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VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA

Gramatica

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VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA

    Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home'
    Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home.
    Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta, trebuie respectate o serie de reguli.

Atunci cand verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut, ceea ce se intampla in majoritatea cazurilor, in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza:




---

 Present past

---

Present perfect past perfect

---

Past past perfect

---

Future future-in-the-past

Ex. – He said „I am ill'. He said he was ill.

*    He said „I have been working hard. He said he had been working hard.

*    He said „I was ill'. He said he had been ill.

*    He said „I will do the exercise'. He said he would do the exercise.

Se schimba pronumele, in functie de sens.
 

Ex. He said: „She gave me a book'.

He said she had given him a book.

Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens.

---

Ex. today that day

---

yesterday the day before/the previous day

---

the day before yesterday two days before

---

tomorrow the next day/the following day

---

the day after tomorrow in two days’ time

---

next week the next/the following week

---

two years ago two years before

---

now then

---

this that

---

these those

---

here there

Ex. He said: „I’ll be at home today'. He said he would be at home on that day.
He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow'. He said he was going to do that translation the next day.

Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator:

*    tipul 1 devine tipul 2:

'If it rains, I will stay at home.'

He said if it rained he would stay at home.

*    tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba:

'If it rained, I would stay at home.'

He said if itrained he would stay at home.

'If it had rained, I would have stayed at home.'

He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home.

Verbele modale would, should, ought to, could, might raman neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta.

    Ex. He said: „I might be late'
    He said he might be late.

Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare
in vorbirea indirecta

Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite)


Ex. He said: „I am ill'. He said (that) he was ill.

Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ)

    Ex. He said „Go out'. He told me to go out.
    He said „Don’t go out' He told me not to go out.

    3. Intrebari

    Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb, iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu.
    Ex. Where have you been?
    I’ve been away, on holiday.
    Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca).
    Ex. He asked me if I liked music.

    Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvantul interogativ respectiv. Ex. He asked me where I had been.
    In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta, trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. Intrucat aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvant interogativ, exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative, ceea ce este o greseala.
    Ex. He asked me: „What is the time?'
    Corect: He asked me what the time was.
    Incorect: He asked me what was the time.

Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta

    1. Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut):

    Model:
    He said „I will leave for London tomorrow'.
    He said (that) he would leave for London the next day.

The weather was fine yesterday.

I saw this film a week ago.

I will go shopping right now.

Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside.

I think it’s going to rain tomorrow.



I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary.

I am very busy today.

John left for Sinaia two days ago.

I went to England two years ago.

I am going to have a nap this afternoon.

If I have enough money, I will buy a car next year.

If I had been at home, I would have answered the phone.

2. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut)

    Model:
    He said: „Come in!'
    He told (asked, ordered) me to come in.

Don’t drive so fast!

Open the door, please!

Read the text, please!

Write me a letter when you get to England!

Don’t cross the street on a red light!

Be careful with my books!

Don’t smoke so much!

Take this pill!

Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking!

Ring me up when you arrive home!

3. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut):

    Model:

    „Will you be at home tomorrow?'
    He asked me if I would be at home the next day.

Will you help me, please?

Can you come to tea this afternoon?

Has the train left?

Do you know what this word means?

Was your mother at home?

Did you buy this book yesterday?

Did you drink coffee every day?

Were you at the library yesterday?

Do you live in London for a long time?

Can you speak English?

Would you like a cake?

Could you lend me a book, please?

4. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut):

    Model:

    He said: „When did you come back?'
    He asked me when I had come back.

How long have you been learning English?

What are you going to do tomorrow?

How long does it take you to reach your office?

When will you be back?

Where will you spend your weekend?

Who is this man?

Why is it so dark in this room?

When did the rain stop?

Which of these cakes do you prefer?

How did you travel?








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