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FORMELE IN – ING (Participiul si Gerund-ul)

Gramatica

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I.          FORMELE IN – ING (Participiul si Gerund-ul)



Din punct de vedere gramatical, forma in –ing poate fi sau un gerund sau un participiu. In ambele cazuri, forma este aceeasi.

Forma: forma in –ing regulata se obtine adaugand –ing infinitivului fara TO.    (go – going)

GERUND

Gerund-ul poate fi folosit ca:

subiect

Smoking is dangerous for your health.

complement

Emily loves teaching.

interdictii scurte

No fishing.

dupa prepozitii

Verbele care urmeaza dupa prepozitii trebuie sa fie la forma in –ing

Francis is interested in learning Polish.

I am sorry for hurting your feelings.

Verbele care urmeaza dupa verbele complexe cu prepozitie sunt de obicei la forma in -ing

My father has just given up smoking.

I am looking forward to seeing you soon.

Dar

unele verbe complexe cu prepozitie pot fi urmate de infinitiv

The researcher set out to prove his theory.

Nota

Cuvantul TO este o sursa de confuzii. Uneori to este o prepozitie urmata de –ing. Alteori to intoduce un infinitiv complet.

Kevin looked forward to seeing her.

Kevin wanted to see her.

I am used to studying until late. = I am accustomed to studying late.

I used to study until late. = I always studied until late.

dupa anumite verbe si expresii

Principalele verbe si expresii sunt: admit, avoid, delay, detest, enjoy, finish, imagine, mind, miss, postpone, practise, remember, resist, stop, can’t stand, can’t help, be worth, be busy, be no good, be no use, deny, keep, risk

Did you mind selling your house?

I missed listening to her play the piano.

We stopped studying in the summer.

Nota

Notati diferenta dintre:

He remembered writing to us. = Isi amintea ca ne-a scris.

They remembered to write to us. = Nu au uitat sa ne scrie.

He stopped eating. = El a terminat de mancat.

He stopped to eat. = S-a oprit din alte treburi ca sa manance.

Nota

Admit, deny, remember primesc si pe that:

They remembered that they had sent us the bill.

Nota

Hate, like, love, prefer pot primi infinitiv + to.

I love dancing. = I love to dance.

Dar la conditional ele primesc de obicei infinitiv cu to:

I’d love to dance.

dupa anumite verbe + adjectiv posesiv/ complement pronominal

Principalele verbe sunt: dislike, dread, mind, remember, resent, stop, understand, object to, appreciate, excuse, forgive, prevent, (dis)approve of

I don’t mind his/him staying with us.

I truly appreciate their/them being so hospitable.

Utilizarea adjectivului posesiv este mai formala:

The committee resented his being so frank.

Utilizarea complementului pronominal este mai raspandita in engleza vorbita:

I certainly understand him getting upset.

Nota

Iata cateva modificari ortografice:

Dispare –e final.

Live living

Give giving

Dar nu pentru:

Be being

Age ageing

Dye dyeing

Glue glueing

Finala in –ie se schimba in –y.

Die dying

Lie lying

Se dubleaza consoana finala.

Stop stopping

Travel travelling

Begin beginning

Dar nu si pentru:

Read reading

Peel peeling

Suffer suffering



PARTICIPIUL

Participiul poate fi folosit:

la timpurile continue.

He is working.

You were singing.

ca adjective.

annoying, frightening, depressing, embarrassing, relaxing, exciting, shocking, charming, interesting, boring

in substantive compuse.

a washing machine, a diving board, a sewing kit, a walking stick, a fishing rod, a gardening tool

dupa spend si waste (timp, bani, effort, energie).

They spent a fortune building that house.

He wasted all his energy getting that contract.

dupa go si come (activitate fizica).

I’m coming shopping with you.

Eileen and Paul are going swimming.

dupa see, hear, feel, listen to , notice, watch + complement.

The entire family watched Tim skating.

Nota

Aceleasi verbe pot fi urmate si de complement + infinitiv fara TO.

He heard the baby cry.

dupa catch, find, leave + complement.

The baker caught the boy stealing rolls.

in locul subordonatelor:

A.     in locul unei subordonate relative

We watched the boy working. (= We watched the boy who was working.)

B.     in locul subordonatelor.

cand doua actiuni se petrec la acelasi moment in timp.

Smiling warmly, she shook Hector’s hand. (= She smiled warmly as she shook Hector’s hand.)

Learning to ski, Sam broke his leg. (= While Sam was learning to ski, he broke his leg.)

pentru a inlocui o propozitie care incepe cu since sau because.

Thinking Joan was honest, he lent her the money. (= Because he thought Joan was honest, he lent her the money.)

Being curious, he looked through the keyhole. (= Since he was curious, he looked through the keyhole.)

cand actiunea unei subordonate se petrece in mod clar inainte de actiunea celeilalte subordonate se foloseste participiul perfect.

Having got divorced once, Al decided not to marry again. (= After he had got divorced once, Al decided not to marry again.)

II.       VERBE CARE PRIMESC INFINITIVE SAU

FORMA IN –ING

Forma: Verbele care urmeaza altor verbe au una din formele: infinitiv + to sau forma in –ing.

Verbele se impart in patru categorii principale:

Verbe care pot fi urmate numai de infinitiv + TO.

We agreed to meet at noon.

Verbe care pot fi urmate numai de forma in –ing.

You risk being late.

Verbe care pot fi urmate fie de un infinitiv + TO fie de forma in –ing fara a inregistra o modificare de sens.

I see Harry has started to play golf again. (= in general)

I see Harry has started playing golf again. (= in general sau numai in momentul de fata)

verbe care pot fi urmate de infinitiv + to fie de forma in –ing dar cu o schimbare majora de sens.

I forgot to go to the bank yesterday. (= Nu m-am dus)

I have forgotten going to the bank yesterday. (= Nu-mi amintesc sa fi fost)

Utilizare:

Infinitivul + to se foloseste de obicei dupa: afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, decide, expect, fail, help, hope, learn, manage, mean, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, tend, threaten, want, wish

I can’t afford to buy a new car now.

I fail to see the point you are making.

Nota

Forma negativa este not to + infinitiv.

Clive Waston decided not to accept the new job offer.




Nota

Dupa help, TO este optional.

Emma’s mother always helps her (to) do her homework.

Dar can’t help inseamna “a nu putea evita” si aici se foloseste forma in –ing.

I can’t help thinking about what she said last night.

Seem, appear si pretend pot primi si un infinitiv continuu (to be doing) sau un infinitiv perfect (to have done).

Bill seems to be sleeping a lot lately.

The criminal pretended to have lost his memory.

Dupa ask, decide, explain, know, remember, forget, understand urmate de cuvinte interogative: how, what, when, which, where, whether etc.

I don’t know how to get to the cathedral from here.

The teacher will explain what to do tomorrow.

Dupa ask, enable, force, get, invite, order, persuade, remind, teach, tell, warn + complement.

Can you ask them to leave, please?

I persuaded Jane to come hiking with me tomorrow.

Dupa make in propozitii pasive.

When I was at school, I was made to wear a uniform.

Forma in –ing este de obicei folosita dupa: admit, avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, give up, imagine, involve, keep on, mind, miss, postpone, practise, risk, stand (=bear), suggest, mention, recall, regret

He admitted stealing the jewels.

Have you considered moving abroad?

Nota

Forma negativa este: not + -ing

I enjoy not having to work.

Nota

Forma pasiva este posibila si cu being + participiu trecut.

Helen enjoys being involved in the local comunity.

Verbe ca: admit, deny, mention, recall, regret pot primi: having + participiu trecut cu referire la actiuni finalizate in trecut.

Tom now regrets having moved to Paris.

Nota

Dupa: admit, deny, regret, suggest se poate folosi si that.

Sam denied that he had shot his wife.

Sau

Sam denied shooting his wife.

Dupa verbe complexe: carry on, end up, give up, go round, keep on, put off, set about

You carry on thinking while I eat my lunch.

Frank is always trying hard to give up smoking.

Se pot folosi atat infinitivul + TO cat si forma in –ing fara diferente de sens dupa verbele: begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start

I began to play squash three years ago.

I began playing squash three years ago.

Morris loves to drive fast cars.

Morris loves driving fast cars.

Infinitivul + to sau forma in –ing au sensuri foarte diferite dupa: remember, forget, try, stop, go on, regret

Have you forgotten posting that letter? (= Ai trimis-o dar nu-ti amintesti)

Have you forgotten to post that letter? (= Nu ai trimis-o?)

I stopped smoking cigarettes because they were bad for me. (= Nu mai fumez)

I stopped to smoke a cigarette. (= M-am oprit si am fumat o tigara)

Exercitii:

Puneti verbele din paranteza fie la infinitiv fie la gerund:

1. He used (dance) a lot but he hasn’t had any opportunity of (do) is since he began (prepare) for the entrance examination. 2. They were used to (live) alone, so they didn’t really mind the lonely life they led on the moon. 3. I like (skate) and (ski), but it is very difficult for me (say) which I like better. 4. We got tired of (wait) for him (come) and eventually decided (go) out without (leave) any notice to him. 5. I remember (hear) her (say) the flowers needed (water). 6. We highly appreciate (you, want) (help) our son, but it’s time he began (do) his homwork by himself. 7. We don’t remember (you, say) before that John wanted (buy) our car. 8. I wonder why he hated (I, smoke) at the office since he often enjoys (smoke) a cigarette himself. 9. It is no use (you, ask) me (insist) on (Mike, come) in time as he can’t get rid of his bad habit; he often tried (be) punctual but he always failed. 10. Wherever I set to work, I recollect (my father, say) that if a job is worth (do) at all it is worth (do) well.

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii folosind Gerund-ul:

1. Vara florile au nevoie de apa (de a fi udate) in fiecare zi. 2. Imi face multa placere sa-i accept invitatia deoarece ea intotdeauna reuseste sa gateasca mancaruri foarte gustoase. 3. Iertati-ma ca va deranjez, aveti cumva un chibrit? 4. Imi place sa mananc inghetata chiar cand e frig. 5. Va deranjeaza daca deschid fereastra pentru cateva minute? E un aer foarte inchis aici. 6. N-are nici un rost sa pleci miercuri, se asteapta ca tu sa fii acolo sambata. 7. Au insistat sa le scriu in fiecare zi, dar asta ma exaspereaza deoarece mie nu-mi place sa scriu scrisori. 8. Ei au refuzat sa ne permita sa intram fara a cumpara bilete, desi fusesem invitati la premiera. 9. A trebuit sa ne amanam plecarea pentru ca Jane era bolnava. 10. Nu-mi place ca cineva sa se uite la mine cand incerc sa invat a merge pe bicicleta.

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. To dance, doing, to prepare 2. Living 3. Skating, skiing, to say 4. Waiting, to come, to go, leaving 5. Hearing, say (saying), watering 6. Your / you wanting, to help, doing 7. Your / you having said, to buy 8. My / me smoking, smoking 9. Your / you asking, to insist, Mike’s / Mike coming, to be 10. My father saying, doing, doing

1. In summer flowers need watering every day. 2. I am very pleased to accept her invitation as he always succeeds in cooking very tasty dishes. 3. Forgive my bothering you, do you happen to have a match? 4. I enjoy eating ice-cream even when it is cold. 5. Do you mind my opening the window for a few minutes? It’s very stuffy in here. 6. There is no need for your leaving on Wednesday, you are expected there (on) Saturday. 7. They insisted on my writing to them every day, but it puts me beside myself because I hate writing letters. 8. They refused to let us in without buying tickets although we had been invited to the first night. 9. We had to delay our departure because of Jane’s being ill. 10. I dislike being looked at while attempting to learn how to ride a bicycle.



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