

Horizontal Tail Span

The horizontal distance from horizontal tail-tip to horizontal tail -tip, in feet. Refer to Figure 2.

HTail/Canard Apex Longitudinal Position

The longitudinal distance of the horizontal tail (or canard) apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, in feet. This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. Refer to Figure 2.

HTail/Canard Apex Vertical Position

The vertical distance of the horizontal tail (or canard) apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, in feet. This distance is measured positive in the up direction. Refer to Figure 3.

Horizontal Tail Incidence

When looking at the side of an aircraft from the horizontal tail tip, the angle the mean horizontal tail chord makes with a horizontal line parallel to the ground, in degrees.

Horizontal Tail Sweep

When looking down on top of an aircraft, the angle the horizontal tail leading edge makes with a horizontal line perpendicular to the fuselage, in degrees. Refer to Figure 2.

Vertical Tail Area

The area of the surface of one side of the vertical tail (fuselage-to-tip), in square feet.

Vertical Tail Span

The vertical distance from the vertical tail-fuselage intersection to the tip of the vertical tail, in feet. Refer to Figure 3.

Vertical Tail Sweep

When looking at the side of the vertical tail, the angle the vertical tail leading edge makes with a vertical line perpendicular to the fuselage, in degrees. Refer to Figure 3.

VTail Apex Longitudinal Position

The longitudinal distance of the vertical tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, in feet. This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. Refer to Figure 3.

VTail Apex Vertical Position

The vertical distance of the vertical tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, in feet. This distance is measured positive in the up direction. Refer to Figure 3.


Controls Tab

The Controls tab provides the fields in which you can change the geometry of the aircraft controls and deflections.

Table 3: Controls Geometry

Parameter

Description

Elevator Area

The area of the top surface of the entire elevator (tip-to-tip), in square feet. The elevator is the control surface on the horizontal tail.

Aileron Area

The area of the top surface of all the ailerons on the wing, in square feet. The ailerons are the control surfaces on the most outboard, trailing edge section of a wing.

Rudder Area

The area of the side surface of the entire rudder, in square feet. The rudder is the control surface on the vertical tail.

Elevator Up Deflection Limit

The angular limit of the elevator when deflected up, in degrees.

Elevator Down Deflection Limit

The angular limit of the elevator when deflected down, in degrees.

Aileron Up Deflection Limit

The angular limit of the aileron when deflected up, in degrees.

Aileron Down Deflection Limit

The angular limit of the aileron when deflected down, in degrees.

Rudder Deflection Limit

The angular limit of the rudder deflection, in degrees. Symmetrical deflection.

Elevator Trim Deflection Limit

The angular limit of the elevator trim tab, in degrees.

Spoiler Deflection Limit

The angular limit of the wing spoilers on an aircraft, in degrees. If this limit is zero, no spoilers exist for the aircraft.

Spoilerons Available?

Boolean to indicate if the spoilers also behave as spoilerons for roll control (if spoilers are available); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE.


Flaps Tab

The Flaps tab allows you to add, delete and modify a flap set. An aircraft can have a maximum of five flaps sets (indices from 0 to 4), and a minimum of no flaps. The Flap Set Selector window displays the currently available flap sets, and by selecting a flap set, the information in the Flap Set Editor changes to reflect the properties for that particular flap set. If no flap sets are available, the information in the Flap Set Editor is set to NULL defaults.

To add a flap set

·         Click the Add Flap Set button on the top left of the Flaps tab.

To delete a flap set

1.      Select the flap set you want to delete from the Flap Set Selector.

2.      Click the Delete Flap Set button on the top right of the Flaps tab.

You cannot delete the last flap set in the window. However, if you want to have an airplane with no flaps, make sure that the Flap Type in the Flap Set Editor for the only flap set is set to None.

Table 4: Flap Components

Parameter

Description

Type

Indicates if this is a leading edge flap set, trailing edge flap set, or no flap set.

Span

The percentage of half-wing span to which the flap extends (from the wing-fuselage intersection). This value must be between 0 and 1 (0 and 100 percent).

Extending Time

The time it takes for the flap set to extend to the fullest deflection angle specified, in seconds.

Damaging Speed

The speed at which the flaps begin to accrue damage, in Knots Indicated Airspeed (KIAS).

Blowout Speed

The speed at which the flaps depart the aircraft, in Knots Indicated Airspeed (KIAS)..

Lift Scalar

The percentage of total lift due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection.

Drag Scalar

The percentage of total drag due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection.

Pitch Scalar

The percentage of total pitch change due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection.

Flap System Type

Indicates what type of system drives the flaps to deflect:  Electric, Hydraulic, Pneumatic, Manual, or None.

Flap Handle Index to Deflection Mapping

Each element of the flaps-position array indicates the deflection angle to which the flaps will deflect, in degrees, at the respective flap handle index position. The largest deflection angle input is used for full flap deflection.

The components of the Flap Set Editor are related only to the flap set you have selected. You can modify each flap set individually to whatever values you like. The three fields at the bottom of the Flaps tab are considered static. These fields contain values that are set regardless of how many flap sets you have (or don’t have).

Table 6: Airspeeds

Parameter

Description

Design Cruise Speed

The typical cruise speed of the aircraft in a clean (flaps up) configuration, in Knots True Airspeed (KTAS).

Flaps Up Stall Speed

The stall speed of the aircraft in a clean (flaps up) configuration, in Knots True Airspeed (KTAS).

Flaps Down Stall Speed

The stall speed of the aircraft in a “dirty” (flaps full down) configuration, in Knots True Airspeed (KTAS).

Weight and Balance Tab

As most pilots know, the weight and balance of an aircraft is extremely important to its overall stability and performance. There are four main groupings on the Weight and Balance tab:

·         Gross Weight

·         Empty Weight

·         Payload Weight

·         Moments of Inertia

Note that the location of the weight components is very important to the aircraft’s stability. Therefore, if undesirable handling qualities result for your aircraft, you may want to shift the weight components’ longitudinal location fore or aft until a stable configuration results.

The Gross Weight is the total weight the aircraft was designed to carry, including fuel and payload. This value is not used directly to simulate the aircraft in Flight Simulator 2002, but it is a very important component when determining the aerodynamic coefficients that make up the flight model. You must be sure that the Gross Weight value is greater than or equal to the empty weight + payload weight + fuel weight for your aircraft.

Table 7: Gross Weight

Parameter

Description

Gross Weight

The maximum design gross weight of the aircraft, in pounds.

The Empty Weight is the total structural weight of the aircraft, minus fuel and payload. You must also indicate a Center of Gravity (CG) location for the empty weight of the aircraft, relative to the previously defined Reference Datum. This location can be found through a summation of all the individual aircraft component weights and their locations, or you can use a best-guess estimate. Normally, the Empty Weight CG lies somewhere along the lateral and vertical centerline of a symmetrical aircraft, and between the leading edge and trailing edge of the wing-fuselage intersection.

Table 8: Empty Weight Parameters

Parameter

Description

Empty Weight

The total weight (in pounds) of the aircraft minus usable fuel, passengers, cargo, and expendable armament (Combat Flight Simulator aircraft).

Empty Weight Longitudinal Position

The longitudinal offset (in feet) of the center of gravity of the basic empty aircraft (no fuel, passengers, or baggage) from the Reference Datum Position.

Empty Weight Lateral Position

The lateral offset (in feet) of the center of gravity of the basic empty aircraft (no fuel, passengers, or baggage) from the Reference Datum Position.

Empty Weight Vertical Position

The vertical offset (in feet) of the center of gravity of the basic empty aircraft (no fuel, passengers, or baggage) from the Reference Datum Position.

You can use the Payload Weight Editor in the same way that you use the Flap Set Editor. Each “station_load” has a weight, as well as longitudinal, lateral and vertical position associated with it. You can add payload stations, delete payload stations, or modify the characteristics of a particular payload station. In addition, suggested values will be given that are dependent upon your empty weight and geometrical inputs. Although these values are a good guideline, some aircraft can have moments of inertia (MOIs) that vary significantly from these estimated values.

Table 9: Moments of Inertia Parameters

Parameter

Description

Empty Weight Pitch MOI

The moment of inertia about the lateral axis.

Empty Weight Roll MOI

The moment of inertia about the longitudinal axis.

Empty Weight Yaw MOI

The moment of inertia about the vertical axis.

Empty Weight Coupled MOI

The moment of inertia about the roll and yaw axis (usually zero for symmetrical airplanes).

Engine Tabs

The Engine tabs available depend on the type of engine used for your aircraft. For example, a jet aircraft does not have Piston Engine or Propeller tabs, and a glider does not have any engine or Fuel tab.

Piston Engine Tab

The Piston Engine tab is available for any aircraft that incorporates a piston engine. Normally, these aircraft also require a propeller to produce thrust. The propeller properties are on a separate tab, discussed later in this document.

The Piston Engine tab includes three main sections:

·         Piston Engine Properties

·         Turbocharger Properties

·         Engine Position

The Piston Engine Properties and Engine Position sections are required fields; the Turbocharger is optional.

A piston engine’s power can be determined through a series of equations that represent the “Otto” cycle of a four-stroke piston engine, multiplied by the number of pistons available. This section contains all the information that Flight Simulator needs to determine how much power the engine can produce.


Table 10: Piston Engine Properties


Parameter

Description

Cylinder Displacement

The displacement in cubic inches of each cylinder.

Compression Ratio

The compression ratio of each cylinder.

Number of Cylinders

The number of cylinders in the engine.

Max Rated RPM

The maximum rated revolutions per minute (RPM) of the engine (red line).

Max Rated Horsepower

The maximum rated brake horsepower output of the engine.

Fuel Flow Scalar

The scalar for modifying the fuel flow required by the engine(s). A value of less than 1.0 causes a slower fuel consumption for a given power setting, a value greater than 1.0 causes the aircraft to burn more fuel for a given power setting.

Cooling Type

A drop-down box indicating the method of engine cooling: Air Cooled or Liquid Cooled.

Carburetor Type

A drop-down box indicating the type of carburetor used: Fuel Injected, Gravity, or Aerobatic Carburetor.

If you want a turbocharged engine, select the Turbocharged? check box at the top-right corner of the Turbocharger Properties section. After you select this check box, you can edit the other fields for that section.

Table 11: Turbocharger Properties

Parameter

Description

Turbocharged?

A check box that indicates if the engine is turbocharged.

Max Design Manifold Pressure

The maximum design manifold pressure supplied by the turbocharger, in inches of mercury (inHg).

Min Design Manifold Pressure

The minimum design manifold pressure of the turbocharger, in inches of mercury (inHg).

Critical Altitude

The altitude, in feet, at which the turbocharger will provide the maximum design manifold pressure.

Emergency Boost Type

A drop-down box indicating the emergency boost type available: None, Water Injection, Methanol/Water Injection, or War Emergency Power (typically used in WWII combat aircraft).

Emergency Boost Manifold Pressure

The additional manifold pressure supplied by emergency boost, if available, in inches of mercury (inHg).

Emergency Boost Gain

The multiplier on manifold pressure due to emergency boost. A suggested value is provided for a given emergency boost Manifold Pressure and Critical Altitude.

In addition to the parameters needed to compute the power available from a piston engine, the engine position(s) must also be identified. After you select the number of engines from the Number of Engines drop-down box, you can edit the corresponding position fields.

Table 12: Engine Position Properties

Parameter

Description

Engine Longitudinal Position

The longitudinal offset (in feet) of the engine from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 2).

Engine Lateral Position

The lateral offset (in feet) of the engine from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 2).

Engine Vertical Position

The vertical offset (in feet) of the engine from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 3).

Turboprop Engine Tab

A turboprop engine is similar to a jet engine (turbine), but it incorporates the use of a propeller turned by the shaft of the turbine engine to produce thrust. The parameters here determine the power output of the turboprop engine.

Table 13: Turboprop Engine Properties

Parameter

Description

Maximum Torque

The maximum shaft torque available from the engine, in foot-pounds.

Static Thrust

The residual thrust available from the turbine engine in addition to that provided by the propeller, in pounds.

Inlet Area

The turbine engine nacelle inlet area, in square feet.

Rated RPM

The maximum design RPM of the turbine compressor.

Fuel Flow Scalar

The scalar for modifying the fuel flow required by the engine(s). A value of less than 1.0 causes a slower fuel consumption for a given power setting, a value greater than 1.0 causes the aircraft to burn more fuel for a given power setting.

In addition to the parameters needed to compute the power available from a turboprop engine, the engine position(s) must also be identified. After you select the number of engines from the Number of Engines drop-down box, you can edit the corresponding position fields.

Table 14: Turboprop Engine Position Parameters

Parameter

Description

Engine Longitudinal Position

The longitudinal offset (in feet) of the engine from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 2).

Engine Lateral Position

The lateral offset (in feet) of the engine from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 2).

Engine Vertical Position

The vertical offset (in feet) of the engine from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 3).

Jet Engine Tab

The Jet Engine tab is available for an aircraft that is a pure jet (turbine engine with no propeller). This type of engine is also synonymous with a Turbofan or Turbojet engine. For example, the Learjet 45 and the Boeing 737-400 are both aircraft that incorporate the use of a Jet Engine.

Table 15: Jet Engine Parameters

Parameter

Description

Static Thrust

The maximum rated static thrust at sea level, in pounds.

Inlet Area

The engine nacelle inlet area, in square feet.

Rated N2 RPM

The rated RPM of the second-stage compressor.

Fuel Flow Scalar

The scalar for modifying the fuel flow required by the engine(s). A value of less than 1.0 causes a slower fuel consumption for a given power setting, a value greater than 1.0 causes the aircraft to burn more fuel for a given power setting.

Afterburner Available?

A check box that indicates if an afterburner is available.

Thrust Reverser Available?

A check box that indicates if a thrust reverser is available.

In addition to the parameters needed to compute the thrust available for a jet engine, the engine position(s) must also be identified. After you select the number of engines from the Number of Engines drop-down box, you can edit the corresponding position fields.

Table 16: Jet Engine Position Parameters

Parameter

Description

Engine Longitudinal Position

The longitudinal offset (in feet) of the engine from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 2).

Engine Lateral Position

The lateral offset (in feet) of the engine from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 2).

Engine Vertical Position

The vertical offset (in feet) of the engine from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 3).

Propeller Tab

You can use the Propeller tab with piston or turboprop engines. The propeller is the main producer of thrust for these types of engines. This tab is available only for aircraft with a piston or turboprop engine.

The thrust generated by the propeller is a function of the power delivered through the propeller shaft (determined from the respective engine properties), RPM, blade angle, airplane speed, and ambient density. The following parameters are needed to compute the thrust for aircraft with propellers.

Table 17: Propeller Properties

Parameter

Description

Propeller Type

A drop-down box that identifies what type of propeller is on the aircraft: Constant Speed or Fixed Pitch.

Propeller Diameter

The diameter of propeller blades, tip to tip, in feet.

Number of Blades

The integer value indicating the number of blades on the propeller.

Propeller MOI

The propeller moment of inertia, in slug – ft2.

Max Pitch Angle

The maximum blade pitch angle for constant speed prop (not available if fixed pitch), in degrees.

Min Pitch Angle

The minimum blade pitch angle for constant speed prop (not available if fixed pitch), in degrees.

Fixed Pitch Angle

The blade pitch angle for fixed pitch prop (not available if constant speed), in degrees.

Min Governed RPM

The minimum RPM controlled by the governor for a constant speed prop.

Gear Reduction Ratio

The reduction ratio from the engine output RPM to prop RPM.

Prop Sync Available?

A check box that indicates if propeller-sync is available (twin-engine aircraft).

Prop Deice Available?

A check box that indicates if propeller de-icing is available.

Prop Feathering Available?

A check box that indicates if prop feathering is available (constant-speed prop only).

Prop Auto Feathering Available?

A check box that indicates if prop auto-feathering is available (constant-speed prop only).

Min RPM for Feathering

The minimum RPM at which the prop will feather (if feathering is available).

Feathered Pitch Angle

The propeller pitch angle when feathered in degrees.

Prop Reverse Available?

A check box that indicates if prop reverse is available (constant-speed prop only).


Fuel Tab

The Fuel tab is available for any aircraft with an engine; if you are developing a glider, the fuel tab is unavailable.

You can include up to 11 fuel tanks, but if the Total Capacity value for a tank is zero, that tank is not used. The following values apply to each of the 11 possible tank configurations.

Table 18: Fuel Properties

 Parameter

Description

Fuel Tank Longitudinal Position

The longitudinal offset (in feet) of the fuel tank centroid from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 2).

Fuel Tank Lateral Position

The lateral offset (in feet) of the fuel tank centroid from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 2).

Fuel Tank Vertical Position

The vertical offset (in feet) of the fuel tank centroid from the Reference Datum Position (see Figure 3).

Total Capacity

The total capacity of the individual fuel tank, in gallons.

Unusable Capacity

Typically, there is some amount of fuel stored in the fuel lines that cannot get to the engine. This quantity is subtracted from the Total Capacity to get a Usable Fuel Capacity, in gallons, per tank.

Gear Tab

Every aircraft should have ground reaction “contact points” associated with it (otherwise, your airplane would never touch the ground). On this tab, you can add, delete, or modify individual contact points. The Point Selector identifies the active point in the Gear/Scrape Point Editor section.

You can configure and adjust the way aircraft react to different kinds of contact, including landing gear contact and articulation, braking, steering, and damage caused by excessive speed. You can also configure each contact point independently for each aircraft, and there is no limit to the number of points you can add.

You must specify the gear (or skid or float) points and any “scrape” points that identify aircraft contact with the ground. For example, you should place a scrape point at each wing tip so that if the tip scrapes the ground, the aircraft is damaged and the wing does not go through the ground. You should place scrape points at the following locations:

·         Nose

·         Wing tips (2)

·         Tail

·         Belly

·         Top of vertical tail

The following parameters apply to all types of contact points.

Table 19: Gear and Scrape Points

Element

Description

Point Class

A drop-down box that defines the type of contact point; None, Wheel, Scrape, Skid, Float, Water Rudder.

Brake Map

A drop-down box that defines which brake input drives the brake (wheels only): None, Left Brake, Right Brake.

Sound Type

A drop-down box for mapping a type of sound to a specific point: Center Gear, Auxiliary Gear, Left Gear, Right Gear, Fuselage Scrape, Left Wing Scrape, Right Wing Scrape, Aux1 Scrape, Aux2 Scrape, Tail Scrape.

Longitudinal Position

The longitudinal distance of the point from the defined reference datum, in feet. Positive is forward (out the nose). Refer to Figure 3.

Lateral Position

The lateral distance of the point from the defined reference datum, in feet. Positive is starboard (right, as viewed from the top with the airplane pointing up). Refer to Figure 4.

Vertical Position

The vertical distance of the point from the defined reference datum, in feet. Positive is up. Refer to Figure 3.

Damage Threshold

The speed at which an impact with the ground can cause damage, in feet per minute.

Wheel Radius

The radius of the wheel, in feet.

Steer Angle

The maximum angle (positive and negative) that a wheel can pivot, in degrees.  (Fully castoring tail-wheels should use 180 degrees).

Static Compression

The distance a landing gear is compressed when the empty aircraft is at rest on the ground, in feet. This term defines the strength of the strut, where a smaller number increases the stiffness of the strut.

Max/Static Compression Ratio

The ratio of the maximum dynamic compression available in the strut to the static value. Can be useful in coordinating the compression of the strut when landing.

Damping Ratio

This ratio describes how well the ground reaction oscillations are damped. A value of 1.0 is considered critically damped, meaning there is little or no oscillation. A damping ratio of 0.0 is considered undamped, meaning that the oscillations continue with a constant magnitude. Negative values result in unstable ground handling, and values greater than 1.0 might also cause instabilities by being over-damped. Typical values range from 0.6 to 0.95.

Extension Time

The amount of time it takes the landing gear to extend fully under normal conditions, in seconds. A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.

Retraction Time

The amount of time it takes the landing gear to retract fully under normal conditions, in seconds. A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.

In addition to the above point-specific parameters, two static parameters apply to the aircraft, regardless of the number or type of contact points.

Table 20: Static Geometrical Parameters

Parameter

Description

Static Pitch Angle

The static pitch of the aircraft when it is at rest on the ground, in degrees. The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew mode, and at any other time when the simulation is not running.

Static CG Height Above Ground

The static height of the aircraft when it is at rest on the ground, in feet. The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew mode, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running.


Tuning Tab

The Tuning tab is a very important part of process of aircraft flight models. Although the theory used to calculate the aerodynamic coefficients is reliable and well-proven, you must make many assumptions made in order to simplify the aircraft design process. You will invariably need to change the values of some parameters to make an aircraft behave in the air as you expect it to.

You can tune five main areas:

·         Flight Control Effectiveness

·         Stability Characteristics

·         Lift Forces

·         Drag Forces

·         Engine Parameters

The tuning of these parameters can be considered mostly independent of each other, although some coupling (the effect of one parameter on another) can occur.

Flight Control Effectiveness

The following parameters are multipliers on the aerodynamic power of the control surfaces. For example, an Elevator Effectiveness value of 1.1 increases the elevator effectiveness by 10 percent. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the effectiveness by 10 percent. A negative number reverses the normal effect of the control.

Table 21: Flight Control Effectiveness Tuning Parameters

Parameters

What it scales

Elevator Effectiveness

The change that results when moving the elevator, which affects the aircraft’s rotation about the lateral axis.

Aileron Effectiveness

The change that results when moving the aileron, which affects the aircraft’s rotation about the longitudinal axis.

Rudder Effectiveness

The change that results when moving the rudder, which affects the aircraft’s rotation about the vertical axis.


Stability Characteristics

The following parameters are multipliers on the aerodynamic stability (damping effect) of the aircraft, about the corresponding axis of the airplane. For example, a Pitch Stability value of 1.1 increases the pitch damping by 10 percent. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the pitch damping by 10 percent. A negative number results in an unstable characteristic about that axis. A positive damping effect is simply a moment in the direction opposite of the rotational velocity, or a “restoring” moment.

Table 22: Stability Tuning Parameters

Parameters

What it scales

Pitch Stability

The stability of the aircraft about the lateral axis.

Roll Stability

The stability of the aircraft about the longitudinal axis.

Yaw Stability

The stability of the aircraft about the vertical axis.

Lift Forces

The Cruise Lift Scalar is a multiplier on the coefficient of lift at zero angle of attack ('cruise lift' in this context refers to the lift at relatively small angles of attack, which is typical for an airplane in a cruise condition). The effect of this parameter is decreased linearly as the angle of attack moves toward the critical (stall) angle of attack, preventing destabilization at low speed and high angles of attack.

Modify this value to tune the angle of attack (and thus pitch angle) for your aircraft while in the cruise condition. A negative value results in extremely unnatural flight characteristics.

Table 23: Lift Tuning Parameters

Parameter

What it scales

Cruise Lift Scalar

Lift Coefficient at Zero Angle of Attack, (CL0).

Drag Forces

Drag is the aerodynamic force that opposes thrust, which in turn helps determine the aircraft’s speed and acceleration. You can adjust two basic types of drag:

·         Parasite Drag (due to friction)

·         Induced Drag (due to lift)

Parasitic drag is composed of two basic elements: form drag, which results from the interference of streamlined airflow, and skin friction. Parasitic drag increases as speed increases.

Induced drag results from the production of lift, which increases as angle of attack increases (until the stall angle is reached). The total drag force on an aircraft is the sum of these two components.

The following parameters are multipliers on the two respective drag coefficients. For example, a Parasite Drag value of 1.1 increases the respective drag component by 10 percent. A value of 0.9 decreases the parasite drag by 10 percent. Negative values result in extremely unnatural flight characteristics.

Table 24: Drag Tuning Parameters

Parameter

What it scales

Parasite Drag

Zero Lift Drag Coefficient, (CD0).

Induced Drag

Induced Drag Coefficient, (CDi).

Engine Parameters

The tuning scalars (which affect engine performance) that are available depend on the type of engine your aircraft uses. Thrust is associated with a turbine engine or propeller, while power is associated with a piston or turboprop.

The mechanical efficiency and friction scalars are associated only with a piston engine, and they provide a means by which the maximum RPM and the idle RPM can be tuned.

Table 25: Engine Tuning Parameters

Parameter

What it scales

Thrust scalar

The calculated thrust provided by the propeller or jet.

Power scalar

The amount of power delivered by the engine to the propeller shaft.

Max RPM Mechanical Efficiency Scalar

The mechanical efficiency of the engine at maximum RPM. Increase this value to increase the mechanical efficiency, decrease it to decrease the mechanical efficiency.

Idle RPM Mechanical Efficiency Scalar

The mechanical efficiency of the engine at idle RPM. Increase this value to increase the mechanical efficiency, decrease it to decrease the mechanical efficiency.

Max RPM Friction Scalar

The internal friction of the engine at maximum RPM. Increase this value to increase the friction, decrease it to decrease the friction.

Idle RPM Friction Scalar

The internal friction of the engine at idle RPM. Increase this value to increase the friction, decrease it to decrease the friction, (can be used to tune the RPM at which the engine idles).


Text Box: Figure 2.  Top View Reference Drawing


Text Box: Figure 3.  Side View Reference Drawing


Text Box: Figure 4.  Front View Reference Drawing


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