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Limba engleza – curs timpuri verbale

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Limba engleza – curs timpuri verbale

I. The present continuous

Form

The present continuous tense is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be + the present participle:



Affirmative                  Negative                                             Interrogative

I am working          I am not working                                   am I working?

you are working                     you are not working               are you working?

he/she/it is working    he/she/it is not working                      is he/she/it working?

we are working                      we are not working                are we working?

you are working                      you are not working              are you working?

they are working                    they are not working              are they working?

Negative interrogative: am I not working? are you not working? is he not working? Contractions: the verb be can be contracted, so the present continuous of any verb can be contracted:

Affirmative                      Negative                                  Negative interrogative

I'm working                I'm not working                      aren't I working?

Note the irregular contraction aren't I? for am I not?

The spelling of the present participle

1.      When a verb ends in a single e, this e is dropped before ing

argue  arguing

hate  hating

love  loving

Exceptions :

age   ageing

dye   dyeing

singe   singeing

agree   agreeing

 see seeing

2. When a verb of one syllable has one vowel and ends in a single consonant, this consonant is doubled before ing:

hit   hitting

run    running

stop    stopping

3. Verbs of two or more syllables whose last syllable contains only one vowel and ends in a single consonant double this consonant if the stress falls on the last syllable:

admit    admitting

begin    beginning

prefer    preferring

4. Exceptions

budget    budgeting

enter   entering (stress not on the last syllable).

5. A final 1 after a single vowel is always doubled:

Signal    signalling

travel    travelling except in American English.

6. ing can be added to a verb ending in y without affecting the spelling of the verb:

carry   carrying

 enjoy    enjoying

hurry   hurrying

Uses of the present continuous tense

·        For an action happening now

It is raining.

I am not wearing a coat as it isn 't cold.

Why are you sitting at my desk?

·        For an action happening about this time but not necessarily at the moment of speaking:

I am reading a play by Shaw. (This may mean 'at the moment of speaking' but may also mean 'now' in a more general sense.)

He is teaching French and learning Greek. (He may not be doing either at the moment of speaking.)

·        When two continuous tenses having the same subject are joined by and, the auxiliary may be dropped before the second verb, as in the above example.

·        For a definite arrangement in the near future:

I'm meeting Peter tonight.

Are you doing anything tomorrow afternoon? ~ Yes, I'm playing tennis with Ann.

·        With a point in time to indicate an action which begins before this point and probably continues after it:

At six I am bathing the baby. (I start bathing him before six.)

·        With always:

He is always losing his keys.

This form is used, chiefly in the affirmative, for a frequently repeated action, usually when the frequency annoys the speaker or seems unreasonable to him:

Tom is always going away for weekends

·        For an action which appears to be continuous:

He's always working

Verbs not normally used in the continuous tenses

The continuous tenses are chiefly used for deliberate actions. Some verbs are, not normally used in the continuous and have only one present tense, the simple present. These verbs can be grouped as follows:

·        Verbs of the senses (involuntary actions): feel, hear, see, smell; also notice and observe (= notice), and feel, look, taste used as link verbs

·        Verbs expressing feelings and emotions, e.g. admire (= respect), adore, appreciate (= value), care for (= like), desire, detest, dislike, fear, hate, like, loathe, love, mind ( = care), respect, value, want, wish.

·        Verbs of mental activity, e.g. agree, appreciate (= understand), assume, believe, expect (= think), feel (= think), feel sure/certain, forget, know, mean, perceive, realize, recall, recognize, recollect, remember, see (= understand), see through someone (= penetrate his attempt to deceive), suppose, think ( = have an opinion), trust (= believe/have confidence in), understand.

·        Verbs of possession: belong, owe, own, possess:

How much do I owe you?

·        appear (= seem), concern, consist, contain, hold, keep (= continue), matter, seem, signify, sound

It concerns us all. This box contains explosives.

·        feel, look, smell and taste used in the continuous forms

- feel, when followed by an adjective indicating the subject's emotions or physical or mental condition, e.g. angry/pleased, happy/sad, hot/cold, tense/relaxed, nervous/confident, is normally used in the simple tenses but can also be used in the continuous:

How do you feel/are you feeling? ~ I feel/am feeling better.

- feel meaning 'touch' (usually in order to learn something) can be used in the continuous:

The doctor was feeling her pulse.

- Similarly, feel for meaning 'try to find something by touching':

He was feeling for the keyhole in the dark. But feel is not used in the

- look

The continuous is not used with look used as a link verb, e.g. That cake looks good, or with look on (= consider), look up to (= respect) and look down on (= despise). But look (at), look for/in/into/out and look on (= watch) are deliberate actions and can be used in the continuous tenses:

He is looking for his glasses.

I'm looking out for a better job.

- smell

The continuous is not used with smell meaning 'perceive a scent/, e.g. I smell gas, or with smell used as a link verb, but can be used with smell meaning 'sniff at':

Why are you smelling the milk? Does it smell sour?

- taste

taste as a link verb is not used in the continuous:

This coffee tastes bitter, (has a bitter taste)

But taste meaning 'to test the flavour of' can be used in the continuous:

She was tasting the pudding to see if it was sweet enough.

·        think, assume and expect used in the continuous forms

- think can be used in the continuous when no opinion is given or asked for:

What are you thinking about?

I'm thinking about the play we saw last night. But

What do you think of it? (opinion asked for)

/ don't think much of it. (opinion given)

- assume can be used in the continuous when it means 'accept as a starting point':

I'm assuming that you have time to do a lot of research. assume power/control of a country or organization can also be used in I the continuous:

The new government is assuming power at once.

- expect can be used in the continuous when it means 'await': I'm expecting a letter. She's expecting a baby in May.

II. The simple present tense

Form

In the affirmative the simple present has the same form as the infinitive but adds an - s for the third person singular.

Affirmative          Negative          Interrogative                Negative interrogative

I work             I do not work  do I work?                  do I not work?

you work         you do not work         do you work?  do you not work?

he/she/it          he/she/it does  does he/she/it  does he/she/it

works               not work                     work?                          not work?

we work            we do not work          do we work?   do we not work?

you work         you do not work         do you work?  do you not work?

they work        they do not work        do they work? do they not work?

Spelling notes

1. Verbs ending in ss, sh, ch, x and o add es, instead of s alone, to form the third person singular:

I kiss, he kisses           I box, he boxes

I rush, he rushes         I do, he does

I watch, he watches    I go, he goes

2. When y follows a consonant we change the y into i and add es:

I carry, he carries I copy, he copies I try, he tries but verbs ending in y following a vowel obey the usual rule:

I obey, he obeys I say, he says

The simple present used to express

1. The main use of the simple present tense is to express habitual actions:

He smokes. Dogs bark. Cats drink milk.

This tense does not tell us whether or not the action is being performed at the moment of speaking, and if we want to make this clear we must add a verb in the present continuous tense:

He's working. He always works at night.

My dog barks a lot, but he isn 't barking at the moment.

2. The simple present tense is often used with adverbs or adverb phrases such as: always, never, occasionally, often, sometimes, usually, every week, on Mondays, twice a year etc.:

How often do you wash your hair?

I go to church on Sundays. It rains in winter.

or with time clauses expressing routine or habitual actions. whenever and when (= whenever) are particularly useful:

Whenever it rains the roof leaks.

When you open the door a light goes on.

3. It is used, chiefly with the verb say, when we are asking about or quoting from books, notices or very recently received letters:

What does that notice say? — It says, 'No parking.'

What does the book say? — It says, 'Cook very slowly.'

4. It can be used in newspaper headlines:

MASS MURDERER ESCAPES PEACE TALKS FAIL

5. It can be used for dramatic narrative. This is particularly useful when describing the action of a play, opera etc., and is often used by radio commentators at sports events, public functions etc.:

When the curtain rises, Juliet is writing at her desk. Suddenly the window opens and a masked man enters.

6. It can be used for a planned future action or series of actions, particularly when they refer to a journey. Travel agents use it a good deal.

We leave London at 10.00 next Tuesday and arrive in Paris at 13.00. We spend two hours in Paris and leave again at 15.00. We arrive in Rome at 19.30, spend four hours in Rome etc.

7. It must be used instead of the present continuous with verbs which cannot be used in the continuous form, e.g. love, see, believe etc., so that we can say I love you but not I am loving you.

Exercises with present tense simple & continuous

EXERCISE 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Present or the Present Continuous tense:

1. They (want) ……………….. to see you for a minute. 2. He (walk) ………………..  to hospital every day. 3. She (move) ………………..  her books into her new bookcase. 4. He usually (speak) ………………..  his mother tongue, but today he (speak) ………………..  English. 5. You (drink) ………………..  coffee or tea? 6. You (understand) ………………..  the Present Tenses in English? 7. He (play) ………………..  the piano like a professional musician. 8. You can't speak to Mary now; she (sleep) ……………… 9. I (not hear) ………………..  what you (say) ……………….. . 10. It's autumn. The leaves (turn) ………………..  yellow and (fall) ………………..  down. 11. I (wear) ………………..  a raincoat because it (rain) ……………… 12. Something (burn) ………………..  in the oven; I (see) ………………..  that smoke (come) ………………..  out of it. 13. We (not drink) ………………..  tea with milk in our country. 14. We (spend) ………………..  next week with our parents; we (go) ………………..  on a trip with them. 15. You (go) ………………..  to town this afternoon?

exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple or Continuous Present:

1. My friend (come) ………………..  to see us next month. 2. Apricots (ripe) ………………..  in early sum­mer. 3. Here (come) ………………..  our long waited for teacher! 4. I (see) ………………..  her occasionally, as she (open) ………………..  the windows in the morning. 5. I (walk) ………………..  to school every day, but today as I am late I (go) ………………..  by bus. 6. 'I (see) ………………..  that you (wear) ………………..  your best clothes. You (go) ………………..  to a party?' 'No, I (go) ………………..  to a wedding.' 'And who is the unhappy man who (throw) ………………..  away his freedom?' You must tell him I (feel) ………………..  sorry for him.' 'He (speak) ………………..  to you now!' 7. I (see) ………………..  what you (mean) ……………….. ! You can't join us today as you (feel) ………………..  ill. (See) ………………..  the doctor this after­noon? 8. Still waters (run) ………………..  deep. 9. Stop making a fool of yourself! You again (forget) ………………..  your manners! 10. Egg plants (not grow) ………………..  on trees. 11. Don't get off the bus till it (stop) ……………….. ! 12. How he (feel) ………………..  now? You (think) ………………..  of going to see him at the hospital ? 13. She always (complain) ………………..  about something. 14. Why you (not stay) ………………..  indoors for a change? 15. Although he is unhappy with his mark, he (deserve) ………………..  it as he hasn't laid hands on a book this term. 16. We constantly (see) ………………..  you outside the cinema. 17. However late it may be, my father never goes to bed until I (come) ………………..  back home.

exercise 3. Translate into English:

1.       Nu este politicos sa. te uiti la oameni cind maninca.

…………………………………………………………………………………..………….

2.       Nu, nu ma deranjezi, privesc doar apa cum izbeste malul.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

3.       Poti sa te asezi, este scaunul pe care il folosesc eu cind am musafiri.



………………………………………………………………………………………………

4.       — Astazi ma simt mai bine. — Dar arati mai rau.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.       Ce s-a intimplat? Nu mai mergi la teatru?

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

6.       Esti cam slab, George, oare maninci destul?

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

7.       John se indreapta spre celalalt colt al camerei, si isi toarna un pahar cu apa. E evident insetat (indicatii scenice).

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

8.       Asteapta-ma, vreau sa-ti vorbesc! Am incredere in tine; vin la tine de indata ce imi termin serviciul.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

9.       Inchide geamurile. Simt ca trage. Zau ca simt.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

10.   Cind se dicteaza, trebuie sa se vorbeasca clar.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

III. The simple past tense

Form

The simple past tense in regular verbs is formed by adding - ed to the infinitive: Infinitive: to work Simple past: worked

Verbs ending in e add d only: Infinitive: to love Simple past: loved

The same form is used for all persons:

I worked; you worked; he worked etc.

The negative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with did not (didn't) and the infinitive:

I did not/didn 't work

you did not/didn't work etc.

The interrogative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with did I subject + infinitive:

did I work? did you work? etc.

Negative interrogative: did you not/didn't you work? etc.

Spelling notes

The rules about doubling the final consonant when adding ing apply when adding ed:

admit  admitted

stop  stopped

travel travelled

Verbs ending in y following a consonant change the y into i before adding ed:

carry carried

try  tried

but y following a vowel does not change: obey  obeyed.

Irregular verbs: form

These vary considerably in their simple past form:

Infinitive: to eat, to leave, to see, to speak

Simple past: ate, left, saw, spoke

The simple past form of each irregular verb must therefore be learnt, but once this is done there is no other difficulty, as irregular verbs have no inflexions in the past tense.

Use

1. for a past action when the time is given:

I met him yesterday. Pasteur died in 1895.

2. when the time is asked about:

When did you meet him?

3. when the action took place at a definite time although this time is not mentioned:

The train was ten minutes late. How did you get your present job?

4. The simple past tense is used for an action whose time is not given but which (a) occupied a period of time now terminated, or (b) occurred at a moment in a period of time now terminated.

He worked in that bank for four years. (but he does not work there now)

She lived in Rome for a long time, (but she is not living there now)

5. The simple past tense is also used for a past habit:

He always carried an umbrella.

They never drank wine.

IV. The past continuous tense

Form

The past continuous tense is formed by the past tense of the verb to be + the present participle:

Affirmative                   Negative                                    Interrogative

I was working      I was not working                          was I working?

you were working            you were not working              were you working?

he/she/it was working he/she/it was not working       was he/she/it working?

we were working             we were not working                                 were we working?

you were working            you were not working             were you working?

they were working          they were not working             were they working?

Negative contractions: I wasn 't working, you weren 't working etc. Negative interrogative: was he not/wasn't he working? etc.

·        The past continuous is chiefly used for past actions which continued for some time but whose exact limits are not known and are not important.

1. Used without a time expression it can indicate gradual development: It was getting darker. The wind was rising.

2. Used with a point in time, it expresses an action which began before that time and probably continued after it. At eight he was having breakfast implies that he was in the middle of breakfast at eight. It means that he had started it before eight. He had breakfast at eight would imply that he started it at eight.

·        We use the continuous tense in descriptions.

A wood fire was burning on the hearth, and a cat was sleeping in front of it. A girl was playing the piano and (was) singing softly to herself.

·        The past continuous with always:

He was always ringing me up. He was always working.

·        Past continuous as an alternative to the simple past

·        The past continuous can be used as an alternative to the simple past to indicate a more casual, less deliberate action:

I was talking to Tom the other day. The past continuous here gives the impression that the action was in no way unusual or remarkable. It also tends to remove responsibility from the subject. In the above example it is not clear who started the conversation, and it does not matter. Note the contrast with the simple past tense, I talked to Tom, which indicates that I took the initiative.

Exercises with the Simple Past and the Past Continuous

exercise 1. Supply the Past Tense form of the irregular verbs given in brackets:

1. I (fall) ………………..  down a well and (break) ………………..  a leg. 2. The smell of the garden (creep) ………………..  into the room. 3. He (win) ………………..  her over by his gentleness. 4. They (kneel) ………………..  down and (bind) ………………..  the man tight. 5. The cat (overthrow) ………………..  an inkpot, and (spill) ………………..  the ink onto his papers. 6. She (fling off) ………………..  her night-gown, and (fly) ………………..  into her bath. 7. She (hold) ………………..  out her arms. 8. If nostalgia ever (sweep) ………………..  over him, he (thrust) ………………..  it back.10. She (bring) ………………..  in an outsider It. We all (drink) ………………..  tea. 12. They (wind) ………………..  up the evening with a song. 13 The Jignt m his bedroom (shine) ………………..  over the court each night. 14. He (keep) ………………..  oDen house for us each Thursday. 15. They (weave) ………………..  cotton into cloth. 16. One day an idea (strike) ………………..  Ann. 17, It (cost) ………………..  me a lot. 18. She (shrink) ………………..  from society. 19. He (seek) ………………..  power. 20. They (feed) ………………..  the baby by turns. 21. His leg (bleed) ………………..  and (swell) ………………..  22 His knee (hurt) ……………….., his head ached. 23. He (burst) ………………..  into tears! 24. The police (speed) ………………..  to the scene of the crime. 25. Our blood almost (freeze) ………………..  in our veins. 26. A dog (bite) ………………..  it and an elephant (tread) ………………..  on it. 27. Thev (fling) ………………..  the door shut, and rushed to their cars. 28. He (tear) ………………..  his hair, (wring) ………………..  his hands and (swear) ……………… 29 It (teach) ………………..  him a bitter lesson. 30. I (know) ………………..  the bus-route Mke the back of my hand. 31. You (run) ………………..  into debt. 32. We (set) ………………..  the blankets ablaze. 34   He (lend) ………………..  her his attention for a while. 35. Then he (shoot) ………………..  uneasy glances towards her mother. 36. That war (breed) ………………..  misery and diseases. 37. He (catch) ………………..  my eve 38. Miss Tramp (forget) ………………..  names. (39. The news (come) ………………..  as a total shock. 40 The panthers (spit) ………………..  at all who ventured near them. 41. My voice (ring out) ………………..  jubi­lantly from the hall. 42. Luke (cut) ………………..  her short. 43. They (swing) ………………..  from one extreme to the other. 44. I (burn) ………………..  the paper in the grate. 45. That wall (shut off) ………………..  my view of the sea. 46. The house (smell) ………………..  of flowers all through the early summer 47. Then he (feel) ………………..  a complete release. 48. Tom (throw) ………………..  the whole of his nature into his work. 49. She (stride off) ………………..  with a triumphant look in her eyes.  50. David’s heart (sink) ……………….., but Paul's spirits (rise) ……………… 51. I (weep) ………………..  with rage. 52 When he (see) ………………..  his father drawing near, he (steal away) ……………… 53. We (choose) ………………..  him ourselves 54. He (bear) ………………..  it valiantly. 55. He (read) ………………..  very slowly. 56. I (hold) ………………..  the umbrella over her head as she shuffled along. 57. The wind (blow) ………………..  down the streets umbrellas were (bend) ………………..  to meet it. 58. He (lay) ………………..  bare his heart about her. 59. He (light) ………………..  shy of a scene. 60. Mr. Peel (withdraw) ………………..  from the election a week ago. 61. Heavy clouds (hang) ………………..  over the roofs. 62. Those words (spell out) ………………..  bad news.  63. The attackers (beat) ………………..  him up. 64. He (stick) ………………..  to his advantage. 65. She (give away) ………………..  his secret. 66. The experiment (bear out) ………………..  his theory. 67. My hus­band (cut out) ………………..  smoking. 68. He (put) ………………..  his watch back an hour. 69. The car (draw) ………………..  to the kerb. 70. They soon (make) ………………..  it up. 71. He (pay) ………………..  her back for her rudeness. 72. The policeman (let) ………………..  her off with a fine. 73. The committee (deal) ………………..  with the question of housing several times. 74. He (sleep off) ………………..  the headache. 75. The tramp (take) ………………..  her in with his lies. 76. I (wake) ………………..  early. 77. He (spread) ………………..  the sheets of paper on the counter. 78. Most people (eat) ………………..  with zest. 79. I (have) ………………..  her by the shoulder, but she (shake) ………………..  me off. 80. He (speak) ………………..  of his aims. 81 He (play) ………………..  games each Sunday. 83. He (lie) ………………..  in bed all morning. 84. She (lie) ………………..  to me.

exercise 2. Answer the questions, using the Past Continuous in your answers

model: When did she meet her brother? (walk in the park). She met her brother when she was walking in the park.

1. When did you break your leg? (come down the stairs) 2. When did he compose the symphony? (have a holiday) 3. When did they learn French? (live m France) 4. When did you hear the news? (listen to the wireless) 5. When did the man hurt himself? (ride a horse) 6. When did she find the book? (do the house) 7. When did they lose their child ? (walk about town) 8. When did lie pay you a visit? (have lunch) 9. When did John notice the flaw? (inspect the vase) 10. When did he ask her that? (talk about their future)

exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Con­tinuous:

1. When he (enter) ………………..  the room, the children (play) ………………..  with their toys. 2. He (write) ………………..  his essay when somebody (knock) ………………..  at the door. 3. The players (train) ………………..  the whole day yesterday. 4. While she (listen) ………………..  to the concert, her brother (play) ………………..  with a noisy toy car. 5. He (stand) ………………..  a long time in the darkest corner of the room. 6. When the doorbell (ring) ………………..  she (sleep) ……………….. . 7. The young man (jump) ………………..  on to the bus while it (run) ……………… 8. The little boy (help) ………………..  himself to another slice of cake when his mother (not look) ……………… 9. When the train (arrive) ………………..  many travellers (wait) ………………..  on the platform. 10. The electric power (go off) ………………..  while they (listen) ………………..  to the radio programme. 11. The fire (burn) ………………..  brightly when the hikers (reach) ………………..  the chalet. 12. They (realize) ………………..  they (travel) ………………..  in the wrong direction. 13. She (clean) ………………..  the mirror when it (break) ……………… 14. While he (drive) ………………..  the lorry, a tyre (burst) ……………….. . 15. The guests (enjoy) ………………..  themselves when the landlady (tell) ………………..  them they (have) ………………..  to leave the house.

exercise 4 Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Con­tinuous:

1. The track (lead) ………………..  us through the thick jungle where the trees (hang) ………………..  over us forming a dark roof. Although the sun (shine) ………………..  its rays (fail) ………………..  to penetrate the heavy green foliage. 2. While I (pump) ………………..  up my bicycle tyres, a man (look) ………………..  in over the wall and (ask) ………………..  me the way to the police-station. 3. While we (stay) ………………..  in London the dome of St. Paul's (be repaired) ……………….. . It (be repaired) ………………..  still when I (return) ………………..  to London a year later. 4. Towards dusk we (come) ………………..  to a little inn which (stand) ………………..  on the outskirts of the village. Some church bells (ring) ………………..  and smoke (rise) ………………..  from numerous cottage chimneys. The inn itself (be) ………………..  most pleasant. The landlord (show) ………………..  us into a large room where a cheerful fire (burn) ……………….. . 5. Napoleon III (live) ………………..  in England when he (die) ……………….. . 6. I (see) ………………..  your aunt yesterday. She (wear) ………………..  a white hat and (carry) ………………..  a blue bag. 7. It (rain) ……………….. . I (put) ………………..  on my mackintosh, (go) ………………..  out of the front door and (cross) ………………..  the road to catch the bus which (wait) ………………..  there. The driver (smoke) ………………..  a cigarette and (talk) ………………..  to the conductor. 8. By the time they (arrive) ………………..  it (rain) ………………..  hard. 9. The bricklayers (go) ………………..  on strike on Tuesday morning. When I (look) ………………..  out of the window, they all (stand) ………………..  about in the street with their hands in their pockets. They (wait) ………………..  for the mass meeting that was to take place that afternoon. 10. He (put) ………………..  the kettle on and while he (wait) ………………..  for it to boil he (ring) ………………..  up the Regal Cinema to find out what film they (show) ……………….. .

exercise 5.  Translate into English:

1.       Mi-am luat servieta si am alergat afara din hotel. Marina ma astepta afara. Soferul citea un ziar.Am urcatsi m-amasezat. Servieta am aruncat-o pe scaunul de alaturi.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.       Drumul serpuia usor printre §iruri de case care cu greu se puteauvedeadin cauza cetii de dimineata. Am observat insa in curind ca ceata se ridicase astfel puturam vedea ca in fata noastrase intindeaunul din cele mai frum'oase parcuri pe care le vazusem vreodata.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3.       Din copacii care margi-leau drumul picura apa incontinuu.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

4.       Cararea care ducea la cabana era aco-perita de zapada. Mai continua sa ninga, dar deja se putea vedea soarele care isi trimitea razele palide din spatele unui nor cenusiu.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

V. The present perfect tense

Form

The present perfect tense is formed with the present tense of have +

the past participle: I have worked etc.

The past participle in regular verbs has exactly the same form as the simple past, i.e. loved, walked etc.

In irregular verbs, the past participles vary. The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary.

The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary and subject.

Affirmative                  Negative                           Interrogative

I have worked          I have not worked                  have I worked?

you have worked                 you have not worked             have you worked?

he/she/it has worked    he/she/it has not worked       has he/she/it worked?

we have worked                we have not worked                have we worked?

you have worked               you have not worked             have you worked ?

they have worked              they have not worked           have they worked?

Negative interrogative: has he not worked ? etc.

Use

This tense may be said to be a sort of mixture of present and past. It always implies a strong connection with the present and is chiefly used in conversations, letters, newspapers and television and radio reports.

1. The present perfect used with just for a recently completed action

He has just gone out = He went out a few minutes ago. This is a special use of this tense, just must be placed between the auxiliary and the main verb. This combination is used chiefly in the affirmative, though the interrogative form is possible:

Has he just gone out? It is not normally used in the negative.

2. The present perfect is used for recent actions when the time is not mentioned:

I have read the instructions but I don't understand them.

Have you had breakfast? ~ No, I haven't had it yet.

Have you seen my stamps? — Yes, I have/No, I haven't or

Yes, I saw them on your desk a minute ago.

3. Recent actions in the present perfect often have results in the present!

Tom has had a bad car crash. (He's probably still in hospital.)

The lift has broken down. (We have to use the stairs.)

I've washed the car. (It looks lovely.)

4. Actions expressed by the present perfect + yet usually have results in

the present:

He hasn 't come yet. (so we are still waiting for him)

5. It can also be used for actions which occur further back in the past provided the connection with the present is still maintained:

I have seen wolves in that forest implies that it is still possible to see them, and

John Smith has written a number of short stories implies that John Smith is still alive and can write more. If, however, the wolves have been killed off and John Smith is dead we would say:

I saw wolves in that forest once/several times or

I used to see wolves here and

6. The present perfect used for actions occurring in an incomplete period

An incomplete period may be indicated by today or this morning/ afternoon/evening/week/month/year/century etc.

(at 11 a.m.) Tom has rung up three times this morning already.

(at 2 p.m.) Tom rang up three times this morning.

(at 4 p.m.) I haven't seen Tom this afternoon.

(at 6 p.m.) I didn't see Tom this afternoon.

7. The present perfect used with an incomplete period of time implies that the action happened or didn't happen at some undefined time during this period:

Have you seen him today? (at any time today)

Yes, I've seen him today

8. lately, recently used with the present perfect also indicate an incomplete period of time.

In the sentences Has he been here lately/recently? and He hasn 't been here lately/recently, lately/recently means 'at any time during the last week/month etc.'; and in He has been here recently,

recently means 'at some undefined time during the last week/month etc' lately is less usual with the affirmative, except for actions covering periods of time:

There have been some changes lately/recently.

He's had a lot of bad luck lately/recently.

9. The present perfect can be used similarly with ever, never, always,

occasionally, often, several times etc. and since + a point in time

ANN: Have you ever fallen off a horse?

TOM: Yes, I've fallen off quite often/occasionally.

10. The present perfect used for an action which lasts throughout an incomplete period. Time expressions include for, since, all day/night/week, all my etc. life, all the time, always, lately, never, recently.

The action usually begins in the past and continues past the time of speaking in the present:




He has been in the army for two years. (He is still in the army.)

I have smoked since I left school. (I still smoke.) We have waited all day. (We are still waiting.)

VI. The present perfect continuous tense

Form

This tense is formed by the present perfect of the verb to be + the present participle:

Affirmative: I have been working, he has been working etc.

Negative: I have not/haven't been working etc.

Interrogative: have I been working? etc.

Negative interrogative: have I not/haven't I been working? etc.

Use

1. This tense is used for an action which began in the past and still continuing:

I've been waiting for an hour and he still hasn't turned up.

I'm so sorry I'm late. Have you been waiting long?

2. Comparison of the present perfect simple and continuous

An action which began in the past and is still continuing or has only just finished can, with certain verbs, be expressed by either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Verbs which can lie used in this way include expect, hope, learn, lie, live, look, rain, sleep, sit, snow, stand, stay, study, teach, wait, want, work:

How long have you learnt English?

How long have you been learning English ?

He has slept for ten hours.

3. A repeated action in the simple present perfect can sometimes be expressed as a continuous action by the present perfect continuous:

I’ve written six letters since breakfast.

I've been writing letters since breakfast.

Note that the present perfect continuous expresses an action which is apparently uninterrupted.

4. There is, however, a difference between a single action in the simple present perfect and an action in the present perfect continuous:

I've polished the car means that this job has been completed.

I've been polishing the car means 'this is how I've spent the last hour'. It does not necessarily mean that the job is completed.

Note also that a single action in the present perfect continuous continues up to the time of speaking, or nearly up to this time:

He's been taking photos (he's probably still carrying his camera) but He has taken photos. (This action may or may not be very recent.)

Exercises with  Present Perfect Simple & Present Perfect Continuous

exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous. Specify where both tenses may be used:

1. He not (be) ………………..  to this restaurant for years. 2. She must tell us what she (read) ………………..  since her last exam. 3. I (look) ………………..  for the pen everywhere, but (not find) ………………..  it. 4. You (run) ………………..  too fast. Stop and rest a little. 5. She (sit) ………………..  in that armchair since you left. 6. I (know) ………………..  him since he was a child. 7. My friend (teach) ………………..  in that school since 1966. 8. They (build) ………………..  that block-of-flats for several months, but (finish) ………………..  only half of it. 9. He not (come) ………………..  yet but his wife already (arrive) ……………… 10. This tower (stand) ………………..  here for two hundred years. 11. You (not buy) ………………..  me flow­ers for years. 12. I (not play) ………………..  much chess lately, I (be) ………………..  too busy. 13. We (not speak) ………………..  since we quarrelled. 14. Somebody (smoke) ………………..  in this room, it smells of cigarettes. 15. He (waste) ………………..  his time instead of learning.

exerqise 2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences by using for or since.-

1. He has been away . . . three years. 2. She hasn't worn that dress she was a girl. 3. He has been working . . . ten years. 4. They have been climb­ing half an hour. 5. We have forgotten the language we left the country. 6. He has been gathering strawberries ever … sunrise. 7. She has been ill .. . a fortnight. 8. Have you read many articles I gave you the newspaper? 10. They have been here 2 o'clock. 11. I've been trying to tell you . . . you came. 12. It has been raining . two days.

exercise 3. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Continuous. Note that with verbs such as to learn, to lie, to live, to rest, to sit, to stand, to stay, to study, to wait, etc., the Present Perfect Continuous is more often used than the Present Perfect Simple:

1. So there is something in the stories that (go round) ……………….. ? 2. I think the time (come) ………………..  to explain where we stand. 3. My position (not alter) ………………..  since last May. 4. 'I (want) ………………..  a word with you, Lewis.' 5. 'During the past year I (have) ………………..  many interesting talks upon the future of the college.' 6. 'Did you know that Night­ingale (try) ………………..  to coerce young Luke?' 7. 'I (not forget) ………………..  it for an instant this afternoon.' 8. 'I (everywhere, look for) ………………..  you,' he said. 'Why didn't you leave word where you'd gone?' 9. 'He (only say) ………………..  one word. He (keep) ………………..  unnaturally still.' 10. 'I (pretty well, live and feed) ………………..  at the lab, ever since'. 11. 'In one office or another you (guide) ……………….. our department all your life'. 12. 'People here (never show) ………………..  me the slightest consideration.' 13. No one (ever do) ………………..  me so much harm before. 14. 'I (try) ………………..  to collect my thoughts, but it's not a very pleasant process.'

exercise 4. Translate into English, using either the Present Tense or the Pre­sent Perfect Tense, Simple or Continuous:

1.       Sora mea isi face bagajele de azi dimineata, dar inca n-a terminat.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

2.       Discuta aceasta chestiune de cind esti aici si inca nu au ajuns la nici o concluzie definitiva.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3.       Aceasta este casa in care locuiesc; locuiesc aici din copilarie.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.       — Ai pierdut ceva? — Da, stiloul. — L-ai cautat peste tot? De cind il cauti?

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

5.       Ninge tare de cinci ore asa ca n-am iesit din casa toata ziua.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

6.       N-am mai vazut-o de cind s-a maritat. N-am mai vazut-o de cind e maritata.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

7.       Ea e de obicei punctuala, dar in dimineata asta nu a sosit inca.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

8.       Unde ti-ai petre-cut vacantain vara asta?

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9.       Barbatul care vorbeste cu sotia mea este vecinul nostru care locuieste alaturi.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

10.   Ce faci? N-a raspuns fratele tau? De cit timp incerci sa iei legatura cu el?

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

11.   Va declar sot si sotie.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

12.   Nu-mi place sa stau aici in aceasta perioada a anului. Ploua incontinuu.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

13.   Copilasul a ince-put sa plinga si mai plinge inca, desi rareori plinge noaptea.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

14.   Citesti carti englezesti in original? Ce citesti acum?

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

15.   Unchiul meu e scriitor. De doi ani scrie un roman, dar nu Ta terminat inca. Nu a strins inca tot materialul necesar si acum isi petrece timpul la tara.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The Present Perfect and the Past Tense

exercise 5. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or the Past Tense, depending on the given alternatives:

1. They (try) ……………………. to speak only English (lately, last night). 2. She (have) …………………….  a lot of work (today, in January). 3. I (practise) …………………….  for three hours (today, before I came here). 4. He (complete) …………………….  his work (yesterday, this morning, for a long time now). 5. My grandparents (live) …………………….  in the country (since the war, until the war). 6. Who(m) you (speak) …………………….  to (just now, all this time)? 7. I (dislike) …………………….  mathe­matics (when I was a pupil, always). 8. We (live) …………………….  here (for three years, three years ago). 9. John (hear) …………………….  about your arrival (yesterday, just). 10. The weather (change) …………………….  (since this morning, as I left the house).

exercise 6. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or the Past Tense:

1. He (write) ……………… two pages so far. 2. She (forget) ………………  to take her book with her. 3. They (leave) ………………  the village last week. 4. Ann (live) ………………  in Bucharest from 1968 to 1970. 5. They not (play) ………………  football since last week. 6. John (start) ………………  to learn French last October. 7. Father not (come) ………………  home yet. 8. I cannot tell you where she is, as I not (see) ………………  her. 9. When you (receive) ………………  the letter from them? 10. They (be­come) ………………  very well-known now. 11. Much progress (be made) ………………  lately in nuclear science. 12. She never (teach) ………………  grammar before. 13. Years ago he (work) ………………  here but now he (move) ………………  to another factory. 14. This novelist (write) ………………  some very good plays too, he (write) ………………  them in his youth. 15. The play (begin) ………………  half an hour late last night so we (be) ………………  late for dinner.

VII. The past perfect tense

Form

This tense is formed with had and the past participle:

Affirmative: I had/I'd worked etc.

Negative: / had not/hadn't worked etc.

Interrogative: had I worked? etc.

Negative interrogative: had I not/hadn't I worked? etc.

Use

The past perfect is the past equivalent of the present perfect. Present: Ann has just left. If you hurry you'll catch her. Past: When I arrived Ann had just left.

Present: I've lost my case.  Past: He had lost his case and had to borrow Tom's pyjamas.

1.              The past perfect can be used for an action which began before the time of speaking in the past, and was still continuing at that time or stopped at that time or just before it.

2. for an action which stopped some time before the time of speaking

 Bill was in uniform when I met him. He had been a soldier for ten years/since he was seventeen, and planned to stay in the army I ill he was thirty.

The old oak tree, which had stood in the churchyard for 300 years/since before the church was built, suddenly crashed to the ground.

3. The past perfect is also the past equivalent of the simple past tense, and is used when the narrator or subject looks back on earlier action from a certain point in the past:

Tom was 23 when our story begins. His father had died five years before and since then Tom had lived alone. His father had advised him not to get married till he was 35, and Tom intended to follow this advice. I had just poured myself a glass of beer when the phone rang. When

VIII. The past perfect continuous tense

Form

This tense is formed with had been + the present participle. II is therefore the same for all persons:

I had/I'd been working

They had not/hadn 't been working

Use

The past perfect continuous bears the same relation to the past perfect as the present perfect continuous bears to the present perfect

1. When the action began before the time of speaking in the past, and continued up to that time, or stopped just before it, we can often use either form :

It was now six and he was tired because he had worked since dawn =

It was now six and he was tired because he had been working since dawn.

2. A repeated action in the past perfect can sometimes be expressed  continuous action by the past perfect continuous

He had tried five times to get her on the phone. He had been trying to get her on the phone.

3. But there is a difference between a single action in the simple past perfect and an action in the past perfect continuous

By six o'clock he had repaired the engine. (This job had been completed.) He had been repairing the engine tells us how he had spent the previous hour/half hour etc. It does not tell us whether or not the job was completed. Another difference is that an action in the past perfect continuous continues up to, or beyond, the time of speaking in the past.

The Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous

The basic function of the Past Perfect is to express the priority of an action to a given moment in the past.

e.g.  He had studied French thoroughly before he went to Paris. She had read much and could tell beautiful stories.

The Past Perfect may also serve to express an action which began before a given past moment and continued into it or up to it. With this meaning it is parallel to the Past Perfect Continuous. In the choice of the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous we observe the same indications as those mentioned in the case of the Present Perfect Continuous.

e.g.  He had been a teacher for three years before he became a novelist.

But: He had been teaching in that school for three years before he left it.

In negative sentences the Past Perfect is preferred to the Past Perfect Continuous:

e.g. They had not met for many years.

Exercises with  Past Perfect Simple & Contiuous

exercise 1. Join the following pairs of sentences using the Past Perfect Tense. Use the conjunctions in brackets:

model: They went out to play. They finished their tasks (after). They went out to play after they had finished their tasks.

1.       He threw the letter away. He wrote it (as soon as).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.       He recovered. He was very ill (before).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

3.       She didn't know the truth. He explained it (until).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

4.       I reached the bus-stop. The bus started (when).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

5.       He left the room. I switched on the TV set (as soon as).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

6.       We had breakfast. We went for a walk (after).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

7.       They didn't call on us. We dressed for the trip (until).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

8.       He was an actor. He became a stage director (before).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Perfect Tense:

a) 1. They not (get) …………… a reply, so they (decide) ……………  to spend their holidays at home. 2. We (have) ……………  to go back, it (rain) ……………  for two hours and the ground was water-logged. 3. How long he (live) ……………  there when the war (break) ……………  out ? 4. Only a long time after that he (find) ……………  out what (happen) ……………. 5. He (know) ……………  where I (live) ……………  but he never (be) ……………  to my flat. 6. He (listen) ……………  to her story for two hours and (think) ……………  it boring. 7. Nobody (know) ……………  he (disappear) ……………. 8. She had (stay) ……………  at the seaside for more than a week when the weather (grow) ……………  cold. 9. He (laugh) ……………  at her hair and she (be) ……………  angry with him. 10. They (wonder) ……………  what (become) ……………  of their luggage. 11. The hotel (be) ……………  much cheaperthan he (think) ……………  at first. 12. We (tell) ……………  him that his house (burn down) ……………. 13. The explorers (travel) ……………  for weeks without enough food and water. 14. They asked her why she (lie) ……………  to them. 15. He (be pushed) ……………  out of the room, before he (be able) ……………  to speak.

b) 1. I (not, yet, translate) ……………  the letter when he (come back) …………… . 2. As soon as I (pay) ……………  for the bulb I (say) ……………  good-bye to Mr. Hobbs. 3. Mr. Smith, who (never, fire) ……………  a revolver in his life, (slip) ……………  it gingerly into his pocket. 4. Report (go) ……………  that he (be maimed) ……………  in his youth. 5. Pieces (come off) ……………  so that the walls (look) ……………  awful.

There (be) ……………    a ripping sound. The sidecar (come loose) ……………  from the motorcycle. It (be) ……………  very sudden. Though for many years she (have) ……………  pains on and off.

exercise 3. Translate into English:

1.       Saptamina trecuta ne-am mutat din casa in care am locuit 10 ani.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.       Cind ne-am intors in cele din urma acasa, calatorisem 2000 de km.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

3.       Anul trecut m-am urcat pe Vezuviu. Fusesem fascinat de vulcani de cind am vazut un film despre ei.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4.       Cind s-a facut ora 11 si ea nu venise inca, am inceput sa ma intreb daca nu avusese cumva vreun accident.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5.       Mi-a spus ca 1-a intilnit seara trecuta si ca se schimbase asa de mult incit era de nerecunoscut.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6.       I-am putut afla numele doar dupa ce a plecat.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

7.       M-am supiirat foarte tare cind mi s-a spus ca trenul a plecat deja si 1-am intrebat pe chelner de ce nu m-a anuntat din vreme si de ce a continuat sa-mi serveasca bautura.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past Perfect Tense or the Continuous Past Perfect Tense:

1. When I visited him in Berlin I discovered that he (paint) …………… just the same stale things that he (paint) ……………  for years in Rome. 2. He was laughing heartily at a story which he (tell) ……………  Gabriel on the stairs. 3. While he (be) ……………  full of memories of their secret life together, she (compare) ……………  him in her mind with another. 4. By the time he (speak) ……………  for five minutes the spirit (go) ……………  out of us all. 5. Once he nearly got, run overlay a bus. He (collect) ……………  bits of evergreens. 6. They (talk) ……………, as they saw me at the gate there was a hush. 7. His composure (return) …………… when he and Chrystal called on me after the hall. 8. He (do) ……………  two men's work for months. His fundamental work (not, receive) ……………   the attention that he looked for. 9. Mrs. Jago welcomed us with a greater assumption of state than ever; she (tell) ……………  herself that no one wished to see her. 0. I asked him if he (see) ……………  Jack recently.

exercisE 5. Fill in the blanks with the correct past tense:

1.  Andrew (be) ……………  the first to come. It was Gristine herself who (open) ……………  the door for him. Later Watkins and his wife (come) ……………  in apologizing for being late. And almost at once they (sit) ……………  down to supper. After the skumpy meals he usually (have) ……………  it (be) ……………  a great treat to Andrew to find hot appetizing food before him. Though plain, every dish (be) ……………  good and there (be) ……………  plenty of it.When Andrew (praise) ……………  her landlady's cooking, Watkins who (observe) ……………  how Andrew (devour) ……………  his food, suddenly, (laugh) ……………  out loud. 'That's a good one'. He (turn) ……………  to his wife '(Hear) ……………  him? He says old Mrs. Herbert's a marvellous cook!' Christine (colour) ……………  slightly. She (beg) ……………  Andrew not to pay attention to Watkins; It (be) ……………  the nicest compliment she (ever have) ……………  because he (not mean) ……………  it as such. She (cook) ……………  the supper.      

 IX. The future

There are several ways of expressing the future in English. The forms are listed below and will be dealt with in the order in which they are given.

1. The simple present

2. will + infinitive, used for intention

3. The present continuous

4. The be going to form

5. The 'future simple' will/shall + infinitive

6. The future continuous

7. The future perfect

8.       The future perfect continuous



9.1. The simple present used for the future

This tense can be used with a time expression for a definite future arrangement:

The boys start school on Monday. I leave tonight. instead of the more normal present continuous tense:

The boys are starting school on Monday. I'm leaving tonight. The difference between them is:

The simple present is more impersonal than the continuous. I'm leaving tonight would probably imply that I have decided to leave, but / leave tonight could mean that this is part of a plan not necessarily made by me.

The simple present can also sound more formal than the continuous. A big store planning to open a new branch is more likely to say Our new branch opens next week than Our new branch is opening next week.

 9.2. Future with intention

When we say that a form expresses future with intention we mean that it expresses a future action which will be undertaken by the speaker in accordance with his wishes, will + infinitive and the be going to form can be used in this way. When we say that a form expresses future without intention we meat) that it merely states that a certain action will happen. We don't know whether it was arranged by the subject or by some other person and we don't know what the subject thinks of it.

9.3. The present continuous

The present continuous tense in the second or third person conveys no idea of intention, though there may be a hint of intention when the first person is used.

The present continuous as a future form

The present continuous can express a definite arrangement in the near future: I'm taking an exam in October implies that I have entered for it; and Bob and Bill are meeting tonight implies that Bob and Bill have arranged this.

But with verbs of movement from one place to another, e.g. arrive, come, drive, fly, go, leave, start, travel, verbs indicating position, e.g. stay, remain, and the verbs do and have (food or drink), the present continuous can be used more widely. It can express a decision or plan without any definite arrangement.

What are you doing next Saturday? (This is the usual way of asking

people about their plans.) Possible answers:

I'm going to the seaside.

I'm not doing anything. I'm staying at home. I'm going to write

letters. {I'm writing . . . would not be possible.)

9.4. The be going to form

The present continuous tense of the verb to go + the full infinitive I'm going to buy a bicycle. She is not going to be there. Is he going to lecture in English?

·                 For intention

·                 For prediction

·        The be going to form used for intention

The be going to form expresses the subject's intention to perform a certain future action. This intention is always premeditated and there is usually also the idea that some preparation for the action has already been made. Actions expressed by the be going to form are therefore usually considered very likely to be performed, though there is not the same idea of definite future arrangement that we get from the present continuous. The following points may be noted:

As already shown, be going to can be used for the near future with a time expression as an alternative to the present continuous, i.e. we can say:

I'm/I am meeting Tom at the station at six.

I'm/1 am going to meet Tom at the station at six. But note that I'm meeting Tom implies an arrangement with Tom. I'm going to meet Tom does not: Tom may get a surprise!

be going to can be used with time clauses when we wish to emphasize the subject's intention:

He is going to be a dentist when he grows up.

What are you going to do when you get your degree? Normally, however, the future simple (shall/will) is used with time clauses.

be going to can be used without a time expression:

I 'm going to play you a Bach fugue. He is going to lend me his bicycle. It then usually refers to the immediate or near future.

Comparison of the use of be going to and will to infinitive to express intention

The chief difference is:

The be going to form always implies a premeditated intention, and often an intention + plan.

will + infinitive implies intention alone, and this intention is usually, though not necessarily, unpremeditated.

If, therefore, preparations for the action have been made, we must use going to:

I have bought some bricks and I'm going to build a garage. If the intention is clearly unpremeditated, we must use will:

There is somebody at the hall door. ~ I'll go and open it.

When the intention is neither clearly premeditated nor clearly unpremeditated, either be going to or will may be used:

I will/am going to climb that mountain one day.

I won 't/am not going to tell you my age.

As already noted, will + infinitive in the affirmative is used almost entirely for the first person. Second and third person intentions are therefore normally expressed by be going to:

He is going to resign.

Are you going to leave without paying?

be going to, as already stated, usually refers to the fairly immediate future, will can refer either to the immediate or to the more remote future.

What are you doing with that spade? ~ I am going to plant apple trees.

 She has bought some wool; she is going to knit a jumper.

·        The be going to form used for prediction

The be going to form can express the speaker's feeling of certainty. The time is usually not mentioned, but the action is expected to happen in the near or immediate future:

Look at those clouds! It's going to rain.

Listen to the wind. We 're going to have a rough crossing.

 Comparison of be going to (used for prediction) with will (for probable future)

will is a common way of expressing what the speaker thinks, believes, hopes, assumes, fears etc. will happen:

It will probably be cold/I expect it will be cold.

Tomatoes will be expensive this year/I'm sure tomatoes will be expensive.

But there are two differences:

be going to implies that there are signs that something will happen, will implies that the speaker thinks/believes that it will happen.

be going to is normally used about the immediate/fairly immediate future; will doesn't imply any particular time and could refer to the remote future.

The lift is going to break down implies that it is making strange noises or behaving in a strange way; we had better get out on the next floor.

The lift will break down implies that this will happen some time in the future (perhaps because we always overload our lifts, perhaps because it is an XYZ Company lift and they don't last).

9.5. The future simple

There is no future tense in modern English, but for convenience we often use the term 'future simple' to describe the form will/shall + bare infinitive.

First person will and shall

Formerly will was kept for intention:

I will wait for you = I intend to wait for you and shall was used when there was no intention, i.e. for actions where the subject's wishes were not involved:

I shall be 25 next week.

We shall know the result next week. (It will be in the papers.)

Unless the taxi comes soon we shall miss our plane.

shall, however, is still used in the interrogative: In question tags after let's: Let's go, shall we? In suggestions: Shall we take a taxi?

In requests for orders or instructions: What shall I do with your mail? In speculations: Where shall we be this time next year

shall for determination

Determination is normally expressed by will. But sometimes public speakers feel that to express determination they need a 'heavier' word, a word not normally used much, and so they say shall:

(in a speech) We shall fight and we shall win. We will fight and we shall win would be equally possible. shall used in this way sometimes carries the idea of promise which we get in second person shall:

You shall have a sweet = I promise you a sweet.

In we shall win the speaker is promising victory. shall can be used in this way in ordinary conversation:

I shall be there, I promise you. But will here is equally possible and less trouble for the student. When in doubt use will.

Uses of the future simple

1. To express the speaker's opinions, assumptions. These may be introduced by verbs such as assume, be afraid, be/feel sure, believe, daresay, doubt, expect, hope, know, suppose. Hunk, wonder or accompanied by adverbs such as perhaps, possibly,  surely, but can be used without them:

(I'm sure) he'll come back.

(I suppose) they'll sell the house.

The future simple can be used with or without a time expression. be going to is sometimes possible here also, but it makes the action appear more probable and (where there is no time expression) more immediate. He'll build a house merely means 'this is my opinion', and gives no idea when the building will start. But He's going to build a house implies that he has already made this decision and that he will probably start quite soon.

2. The future simple is used similarly for future habitual actions which we assume will take place:

Spring will come again.

Birds will build nests.

People will make plans.

3. The future simple is used, chiefly in newspapers and news for formal announcements of future plans.

 NEWSPAPER: The President will open the new heliport tomorrow. The fog will persist in all areas. Hut the average reader/listener will say:

The President is going to open/is opening . . . The fog is going to persist/continue . .

4. won't can be used with all persons to express negative intention. So He won't pay can mean either He refuses to pay or I don't think he '11 pay.

I/we will can express affirmative intention, but he/you/they will do not normally express intention. They may appear to do so sometimes in such sentences as My son/brother/husband etc. will help you, but the intention may be the speaker's rather than the subject's.

9.6. The future continuous tense

This tense is made up of the future simple of to be + the present participle. In the first person, will is more usual than shall, except in the interrogative.

Affirmative I/we will/shall be working he/she/it/you/they will be working Negative  I/we will/shall not be working he/she/it/you/they will not be working

Interrogative shall/will I/we be working? will he/she/it/you/they be working?

Use

This tense has two uses:

It can be used as an ordinary continuous tense.

It can express a future without intention.

The future continuous used as an ordinary continuous tense

Like other continuous tenses it is normally used with a point m lime, and expresses an action which starts before that time and probably continues after it. This use is best seen by examples. Imagine a class of students at this moment-9.30 a.m. We might say:

Now they are sitting in their classroom. They are listening to a tape. This time tomorrow they will be sitting in the cinema. They will be watching a film. On Saturday there is no class. So on Saturday they will not be sitting in the classroom. They will be doing other things. Bill will be playing tennis. Ann will be shopping. George will still be having breakfast. A continuous tense can also be used with a verb in a simple tense:

Peter has been invited to dinner with Ann and Tom. He was asked to come at eight but tells another friend that he intends to arrive at seven. The friend tries to dissuade him: 'When you arrive they'll still be cooking the meal!'

The future continuous used to express future without intention

Example: I will be helping Mary tomorrow.

This does not imply that the speaker has arranged to help Mary or that he wishes to help her. It merely states that this action will happen. The future continuous tense used in this way is somewhat similar to the present continuous, but differs from it in the following points.

The present continuous tense implies a deliberate future action. The future continuous tense usually implies an action which will occur in the normal course of events. It is therefore less definite and more casual than the present continuous:

I am seeing Tom tomorrow.

I'll be seeing Tom tomorrow. The first implies that Tom or the speaker has deliberately arranged H» meeting, but the second implies that Tom and the speaker will meet In the ordinary course of events (perhaps they work together).

9.7. The future perfect Form

will/shall + perfect infinitive for first persons, will + perfect infinitive for the other persons. Use

It is normally used with a time expression beginning with by: by then, by that time, by the 24th:

By the end of next month he will have been here for ten years. It is used for an action which at a given future time will be in the past, or will just have finished. Imagine that it is 3 December and David is very worried about an exam that he is taking on 13 December. Someone planning a party might say:

We 'd better wait till 14 December. David will have had his exam by then, so he'll be able to enjoy himself. Note also:

I save £50 a month and I started in January. So by the end of the year I will/shall have saved £600.

9.8. The future perfect continuous

will/shall have been + present participle for the first persons, will have been + present participle for the other persons. Use

Like the future perfect, it is normally used with a time expression beginning with by:

By the end of this year he'll have been acting for thirty years. The future perfect continuous bears the same relationship to the future perfect as the present perfect continuous bears to the present perfect, i.e. the future perfect continuous can be used instead of the future perfect:

When the action is continuous:

By the end of the month he will have been living/working/studying here for ten years.

When the action is expressed as a continuous action:

By the end of the month he will have been training horses/climbing mountains for twenty years. But if we mention the number of horses or mountains, or divide this action in any way, we must use the future perfect:

By the

Exercises with the Future

exercise 1Complete the following sentences:

1. By this time next year, we 2. 11 lie vas not yet begun, to study he by tomorrow. 3. The flowers . . ., by the time the snow has come. 4. A year hence I 5. This work is so vast, that in a year's time. 6. By the time you leave school 7. I hope that when you are as old as I am . . . 8. Perhaps scientists by the twenty-first century. 9. They believe that they . . . before the year is over. 10. Before you leave this part of the country you . . .

exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Perfect, the Future Perfect Continuous and the Present Perfect Tenses:

1. By the end of July he (teach) …………… in this school for a year. 2. I (look up) ……………  the word in the dictionary before you (remember) ……………  it. 3. By the time you (come) ……………  back she (marry) ……………  somebody else. 4. By next Sunday Bob (stay) ……………  in the moun­tains for a month. 5. I hope the rain (stop) ……………  by six o'clock. 6. I'll not speak to him again until he (apologize) ……………  for his impoliteness. 7. Tomorrow I (live) ……………  in this flat for six weeks. 8. By the time you (come) ……………  back with the wine I (lay) ……………  the table for both of us. 9. When (hear) ……………  the truth you will understand why she ran away. 10. At 12 o'clock I (write) ……………  for six hours. 11. When you (take) ……………  some of these pills you will feel better. 12. Twenty minutes from now I (wash) ……………  all the windows. 13. The child (eat) ……………  all the sweets before the other children (arrive) ……………. 14. I shall tell him everything when he (recover) ……………  from his illness. 15. By the end of the year he (learn) ……………  English for three years.

Exercise 3 : The present continuous and the future simple. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

Tom: Where you (go) …………… for your next holiday? (Where have youarranged to go?)

Ann: I don't know yet but we probably (go) ……………  to Spain.

We (have) ……………  a drink with Peter tonight. (He has invited us.) It's his last night; he (leave) ……………  tomorrow.

Ann: Do you think we (see) ……………  Bill tomorrow?

Mary: I hope so. He probably (look) ……………  in on his way to the airport.

I (see) ……………  my bank manager tomorrow. (/ have arranged this.) I'm going to ask him for a loan but I expect he (refuse) …………… .

I (know) ……………  the result tomorrow. As soon as I hear, I (tell) ……………  you.

Jack's mother: Jack (be) ……………  ready in a moment. He is just finishing breakfast.

Jack's father: If I wait for him any longer I (miss) ……………  my train. I think I (walk) ……………  on; he probably (catch) ……………  me up.

I probably (come) ……………  to London some time next month. I (give) ……………  you a ring nearer the time and tell you when I (come) …………… , (when I have decided/arranged to come)

Hotel Porter: You (get) ……………  a parking ticket if you leave your car there, sir. If you (stay) ……………  the night (have arranged to stay) you (have to) ……………  put it in the hotel garage.

Tourist: All right. I (move) ……………  it as soon as I've arranged about a room.

Ann: I've scorched Bill's shirt. Whatever he (say) …………… ?Mary: Oh, he (not mind) ……………. He just (buy) ……………  another shirt. He has plenty of money.

Peter: We'd better leave a message for Jack. Otherwise he (not know) ……………  where we've gone.George: All right. I (leave) ……………  a note on his table.

Jack: I don't want to get married. I never (get) ……………  married. Mother: You think that now. But one day you (meet) ……………  a girl and you (fall) ……………  in love.

Tom: I (go) ……………  to York tomorrow. (Ihave arranged to go.)

Ann: You (come) ……………  back the same day? (Have you arranged to come back?)

Tom: No. I probably (have) ……………  to spend the night there.

Peter: You (walk) ……………  home? (Have you decided to walk?)Andrew: Yes. It's too late for a bus.

Peter: But it's pouring. You (get) ……………  soaked! Here, take this umbrella. Andrew: Thanks very much. I (bring) ……………  it back tomorrow.

Exercise 4: The present continuous and be going to. Put the verbs in brackets into one of the above forms, using the present continuous wherever possible.

Where you (go) ……………  for your holidays? ~ I (go) ……………  to Norway. ~ What you (do) ……………  there?-1 (fish) …………… .

Where you (go) ……………  this evening? ~I (not go) ……………  anywhere. I (stay) ……………  at home. I (write) ……………  some letters.

Take an umbrella; it (rain) …………….

How long you (stay) ……………  in this country? {Have you decided to stay?) ~ Another month. I (go) ……………  home at the end of the month. ~ What you (do) ……………  then? — I (try) ……………  to get a job.

I (dye) ……………  these curtains. ~ You (do) ……………  it yourself, or (have) ……………  it done? ~ I (have) ……………  it done. Who should I take them to?

I've seen the film, now I (read) ……………  the book. I've just got a copy from the library. (/ haven't started the book yet.)

You (do) ……………  anything next weekend? ~ Yes, my nephews (come) ……………  and I (show) ……………  them round London. ~ You (take) ……………  them to the theatre? {Have you booked seats?) — No, they're too young for that. I (take) ……………  them to the zoo.

We (start) ……………  early tomorrow. We (go) ……………  to Ben Nevis. ~You (climb) ……………  Ben Nevis? ~ Not me. Tom (climb) ……………  it. I (sit) ……………  at the bottom and (do) ……………  some sketching.

You (not ask) ……………  your boss to give you a fire in your office? — It isn't worth while. I (leave) ……………  at the end of the week. ~ Really? And what you (do) ……………  then? You (have) ……………  a holiday? -No, I (start) ……………  another job the following Monday.

Exercise 5.: To be going to and will + infinitive. Put the verbs in brackets into one of the above forms.

Where are you off to with that ladder? ~ I (have) ……………  a look at the roof; it's leaking and I think a tile has slipped.

We bought our new garage in sections and we (assemble) ……………  it ourselves. ~ That sounds rather interesting. I (come) ……………  and help you if you like.

Why do you want all the furniture out of the room? — Because I (shampoo) ……………  the carpet. It's impossible to do it unless you take everything off it first.

Here are the matches: but what do you want them for?- I (make) ……………  a bonfire at the end of the garden; I want to burn that big heap of rubbish. ~ Well, be careful. If the fire gets too big it (burn) ……………  the apple trees.

Have you decided on your colour scheme? — Oh yes, and I've bought the paint. I (paint) ……………  this room blue and the sitting room green.

Why are you asking everyone to give you bits of material? ~ Because I (make) ……………  a patchwork quilt.

I wonder if Ann knows that the time of the meeting has been changed. ~ Probably not. I (look) ……………  in on my way home and tell her. I'm glad you thought of it.

Leave a note for them on the table and they (see) ……………  it when they come in.

I'm afraid I'm not quite ready. ~ Never mind. I (wait) …………… .

Do you have to carry so much stuff on your backs? — Yes, we do. We (camp) ……………  out and (cook) ……………  our own meals, so we have to carry a lot.

I've been measuring the windows. I (put) ……………  in double glazing.

You (wear) ……………  that nice dress in a dinghy? ~ Of course not! I (sit) ……………  on the pier and (watch) ……………  you all sailing. I (not get) ……………  all wet and muddy and pretend that I'm enjoying it!








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