Scrigroup - Documente si articole

Username / Parola inexistente      

Home Documente Upload Resurse Alte limbi doc  

CATEGORII DOCUMENTE





loading...

BulgaraCeha slovacaCroataEnglezaEstonaFinlandezaFranceza
GermanaItalianaLetonaLituanianaMaghiaraOlandezaPoloneza
SarbaSlovenaSpaniolaSuedezaTurcaUcraineana

AdministrationAnimalsArtBiologyBooksBotanicsBusinessCars
ChemistryComputersComunicationsConstructionEcologyEconomyEducationElectronics
EngineeringEntertainmentFinancialFishingGamesGeographyGrammarHealth
HistoryHuman-resourcesLegislationLiteratureManagementsManualsMarketingMathematic
MedicinesMovieMusicNutritionPersonalitiesPhysicPoliticalPsychology
RecipesSociologySoftwareSportsTechnicalTourismVarious

Talking about quantities and amounts

grammar

+ Font mai mare | - Font mai mic






DOCUMENTE SIMILARE

Trimite pe Messenger
ACTUAL DIVISION OF THE SENTENCE
THE VERB
VERB: PERSON AND NUMBER
A REVIEW OF THE ENGLISH TENSE SYSTEM
VERB: VOICE
THE MODAL VERBS
THE PAST TENSE
SENTENCE IN THE TEXT
PLANNING THE LAYOUT OF YOUR COMPOSITION
VERBELE TO BE, DO, HAVE

TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

Talking about quantities and amounts

2.193 This section deals with ways of referring to quantities and amounts of things. You often refer to quantities by using a number, but sometimes in everyday situations you can do this by using a word or a phrase such as 'several' and 'a bottle' and link it with 'of' to the following noun group in a partitive structure. When words like 'several' are used like this, they are called quantifiers. Quantifiers are explained in paragraphs 2.194 to 2.210. When phrases such as 'a bottle' are used like this, they are called partitives. Partitives are explained in paragraphs 2.211 to 2.224.



When you want to be very precise about the quantity or amount of something, you can use numbers (see paragraphs 2.225 to 2.256) or fractions (see paragraphs 2.257 to 2.266).

Numbers, fractions, and quantifiers are also used in expressions of measurement to indicate the size, weight, length, and so on, of something. Ways of talking about measurements are explained in paragraphs 2.267 to 2.274. Approximate measurements are explained in paragraphs 2.281 to 2.288. Numbers are also used to say how old someone or something is. This is explained in paragraphs 2.275 to 2.280.

Talking about amounts of things: quantifiers

2.194 When you want to refer to a quantity of things or to an amount of something in everyday language, you use a quantifier.

I am sure both of you agree with me.

a house with lots of windows.

Most of the population have fled.

I make a lot of mistakes.

In Tunis there are a number of art galleries.

I never found the rest of my relatives.

Note that all quantifiers consist of two or more words, because 'of' is needed in every case. 'Of' is printed in the lists below as a reminder.

2.195 Here is the list of quantifiers:

all of

another of

any of

both of

certain of

each of

either of

enough of

few of

fewer of

less of

little of

lots of

many of

more of

most of

much of

neither of

none of

numbers of

one of

part of

plenty of

quantities of

several of

some of

various of

an amount of

a bit of

a little bit of

a couple of

a good deal of

a great deal of

a few of

a little of

a lot of

a good many of

a great many of

a number of

a quantity of

a majority of

the majority of

a minority of

the reminder of

the rest of

the whole of

heaps of

loads of

masses of

tons of

Note that the quantifiers in the last group in this list are used in informal speech only.

2.196 Some of these quantifiers can be linked by 'of' only to noun groups that begin with a specific determiner such as 'the', 'these', or 'my'. A pronoun such as 'us', 'them', or 'these' can also be used after 'of'.

Nearly all of the increase has been caused by inflation.

Part of the farm lay close to the river bank.

Only a few of the attackers were armed.

Here is a list of quantifiers usually or always used with noun groups beginning with specific determiners:

all of

another of

any of

both of

certain of

each of

either of

enough of

few of

fewer of

less of

little of

many of

more of

most of

much of

neither of

none of

one of

part of

several of

some of

various of

a few of

a little of

a good many of

a great many of

the remainder of

the rest of

the whole of

All other qualifiers can be used with noun groups beginning with either specific or general determiners.

2.197 Some of these quantifiers can also be used with place names.

The whole of America will be shocked by what happened.

involving a large part of Africa and a large part of South America.

Here is a list of quantifiers used with place names:

all of

less of

more of

most of

much of

none of

part of

some of

a bit of

a little of

a good deal of

a great deal of

a lot of

the rest of

the whole of

2.198 When you use a quantifier as the subject of a verb, the verb is singular or plural depending on whether the quantifier refers to one thing or to more than one thing.

Some of the information has already been analysed.

Some of my best friends are policemen.

with plural nouns 2.199 Many quantifiers can only be used in front of plural noun groups.

I am sure both of you agree with me.

Start by looking through their papers for either of the two documents mentioned below.

Few of these organizations survive for long.

Several of his best books are about space flight.

I would like to ask you a couple of questions.

The report contained large numbers of inaccuracies.

Here is a list of quantifiers only used with plural noun groups:

another of

both of

certain of

each of

either of

few of

fewer of

many of

neither of

numbers of

one of

several of

various of

a couple of

a few of

a good many of

a great many of

a number of

For more information about 'each of' see paragraphs 2.203 to 2.204, about 'fewer of' see paragraph 2.206, and about 'a number of' see paragraphs 2.208 to 2.209.

Note that 'neither of' is used in a similar way to 'either of' when you are talking about two things in negative clauses. This is explained in paragraph 4.75.

with uncount nouns and singular nouns 2.200 A few quantifiers are only used with uncount nouns and singular noun groups.

Much of the day was taken up with classes.

This is a bit of a change.

There was a good deal of smoke.

If you use rich milk, pour off a little of the cream.

I spent the whole of last year working there.

Here is a list of quantifiers only used with uncount nouns and singular noun groups:

less of

little of

much of

part of

a bit of

a little bit of

a good deal of

a great deal of

a little of

the whole of

For more information about 'less of' see paragraph 2.206.

with plural nouns and uncount nouns 2.201 A very few quantifiers can be used only with plural noun groups and uncount nouns.

Her immense quantities of jewels, robes, cosmetics and carpets.

Very large quantities of aid were needed.

They had loads of things to say about each other.

We had loads of room.

plenty of the men.

Bake us plenty of bread for our journey.

Here is a list of quantifiers only used with plural noun groups and uncount nouns:

plenty of

quantities of

heaps of

loads of

masses of

tons of

Note that when the second group of quantifiers in this list are used with an uncount noun as the subject of a verb, the verb is singular, even though the quantifier looks plural.

Masses and masses of food was left over.

2.202 Some quantifiers can be used with plural noun groups, with singular noun groups, or with uncount nouns.

some of the most distinguished men of our time.

We did some of the journey by night.

Some of the gossip was surprisingly accurate.

Here is a list of quantifiers used with plural noun groups, singular noun groups, or uncount noun:

all of

any of

enough of

lots of

more of

most of

none of

some of

an amount of

a lot of

a quantity of

the remainder of

the rest of

Note that 'an amount of' is nearly always used with an adjective such as 'small': 'a small amount of'. This is explained in paragraph 2.209.

Note also that when 'lots of' is used with an uncount noun as the subject of a verb, the verb is singular, even though the quantifier looks plural.

He thought that lots of lovely money was the source of happiness.

'Any of' is explained more fully in paragraph 2.205.

2.203 When you want to refer to each member of a particular group, you can use 'each of' and a plural noun group.

Each of the drawings is slightly different.

We feel quite differently about each of our children.

Work out how much you can afford to pay each of them.

Note that 'each one' and 'every one' can be used before 'of' instead of 'each', for emphasis.

This view of poverty influences each one of us.

Everyone of them is given a financial target.

2.204 When the quantifier 'each of' is used with a plural noun group, the verb after the noun group is always singular.

2.205 'Any of' can refer to one or several people or things, or to part of something. Note that if it is the subject of a verb, when it refers to several things, the verb is plural, and when it refers to a part of something, the verb is singular.

She has those coats. She might have been wearing any of them.

Hardly any of these find their way into consumer products.

Has any of this been helpful?

It was more expensive than any of the other magazines we were normally able to afford.

2.206 There are three comparative quantifiers, which can be used before noun groups. 'Less of' is usually used with singular noun groups and uncount noun groups, 'fewer of is usually used with plural noun groups, and 'more of' is used with all three types of noun group.

I enjoy cooking far more now, because I do less of it.

Fewer of these children will become bored.

He was far more of an existentialist.

Note that 'more of' is sometimes used in front of a noun group to intensify it.

He could hardly have felt more of a fool than he did at that moment.

She was more of a flirt than ever.

America is much more of a classless society.

Note also that 'less of' is sometimes used instead of 'fewer of', but many people think that this is not correct.

omitting 'of' 2.207 When the context makes it clear, or when you think that the person you are talking to will understand what you mean, you can sometimes reduce the structure to the quantifier only. For example, if you are talking about applications for a job and there were twenty candidates, you can say 'Some were very good' rather than 'Some of them were very good'.

A few crossed over the bridge.

Some parts can be separated from the whole.

I have four bins. I keep one in the kitchen and the rest in the dustbin area.

Most of the books had been packed into an enormous trunk and the remainder piled on top of it.

USAGE NOTE 2.208 You can add adjectives to 'a number of' and 'a quantity of' to indicate how large or small an amount or number of things is.

There are a large number of students.

We had a limited number of people to choose from.

The novel provides an enormous quantity of information.

a tiny quantity of acid.

'An amount of' is always used with adjectives, and is usually used with uncount nouns.

He couldn't stop himself from sipping a small amount of the water.

He has a large amount of responsibility.

It  only involves a small amount of time.

There has to be a certain amount of sacrifice.

They have done a vast amount of a hard work.

The plural forms of 'quantity', 'number', and 'amount' are used, especially when referring to separate amounts.




groups which employ large numbers of low-paid workers.

Enormous amounts of money are spent on advertising.

submodifying quantifiers 2.2O9 When a quantifier contains an adjective, you can put 'very' in front of the adjective.

a very great deal of work.

a very large amount of money.

2.210 Some quantifiers can be submodified using 'quite'.

I've wasted quite enough of my life here.

Quite a few of the employees are beginning to realise the truth.

Most of them have had quite a lot of experience.

quite a large amount of industry.

Here is a list of quantifiers which can be submodified by 'quite':

enough

a few

a lot of

a large amount of

a small amount of

a number of

a large number of

Talking about amounts of things: partitives

2.211 When you want to talk about a particular quantity of something you can use a partitive structure which consists of a particular partitive linked by 'of' to another noun. The partitives are all count nouns.

Who owns this bit of land?

portions of mashed potato.

If the partitive is singular, then the verb used with it is usually singular. If it is plural, the verb is also plural.

A piece of paper is lifeless.

Two pieces of metal were being rubbed together.

Note that all partitives consist of two or more words, because 'of' is needed in every case. 'Of' is printed in the lists below as a reminder.

2.212 When the noun after the partitive is an uncount noun, you can use count nouns such as 'bit', 'drop', 'lump', or 'piece' as the partitive.

Here's a bit of paper.

a drop of blood.

a cobweb covered with little drops of dew.

a tiny piece of material.

a pinch of salt.

specks of dust.

These partitives can be used without 'of' when it is obvious what you are talking about.

He sat down in the kitchen before a plate of cold ham, but he had only eaten one piece when the phone rang.

2.213 Here is a list of partitives used with uncount nouns:

amount of

bit of

blob of

clump of

dash of

drop of

grain of

heap of

knob of

lump of

mass of

morsel of

mountain of

piece of

pile of

pinch of

pool of

portion of

scrap of

sheet of

shred of

slice of

speck of

spot of

touch of

trace of

Some of these partitives are also used with plural nouns which refer to things which together form a mass.

a huge heap of stones.

a pile of materials.

Here is a list of partitives used with both uncount and plural nouns:

amount of

clump of

heap of

mass of

mountain of

pile of

portion of

2.214 Many nouns which indicate the shape of an amount of something can also be partitives with uncount or plural nouns.

a ball of wool

columns of smoke.

a ring of excited faces.

Here is a list of partitives indicating the shape of amount of something:

ball of

column of

ring of

shaft of

square of

stick of

strip of

thread of

tuft of

wall of

Many nouns which indicate both shape and movement can also be used as partitives.

It blew a jet of water into the air.

a constant stream of children passing through the door.

Here is a list of partitives indicating both shape and movement:

dribble of

gush of

gust of

jet of

spurt of

stream of

torrent of

This use of partitives to indicate shape, and shape and movement, is a productive feature of English because you can use any noun indicating shape in this way. For example you can talk about 'a triangle of snooker balls'. Productive features are explained in the Introduction.

PRODUCTIVE FEATURE 2.215 There are many nouns which refer to groups that can be used as partitives. They are linked by 'of' to plural nouns which indicate what the group consists of.

It was evaluated by an independent team of inspectors.

A group of journalists gathered at the airport to watch us take off.

a bunch of flowers.

Here is a list of partitives referring to groups:

audience of

bunch of

clump of

company of

family of

flock of

gang of

group of

herd of

team of

troupe of

This use of partitives referring to groups is a productive feature of English because you can use any noun referring to a group of people or things in this way. For example, you can talk about 'an army of volunteers'. Productive features are explained in the Introduction.

measurement nouns 2.216 Nouns referring to measurements are often used in partitive structures to refer to an amount of something which is a particular length, area, volume, or weight. Uncount nouns are used after 'of' in structures referring to length, and both uncount and plural nouns are used in structures referring to weight.

ten yards of velvet.

Sugar owns only five hundred square metres of land.

I drink a pint of milk a day.

three pounds of strawberries.

10 ounces of cheese.

Nouns referring to measurements are explained in paragraphs 2.267 to 2.274.

referring to contents and containers 2.217 You can use partitives when you want to refer to the contents of a container as well as to the container itself. For example, you can refer to a carton filled with milk as 'a carton of milk'.

I went to buy a bag of chips.

The waiter appeared with a bottle of red wine.

a packet of cigarettes.

a pot of honey.

tubes of glue.

You can also use partitives to refer to the contents only.

They drank another bottle of champagne.

She ate a whole box of chocolates.

Here is a list of partitives referring to containers:

bag of

barrel of

basin of

basket of

bottle of

bowl of

box of

bucket of

can of

carton of

case of

cask of

crate of

cup of

glass of

jar of

jug of

mug of

pack of

packet of

plate of

pot of

sack of

spoon of

tablespoon of

tank of

teaspoon of

tin of

tub of

tube of

tumbler of

2.218 You can add '-ful' to these partitives referring to containers.

He brought me a bagful of sweets.

Pour a bucketful of cold wafer on the ash.

a cupful of boiled water.

a tankful of petrol.

Here is a list of partitives referring to containers which can very commonly be used with '-ful':

bag

basket

box

bucket

cup

plate

spoon

tablespoon

tank

teaspoon

When people want to make a noun ending in '-ful' plural, they usually add an '-s' to the end of the word, as in 'bucketfuls'. However some people put the '-s' in front of '-ful', as in 'bucketsful'.

She ladled three spoonfuls of sugar into my tea.

They were collecting basketfuls of apples.

two teaspoonfuls of powder.

a teaspoonsful of milk.

2.219 You can also add '-ful' to other partitives.

Eleanor was holding an armful of red roses.

I went outside to throw a handful of bread to the birds.

He took another mouthful of whisky.

a houseful of children.

This is a productive feature of English. Productive features are explained in the Introduction.

2.220 You can sometimes use a mass noun instead of a partitive structure. For example, 'two teas' means the same as 'two cups of tea', and 'two sugars' means 'two spoonfuls of sugar'.

We drank a couple of beers.

I asked for two coffees with milk.

Mass nouns are explained in paragraphs 1.29 to 1.32.

referring to parts and fractions 2.221 You can use a partitive when you want to talk about a part or a fraction of a particular thing.

I spent a large part of my life in broadcasting.

The system is breaking down in many parts of Africa.

An appreciable portion of the university budget goes into the Community Services area.

a mass movement involving all segments of society.

Here is a list of partitives referring to a part of something:

part of

portion of

section of

segment of

referring to individual items 2.222 You can use a partitive with an uncount noun referring to things of a certain type when you want to refer to one particular thing of that type.

an article of clothing.

I bought a few bits of furniture.

Any item of information can be accessed.

Here is a list of partitives referring to one thing of a particular type:

article of

bit of

item of

piece of

Here is a list of uncount nouns referring to things of a certain type that are often used with the partitives listed above:

advice

apparatus

baggage

clothing

equipment

furniture

homework

information

knowledge

luggage

machinery

news

research

'pair of' 2.223 Some plural nouns refer to things which are normally thought to consist of two parts, such as trousers or scissors. Some others refer to things which are made in twos, such as shoes or socks. When you want to talk about one of these two-part items, or two-items can use partitive 'pair' linked to these plural nouns by 'of'.

a pair of jeans.

a pair of tights.

a dozen pairs of sunglasses.

I bought a pair of tennis shoes.

I smashed three pairs of skis.

These plural nouns are explained in paragraphs 1.42 to 1.47.

PRODUCTIVE FEATURE 2.224 Whenever you want to talk about a limited amount of something, to indicate the area that something occupies, or to specify a particular feature that it has, you can use a noun group which indicates the amount or the nature of the thing linked by 'of' to a noun group which indicates what the thing is. For example, if you say 'a forest of pines', you are talking about a large area of trees. Similarly, you can talk about 'a border of roses'. This structure can be extended very widely, so that you can talk about 'a city of dreaming spires', for example. This is one of the most productive features of English. Productive features are explained in the Introduction.



loading...







Politica de confidentialitate

DISTRIBUIE DOCUMENTUL

Comentarii


Vizualizari: 2014
Importanta: rank

Comenteaza documentul:

Te rugam sa te autentifici sau sa iti faci cont pentru a putea comenta

Creaza cont nou

Termeni si conditii de utilizare | Contact
© SCRIGROUP 2019 . All rights reserved

Distribuie URL

Adauga cod HTML in site