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Classes

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DOCUMENTE SIMILARE

Trimite pe Messenger
Static constructors
Boxing and unboxing: Boxing conversions
Member lookup - Base types
Enums - declarations, Enums members
Definite assignment
Interfaces - declarations, Interface members
Exceptions - Causes of exceptions
Standard conversions
Interfaces
Grammar - Lexical and Syntactic grammar

Classes

Class declarations define new reference types. A class can inherit from another class, and can implement interfaces.

Class members can include constants, fields, methods, properties, indexers, events, operators, instance constructors, static constructors, destructors, and nested type declarations. Each member has an associated accessibility, which controls the regions of program text that are able to access the member. There are five possible forms of accessibility. These are summarized in the table below.




Form

Intuitive meaning

public

Access not limited

protected

Access limited to the containing class or types derived from the containing class

internal

Access limited to this program

protected internal

Access limited to this program or types derived from the containing class

private

Access limited to the containing type

The example

using System;

class MyClass

     public MyClass(int value)

     ~MyClass()

     public const int MyConst = 12;

     public int MyField = 34;

     public void MyMethod()

     public int MyProperty

           set
     }

     public int this[int index]

           set ] = ', index, value);
           }
     }

     public event EventHandler MyEvent;

     public static MyClass operator+(MyClass a, MyClass b)

     internal class MyNestedClass
    
}

shows a class that contains each kind of member. The example

class Test
', MyClass.MyConst);

           // Field usage
           a.MyField++;
           Console.WriteLine('a.MyField = ', a.MyField);

           // Method usage
           a.MyMethod();

           // Property usage
           a.MyProperty++;
           Console.WriteLine('a.MyProperty = ', a.MyProperty);

           // Indexer usage
           a[3] = a[1] = a[2];
           Console.WriteLine('a[3] = ', a[3]);

           // Event usage
           a.MyEvent += new EventHandler(MyHandler);

           // Overloaded operator usage
           MyClass c = a + b;
     }

     static void MyHandler(object sender, EventArgs e)

     internal class MyNestedClass
    
}

shows uses of these members.

Constants

A constant is a class member that represents a constant value: a value that can be computed at compile-time. Constants are permitted to depend on other constants within the same program as long as there are no circular dependencies. The rules governing constant expressions are defined in constant expression §7.15. The example

class Constants

shows a class named Constants that has two public constants.

Even though constants are considered static members, a constant declaration neither requires nor allows the static modifier. Constants can be accessed through the class, as in

class Test
{
     static void Main() {
           Console.WriteLine(', ', Constants.A, Constants.B);
     }
}

which prints out the values of Constants.A and Constants.B.

Fields

A field is a member that represents a variable associated with an object or class. The example

class Color

    
}

shows a Color class that has internal instance fields named redPart, bluePart, and greenPart. Fields can also be static, as shown in the example

class Color

which shows static fields for Red, Blue, Green, and White.

Static fields are not a perfect match for this scenario. The fields are initialized at some point before they are used, but after this initialization there is nothing to stop a client from changing them. Such a modification could cause unpredictable errors in other programs that use Color and assume that the values do not change. Readonly fields can be used to prevent such problems. Assignments to a readonly field can only occur as part of the declaration, or in an instance or static constructor in the same class. A static readonly field can be assigned in a static constructor, and a non-static readonly field can be assigned in an instance constructor. Thus, the Color class can be enhanced by adding the readonly modifier to the static fields:

class Color

     public static readonly Color Red = new Color(0xFF, 0, 0);
     public static readonly Color Blue = new Color(0, 0xFF, 0);
     public static readonly Color Green = new Color(0, 0, 0xFF);
     public static readonly Color White = new Color(0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF);
}

Methods

A method is a member that implements a computation or action that can be performed by an object or class. Methods have a list of formal parameters (which may be empty), a return value (or void), and are either static or non-static. Static methods are accessed through the class. Non-static methods, which are also called instance methods, are accessed through instances of the class. The example

using System;

public class Stack

     public static Stack Flip(Stack s)

     public object Pop()

     public void Push(object o)

     public override string ToString()

    
}

class Test

}

shows a Stack that has several static methods (Clone and Flip) and several instance methods (Push, Pop, and ToString).



Methods can be overloaded, which means that multiple methods may have the same name so long as they have unique signatures. The signature of a method consists of the name of the method and the number, modifiers, and types of its formal parameters. The signature of a method does not include the return type. The example

class Test

     static void F(object o)

     static void F(int value)

     static void F(ref int value)

     static void F(out int value)

     static void F(int a, int b)

     static void F(int[] values)

     static void Main() );
     }
}

shows a class with a number of methods named F. The output of the program is

F()
F(int)
F(ref int)
F(out int)
F(object)
F(int, int)
F(int[])

Properties

A property is a member that provides access to a characteristic of an object or a class. Examples of properties include the length of a string, the size of a font, the caption of a window, the name of a customer, and so on. Properties are a natural extension of fields. Both are named members with associated types, and the syntax for accessing fields and properties is the same. However, unlike fields, properties do not denote storage locations. Instead, properties have accessors that specify the statements to be executed when their values are read or written.

Properties are defined with property declarations. The first part of a property declaration looks quite similar to a field declaration. The second part includes a get accessor and/or a set accessor. In the example below, the Button class defines a Caption property.

public class Button

           set
     }
}

Properties that can be both read and written, such as  Caption, include both get and set accessors. The get accessor is called when the property’s value is read; the set accessor is called when the property’s value is written. In a set accessor, the new value for the property is made available via an implicit parameter named value.

The declaration of properties is real value of properties is seen when they are used. For example, the Caption property can be read and written in the same way that fields can be read and written:

Button b = new Button();

b.Caption = 'ABC';         // set; causes repaint

string s = b.Caption; // get

b.Caption += 'DEF”;        // get & set; causes repaint

Events

An event is a member that enables an object or class to provide notifications. A class defines an event by providing an event declaration, which resembles a field declaration, though with an added event keyword, and an optional set of event accessors. The type of this declaration must be a delegate type.

An instance of a delegate type encapsulates one or more callable entities. For instance methods, a callable entity consists of an instance and a method on that instance. For static methods, a callable entity consists of just a method. Given a delegate instance and an appropriate set of arguments, one can invoke all of that delegate instance’s methods with that set of arguments.

In the example

public delegate void EventHandler(object sender, System.EventArgs e);

public class Button

}

the Button class defines a Click event of type EventHandler. Inside the Button class, the Click member corresponds exactly to a private field of type EventHandler. However, outside the Button class, the Click member can only be used on the left hand side of the += and -= operators. The += operator adds a handler for the event, and the -= operator removes a handler for the event. The example

using System;

public class Form1

     Button Button1 = new Button();

     void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)

     public void Disconnect()
}

shows a Form1 class that adds Button1_Click as an event handler for Button1’s Click event. In the Disconnect method, the event handler is removed.

For a simple event declaration such as

public event EventHandler Click;

the compiler automatically provides the implementation underlying the += and -= operators.

An implementer who wants more control can get it by explicitly providing add and remove accessors. For example, the Button class could be rewritten as follows:

public class Button

                remove
           }
}

This change has no effect on client code, but allows the Button class more implementation flexibility. For example, the event handler for Click need not be represented by a field.

Operators

An operator is a member that defines the meaning of an expression operator that can be applied to instances of the class. There are three kinds of operators that can be defined: unary operators, binary operators, and conversion operators.

The following example defines a Digit type that represents decimal digits—integral values between 0 and 9.

using System;

public struct Digit

     public Digit(int value): this((byte) value)

     public static implicit operator byte(Digit d)

     public static explicit operator Digit(byte b)

     public static Digit operator+(Digit a, Digit b)

     public static Digit operator-(Digit a, Digit b)

     public static bool operator==(Digit a, Digit b)

     public static bool operator!=(Digit a, Digit b)

     public override bool Equals(object value)

     public override int GetHashCode()

     public override string ToString()
}

class Test
{
     static void Main() {
           Digit a = (Digit) 5;
           Digit b = (Digit) 3;
           Digit plus = a + b;
           Digit minus = a – b;
           bool equals = (a == b);
           Console.WriteLine(' + = ', a, b, plus);
           Console.WriteLine(' - = ', a, b, minus);
           Console.WriteLine(' == = ', a, b, equals);
     }
}

The Digit type defines the following operators:

An implicit conversion operator from Digit to byte.



An explicit conversion operator from byte to Digit.

An addition operator that adds two Digit values and returns a Digit value.

A subtraction operator that subtracts one Digit value from another, and returns a Digit value.

The equality (==) and inequality (!=) operators, which compare two Digit values.

Indexers

An indexer is a member that enables an object to be indexed in the same way as an array. Whereas properties enable field-like access, indexers enable array-like access.

As an example, consider the Stack class presented earlier. This class might want to expose array-like access so that it is possible to inspect or alter the items on the stack without performing unnecessary Push and Pop operations. The Stack is implemented as a linked list, but wants to provide the convenience of array access.

Indexer declarations are similar to property declarations, with the main differences being that indexers are nameless (the “name” used in the declaration is this, since this is being indexed) and that indexers include indexing parameters. The indexing parameters are provided between square brackets. The example

using System;

public class Stack

           return temp;
     }

     public object this[int index]

           set
     }

    
}

class Test

}

shows an indexer for the Stack class.

Instance constructors

An instance constructor is a member that implements the actions required to initialize an instance of a class.

The example

using System;

class Point

     public Point(double x, double y)

     public static double Distance(Point a, Point b)

     public override string ToString() {
           return string.Format('(, )', x, y);
     }
}

class Test
{
     static void Main() {
           Point a = new Point();
           Point b = new Point(3, 4);
           double d = Point.Distance(a, b);
           Console.WriteLine('Distance from to is ', a, b, d);
     }
}

shows a Point class that provides two public instance constructors. One instance constructor takes no arguments, and the other takes two double arguments.

If no instance constructor is supplied for a class, then an empty instance constructor with no parameters is automatically provided.

Destructors

A destructor is a member that implements the actions required to destruct an instance of a class. Destructors cannot have parameters, cannot have accessibility modifiers, and cannot be called explicitly. The destructor for an instance is called automatically during garbage collection.

The example

using System;

class Point
{
     public double x, y;

     public Point(double x, double y)

     ~Point() {
           Console.WriteLine('Destructed ', this);
     }

     public override string ToString() {
           return string.Format('(, )', x, y);
     }
}

shows a Point class with a destructor.

Static constructors

A static constructor is a member that implements the actions required to initialize a class. Static constructors cannot have parameters, cannot have accessibility modifiers, and cannot be called explicitly. The static constructor for a class is called automatically.

The example

using System.Data;

class Employee

     public string Name;
     public decimal Salary;

    
}

shows an Employee class with a static constructor that initializes a static field.

Inheritance

Classes support single inheritance, and the type object is the ultimate base class for all classes.

The classes shown in earlier examples all implicitly derive from object. The example

class A

}

shows a class A that implicitly derives from object. The example

class B: A

}

class Test

}   

shows a class B that derives from A. The class B inherits A’s F method, and introduces a G method of its own.

Methods, properties, and indexers can be virtual, which means that their implementation can be overridden in derived classes. The example

using System;

class A

}

class B: A

}

class Test

}   

shows a class A with a virtual method F, and a class B that overrides F. The overriding method in B contains a call, base.F(), which calls the overridden method in A.

A class can indicate that it is incomplete, and is intended only as a base class for other classes, by including the abstract modifier. Such a class is called an abstract class. An abstract class can specify abstract members—members that a non-abstract derived class must implement. The example

using System;

abstract class A

class B: A

}

class Test

}

introduces an abstract method F in the abstract class A. The non-abstract class B provides an implementation for this method.



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