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Structs

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Structs

The list of similarities between classes and structs is long—structs can implement interfaces, and can have the same kinds of members as classes. Structs differ from classes in several important ways, however: structs are value types rather than reference types, and inheritance is not supported for structs. Struct values are stored either “on the stack” or “in-line”. Careful programmers can sometimes enhance performance through judicious use of structs.



For example, the use of a struct rather than a class for a Point can make a large difference in the number of memory allocations performed by a program. The program below creates and initializes an array of 100 points. With Point implemented as a class, the program instantiates 101 separate objects—one for the array and one each for the 100 elements.

class Point

}

class Test

}

If Point is instead implemented as a struct, as in

struct Point

}

then the test program instantiates just one object—the one for the array. The Point instances are allocated in-line within the array. This optimization can be misused. Using structs instead of classes can also make a program slower and fatter, as passing a struct instance as a value parameter causes a copy of the struct to be created. There is no substitute for careful data structure and algorithm design.









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