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|Calculatoare||Corel draw||Dot net||Excel||Fox pro||Frontpage||Hardware|
|Php||Power point||Retele calculatoare||Sql||Tutorials||Webdesign||Windows|
FEDORA version differences
The book primarily covers the latest versions of Fedora Linux, but many systems
administrators still use older versions. This appendix lists a number of
features in configuration files and quirks in the operation of some of the older
versions of Fedora/Red Hat Linux.
There are some well known differences in the configuration of the VSFTP
package for version 8.0 and earlier of Red Hat/Fedora Linux.
For one, the starting and stopping of VSFTP is controlled by xinetd via
the /etc/xinetd.d/vsftpd file. VSFTP is deactivated by default, so you’ll have
to edit this file to start the program. Make sure the contents look like the
example. The disable feature must be set to no to accept connections.
Linux will automatically edit this file to enable VSFTPD and restart
xinetd with the chkconfig command.
[root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig vsftpd on
Naturally, to disable VSFTP once again, you’ll use the chkconfig vsftpd
41Harrison_Apdx3.qxd 2/25/05 2:27 PM Page 617
There can be problems when upgrading from Red Hat 7.3 to 8.0 while maintaining the same dhcpd.conf file. You might run into a DHCP server error. This startup error is caused by not having this line at the very top of your /etc/dhcpd.conf file:
The error might look like:
Starting dhcpd: Internet Software Consortium DHCP Server V3.0pl1
Copyright 1995-2001 Internet Software Consortium.
All rights reserved.
For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/products/DHCP
** You must add a ddns-update-style statement to /etc/dhcpd.conf.
To get the same behaviour as in 3.0b2pl11 and previous
versions, add a line that says “ddns-update-style ad-hoc;”
Please read the dhcpd.conf manual page for more information. **
You’ll notice some differences running BIND on older versions of Red Hat/Fedora Linux. For example, Red Hat 9 doesn’t shutdown BIND cleanly
and gives a “named: already running” error when you try to restart it:
[root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.d/named restart
named: already running[root@bigboy tmp]#
The pkill command enables you to kill processes by referring to them by name instead of their process ID number. In this case, you can forcefully stop the named daemon and restart it by issuing the command pkill named followed by /etc/init.d/named start.
[root@bigboy tmp]# pkill named
pkill: 29988 - No such process
pkill: 29992 - No such process
[root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.d/named start
618 Fedora Version Differences Appendix III
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Some of the older versions of the Fedora stream of Linux had different methods
of updating their routes. For example, in Red Hat versions 8 and 9, the file
named /etc/sysconfig/static-routes was used to add permanent static routes
that would be present after a reboot. The format is similar to that of the route
command except that the interface comes first and the switches have no
dashes in front of them. Here is a sample entry for a route to 10.0.0.0 via the
wlan0 net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 192.168.1.254
The /etc/sysconfig/static-routes file is set to be deprecated in future
releases, and you should consider the alternative solutions for newer operating
In Red Hat/Fedora 9 and earlier, iptables gave a different status message
when the firewall was stopped. Instead of saying stopped, it presented a rule
set that allowed all traffic through.
[root@bigboy tmp]# service iptables status
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION DIFFERENCES
With some older Red Hat Linux versions, source RPM files are first exported
into the directory /usr/src/redhat/SPECS with the rpm command. You then have
to run the rpm command again to compile the source files into a regular RPM
file, which will be placed in either the /usr/src/packages/RPMS/i386/ or the
/usr/src/redhat/RPMS/i386/ directories. You then have to install the new RPM
file from this directory.
Software Installation Differences 619
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[root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh filename.src.rpm
[root@bigboy tmp]# cd /usr/src/redhat/SPECS
[root@bigboy SPECS]# rpm -ba filename
[root@bigboy SPECS]# cd /usr/src/redhat/RPM/i386
[root@bigboy i386]# rpm -Uvh filename.rpm
WIRELESS NETWORKING DIFFERENCES
Under version 8.0 of Red Hat I have seen the kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia RPM
installation give errors stating that the kernel-pcmcia-cs RPM hadn’t been
previously installed even when it had been. Installing the RPM with --force
and --nodeps switches does the trick by forcing the installation while not
checking for dependencies. Always remember that under normal circumstances
this wouldn’t be a good idea, error messages are there for a reason.
[root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia-0.1.15-6.i686.rpm
error: Failed dependencies:
kernel-pcmcia-cs is needed by kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia-0.1.15-6
[root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh --force --nodeps kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia-
Preparing ################################## [100%]
1:kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia ################################## [100%]
Adding prism2_cs alias to /etc/modules.conf file
Shutting down PCMCIA services: cardmgr modules.
Starting PCMCIA services: modules cardmgr.
The default wlan0 network configuration is DHCP. Adjust accordingly.
ACHTUNG! ATTENTION! WARNING!
YOU MUST configure /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng.opts to match WAP settings!!!
Linux-WLAN File Locations Using Red Hat 8.0 RPMs
The main Linux-WLAN configuration file for version 8.0 is the /etc/wlan.conf
file (PCI type NIC) or your /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng.opts (PCMCIA type NICs)
configuration file. Locate the lines containing ssid=linux_wlan, and set the
SSID to whatever value you’ve decided to use on your wireless LAN. This
example uses homenet.
Also modify the IS_ADHOC option to make your NIC either support Ad-hoc
mode for peer-to-peer networks or Infrastructure mode if you are using a WAP.
Here is a sample snippet:
#=======SELECT STATION MODE===================
IS_ADHOC=n # y|n, y - adhoc, n - infrastructure
620 Fedora Version Differences Appendix III
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#=======INFRASTRUCTURE STATION START===================
# SSID is all we have for now
AuthType=”opensystem” # opensystem | sharedkey (requires WEP)
# Use DesiredSSID=”” to associate with any AP in range
You will need to take the several differences into account when configuring
MRTG for various versions of Fedora and Red Hat.
In Red Hat 9 and older, MRTG files are located in the /var/www/html/mrtg/. In
Fedora Core, the files are located in the /var/www/mrtg/ directory. In both cases,
the MRTG graphs can be accessed using a default Apache installation via the
indexmaker MRTG_LIB Errors with Red Hat 9 and 8.0
Red Hat versions 8 and 9 give an error when running indexmaker:
[root@bigboy mrtg]# indexmaker --output=index.html
Can’t locate package $VERSION for @MRTG_lib::ISA at
/usr/bin/indexmaker line 49
main::BEGIN() called at /usr/bin/../lib/mrtg2/MRTG_lib.pm line 49
eval called at /usr/bin/../lib/mrtg2/MRTG_lib.pm line 49
This is caused by an incompatibility between MRTG and PERL 5.8,
which MRTG uses to generate files. The MRTG site claims this was fixed in
version 2.9.22, but this version of MRTG seems to fail under Red Hat.
The fix is simple: Edit the file /usr/lib/mrtg2/MRTG_lib.pm, replacing the
@ISA = qw(Exporter $VERSION);
@ISA = qw(Exporter);
You’ll then have to run indexmaker again.
MRTG Differences 621
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Precedence Bitwise Error with Red Hat 9
indexmaker may also give an error related to a bitwise operation. It doesn’t
seem to affect the operation of MRTG or the HTML index page output. For
Possible precedence problem on bitwise | operator at
/usr/bin/../lib/mrtg2/BER.pm line 601
Older versions of Webalizer, especially those found with Red Hat 8.0 and earlier,
have a tendency to create this message in your logs:
Error: Unable to open DNS cache file /var/lib/webalizer/dns_cache.db
According to the documentation on Webalizer’s Web site, this is not a critical
error. You can make the software run in quiet mode by editing the configuration
file and changing the Quiet parameter to yes:
Adauga cod HTML in site