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ADVERBUL

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ADVERBUL
VERBE COMPLEXE
Atributul- sinteza teoretica - Clasificarea atributului dupa natura morfologica
VORBIREA INDIRECTA
The Gerund
ARTICOLUL ZERO (ZERO ARTICLE)
The infinitive

ADVERBUL

Forma: Adverbele se formeaza in diferite feluri:




unele adverbe sunt cuvinte independente:

often, when?, now, very, soon, always

unele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca adjectivele: daily, early, fast, low, straight, well, back, enough, far, ill, little, long, pretty, near, wrong, still, short, late, high, left, right, hard

Nota

Dintre aceste adverbe, unele au si o forma in –LY dar sensul este altul:

HardLY = very little They were highly impatient.

LateLY = recently It hasn’t rained lately.

NearLY = almost Dinner is nearly ready.

ShortLY = soon, briefly Mr. Smith will be here shortly.

PrettiLY = attractively The baby was prettily dressed.

Nota

Dupa be, become, feel, get, look, seem, folositi un adjectiv (nu un adverb).

She felt happy.

Mrs. Poole looks tired.

unel adverbe (in special cele de mod si grad) se formeaza adaugand adjectivelor terminatia –LY:

kind, kindly automatic, automatically slow, slowly

simple, simply happy, happily careful, carefully

Nota

Adverbul corespunzator lui Good este Well.

Nota

Unel cuvinte terminate in –LY sunt adjective (nu adverbe)!

Lonely, lovely, likely, friendly, ugly, silly

Ortografie:

y final se schimba in –i:    merry, merrily (dar shy, shyly)

-e final se pastreaza: wise, wisely (dar true, truly)

daca se termina in consoana

+ -le, –e dispare si se adauga -y:    gentle, gently

cuvintelor terminate in –ic     scientific, scientifically

li se adauga –ally:     (dar public, publicly)

Topica:

Topica adverbelor variaza. Ea depinde in primul rand de tipul de adverbe folosit. Intarirea poate si ea afecta topica.

Exista trei pozitii de baza pentru adverbe:

la inceput:

Adverbul e plasat inainte de subiect.

Unfortunately, I couldn’t identify the thief.

la sfarsit:

Adverbul este plasat dupa complement sau, daca nu exista complement, imediat dupa verb.

That young man likes Melanie very much.

Nota

Nu plasati niciodata un adverb intre verb si complement!

I drink coffee slowly. (Nu I drink slowly coffee.)

la mijloc:

Adverbul este plasat:

inainte de verbul principal.

He usually comes for tea.

dupa verbul be.

She is always smiling.

dupa primul verb auxiliar sau modal.

They have rarely come to visit.

inainte de used to, have to, ought to.

We certainly ought to be more careful.

Tipuri de adverbe

Adverbele se impart in sapte tipuri diferite: de mod, loc, timp, frecventa, opinie, grad si interogative.

Adverbe de mod

Kindly, easily, well, happily, fast, carefully, secretly, beautifully, reluctantly, foolishly, badly etc.

Adverbele de mod arata CUM se petrece o actiune.

Pozitia lor este:

de obicei la sfarsit, adica dupa verb si complement.

Pavarotti sang beautifully.

Nota

In propozitii cu pasivul,     WELL si BADLY sunt plasate inainte de participiul trecut:

The book was well written.

inainte de verb, DACA exista un complement lung.

The teacher carefully picked up all the exam papers scattered over the floor.

Adverbele referitoare la caracter sau inteligenta (foolish, generously, sweetly, kindly, stupidly etc.) isi schimba sensul in functie de pozitie.

I stupidly replied. (= It was stupid of me to reply.)

I replied stupidly. (= I gave a stupid reply.)

Adverbe de loc

Here, up, abroad, out, outside, in, away, everywhere, somewhere, nowhere, there etc.

Adverbele de loc arata UNDE se petrece actiunea.

Pozitia lor este:

de obicei la sfarsit, adica dupa verb si complement.

They went everywhere.

Nota

Adverbele de loc functioneaza adesea si ca prepozitii.

Joe ran down the stairs.

Nota

HERE / THERE + be / come / go + subiect substantiv:

There’s Henry! Here comes the train!

Dar

HERE / THERE + subiect pronume + be / come / go:

There he is! Here it comes!



Adverbe de timp

Yesterday, now, afterwards, still, soon, eventually, then, today, at once, till, tomorrow, since then etc.

Adverbele de timp arata CAND se petrece actiunea.

Pozitia lor este:

de obicei la inceput (inaintea subiectului) sau la sfarsit (dupa verb si complement).

Tomorrow will begin the next lesson.

cu imperative: la sfarsit

Do it now!

Cu YET: la sfarsit

YET    se foloseste mai ales la negativ si interogativ. Inseamna “pana acum”.

Mr Jones hasn’t finished yet.

Have you asked him yet?

Cu STILL: dupa BE si inaintea tuturor celorlalte verbe.

STILL se foloseste la afirmativ, negativ, si interogativ. El subliniaza continuarea unei situatii / stari de fapt.

Stephanie is still unwell.

Cu ALREADY: dupa BE sau primul auxiliar si inainte de verbul principal.

ALREADY se foloseste mai ales la afirmativ. Inseamna “deja”.

He is already fifteen years old.

Nota

Since then se foloseste cu timpurile perfecte.

We haven’t seen the Nelsons since then.

Nota

De obicei adverbele au urmatoarea ordine:

MOD – LOC – TIMP

The baby slept well yesterday.

Mark worked hard at school last year.

Adverbe de frecventa

Always, usually, never, ever, hardly ever, often, twice, once, continually, seldom, rarely, periodically etc.

Adverbele de frecventa arata CAT DE DES se petrece o actiune.

Pozitia lor este:

de obicei la mijloc, adica:

inainte de verbul principal si have to, used to, ought to

dupa verbul BE si primul auxiliar.

You can sometimes park over there.

The little girls are always playing dolls.

Continually, frequently, occasionally, once, twice, often, sometimes, normally si repeatedly pot fi plasate si la sfarsit (dupa verb si complement) sau la inceput (inainte de subiect):

He comes to see us often.

Repeatedly, the pupils made the same mistake.

Expresiile adverbiale de frecventa (every day, once a month) sunt plasate la sfarsit sau inceput:

Our children walk to school every morning.

Nota

NEVER se foloseste cu verbe afirmative. Inseamna “niciodata”.

I have never been to Japan.

EVER se foloseste in special in propozitii interogative sau superlative. Inseamna “oricand / vreodata”.

Has Ted ever studied statistics?

Jack Gallagher is the best player we have ever had.

NOT + EVER = NEVER

I haven’t ever read Pinter. = I have never read Pinter.

Adverbele de opinie

Personally, obviously, frankly, certainly, luckily, actually, probably, definitely, surely etc.

Adverbele de opinie exprima opinia vorbitorului.

Aceste adverbe se pot imparti in doua grupuri:

a.       actually, certainly, apparently, clearly, obviously, probably, definitely, undoubtedly

Pozitia adverbelor din grupul A este la mijloc:

The child is actually very bright.

b.      perhaps, maybe, possibly, frankly, naturally, luckily, unluckily, honestly, fortunately, unfortunately

Pozitia adverbelor din grupul B este de obicei la inceput:

Perhaps we can go out tonight.

Adverbe de grad

Fairly, quite, hardly, too, almost, pretty, rather, barely, completely, enough, nearly, really, just, so, even, very etc.

Adverbele de grad determina in general adjective sau adverbe care indica extinderea sau intensitatea (gradul).

Pozitia lor este:

in mod normal chiar inaintea adjectivului sau adverbului.

He is entirely right.

The shoes are too wide.

ENOUGH urmeaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb.

My steak isn’t big enough.

Nota

ENOUGH sta inaintea unui substantiv:

We don’t have enough money.

Adverbele de grad determina uneori verbe. O lista partiala include: almost, barely, enough, hardly, just, only, much, a lot, nearly, quite, rather, really, scarcely.

Pozitia lor este inainte de verbul principal.

MUCH si ENOUGH sunt exceptii si urmeaza dupa verb.

JUST si ONLY se afla exact inaintea verbului determinat.

They could barely hear the speaker.

Dar

The pianist hasn’t practiced enough.

I liked him a lot.

I have just deposited the money. (= I deposited it a little while ago.)

I deposited just the money. (= I deposited the money and nothing else.)

Nota

VERY se foloseste cu adjective si adverbe.

VERY MUCH se foloseste cu verbe.

We are very happy to be here.

Dar

Thank you very much.



Nota

QUITE poate insemna si “complet”.

You’re quite right! (= You’re completely right.)

Comparati sensurile a cinci adverbe de grad folosite cu adjective si adverbe.

Slab    Puternic

fairly rather/pretty quite very

The boxer is fairly strong. (= he is moderately strong.)

Your cake is pretty good. (= it is certainly not bad.)

That music is quite loud. (= it is considerably loud.)

Your result is very good. (= it is close to excellent.)

Adverbe interogative

When?, where?, why?, how?

Adverbele interogative se folosesc in intrebari.

Pozitia lor este la inceput, inaintea auxiliarului, subiectului si verbului principal.

Why is Cindy crying?

Where does she teach?

When did they send the letter?

How do you spell your name?

Nota

HOW poate fi folosit cu:

Adjective

How tall is he?

Much / many:

How much milk does she drink?

Adverbe

How often does Chris go dancing?

Comparatia adverbelor

Forma: comparativul si superlativul adverbelor se formeaza:

adaugand –er si –est adverbelor de o silaba

punand, more si most in fata adverbelor de doua sau mai multe silabe

pozitiv comparativ superlativ

fast    faster the fastest

slowly    more slowly the most slowly

Nota

Early – earlier – the earliest

Comparative neregulate

Well    better the best

Badly    worse the worst

Little    less the least

Much    more the most

Far    farther/further the farthest/furthest

Nota

Farther / farthest se refera numai la distanta

He ran farther than planned.

Further / furthest se foloseste mai mult in general.

He inquired further into the matter.

Utilizare: pentru a construi comparatii adverbiale, folositi:

AS + adverb + AS in propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima egalitatea,

AS/SO + adverb + AS in propozitii negative.

Pam Hardy ran as fast as she could.

The puppy doesn’t eat as/so well as I hopped.

adverbul COMPARATIV + THAN pentru a exprima diferenta.

Eric writes better than Brian.

THE + adverb SUPERLATIV pentru a exprima superioritatea (sau inferioritatea). THE este adesea omis. Superlativul poate fi urmat de OF + substantiv / pronume.

He plays tennis (the) best of all.

Dan skied (the) fastest (of all the racers).

Nota

Cand acelasi verb apare in ambele parti ale propozitiei, folositi un auxiliar pentru cel de-al doilea verb. Astfel evitati repetitia.

I don’t think as much as you do.

Inversiunea

Anumite adverbe sau expresii adverbiale pot fi plasate la inceput pentru intarire. Subiectul si verbul care umeaza se inverseaza.

Iata o lista partiala a adverbelor si expresiilor adverbiale care se pot folosi astfel: in/under no circumstances, neither/nor, never, no sooner … then, not only, only by, only in this way, only lately, only then, little, so, seldom, on no account.

Only in this way can you master the language.

On no account is Jody to turn on the gas.

Seldom have I met such a fascinating woman.

Exercitii:

Alegeti cuvantul potrivit:

1. You are an excellent cook. The food tastes (good, well). 2. It was a lovely day with birds singing and the sun shining (bright, brightly) and girls wearing (bright, brightly)- coloured dresses. 3. I hate taking medicine. It tastes (bitter, bitterly). 4. I don’t think he is ill. His voice sounds (merry, merrily). 5. It rains (heavy, heavily). 6. It is (near, nearly) five o’clock. 7. You must work (hard, hardly) for your exams. 8. He spoke so (quick, quickly) that we could (hard, hardly) follow him. 9. When did you (last, lastly) see him? 10. I am (direct, directly) interested in what you think. 11. He couldn’t move as he was (dead, deadly) tired. 12. His eyes hurt him (bad, badly). 13. Mr Jones held it (tight, tightly). 14. It was six o’clock as (near, nearly) as he could guess. 15. (last, lastly) I must account for my sister’s behaviour.

Puneti adverbele in ordinea corecta:

1. Tim and Becky had been wandering (for many hours, about the cave). 2. Jim was to recite his poem (that very morning, in the centre of the examination hall). 3. Though I was very busy I snatched a minute to answer his letter (yesterday, at the office). 4. Tom, Huck and Joe decided to run away (at daybreak, from home). 5. I wish I were (now, over there). 6. They returned (in the evening, to the camp, late). 7. I had the pleasure of meeting a fine woman of about fifty (the other day, in New York, here). 8. My brothers and my husband will be (soon, home) from the shooting. 9. Bathing is very good, when the sea is mostly calm (here, in summer). 10. The great fire broke out, and aided by the east wind, burnt down the wooden houses of which a large proportion of the town was built (in 1666, in London, in a baker’s shop, in September).

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. Good. 2. Bright, brightly-coloured 3. Bitter 4. Merry 5. Heavily 6. Nearly 7. Hard 8. Quickly, hardly 9. Last 10. Directly 11. Dead 12. Badly 13. Tight / tightly 14. Near 15. Lastly

1. Tim and Becky had been wandering about the cave for many hours 2. Jim was to recite a poem in the centre of the examination hall that very morning 3. Though I was very busy at the office yesterday, I snatched a minute to answer his letter 4. Tom, Huck and Joe decided to run away from home at daybreak 5. I wish I were over there now 6. They returned to the camp late in the evening 7. The other day, here    in New York, I had the pleasure of meeting a fine woman of about fifty. 8. My brothers and my husband will be home soon from the shooting. 9. Bathing is very good here, in summer, when the sea is mostly calm. 10. The great fire broke out in a baker’s shop in London in September 1666 and aided by the east wind, burnt down the wooden houses of which a large proportion of the town was built.








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