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SUBSTANTIVUL IN ENGLEZA

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ADVERBUL

TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

: substantivul in engleza : caracteristicile substantivelor nenumarabile in engleza : substantivele nenumarabile in limba engleza : propozitii cu substantive nenumarabile in engleza :

I.                  SUBSTANTIVUL

Substantivele au diferite functii intr-o propozitie.

Ele pot fi:

            Subiectul sau complementul direct sau indirect al unui verb

            Numele predicativ al verbelor be, become si seem

            Complement prepozitional

            In cazul genitiv (Genitivul saxon sau sintetic)

In engleza substantivele au in toate aceste cazuri aceeasi forma – cu exceptia genitivului sintetic.

·         Nota

In engleza toate propozitiile trebuie sa aiba subiect. Subiectul poate fi un substantiv sau un pronume.

Substantivele in limba engleza se pot imparti in patru tipuri:

Substantive proprii: Ann, China, Paris, Dr Moody

Substantive comune: doll, apple, plate, tree

Substantive abstracte: happiness, love, honesty, fear

Substantive colective: family, group, herd, staff

·         Nota

Substantivele proprii se scriu intotdeauna cu initiala majuscula.

Substantivele limbii engleze pot varia dupa gen si numar.

GENUL

1.      Cele mai multe substantive au aceeasi forma pentru toate genurile.

friend   child   doctor   cousin   baby   teenager    artist   cook

dancer   driver   teacher

genul poate fi indicat de un pronume insotitor.

My friend sent her son a present.

The doctor opened his bag.

Child si baby pot fi considerate neutre.

The baby closed its eyes and fell asleep.

Numele de tari sunt si ele considerate neutre.

Lately, Kenya has greatly improved its economy.

2.      Multe substantive care denumesc oameni si animale au o forma feminina si una masculina

Son, daughter        nephew, niece              uncle, aunt 

Actor, actress         waiter, waitress                        gentleman, lady

Father, mother       husband, wife              man, woman

Bachelor, spinster  heir, heirwss                hero, heroine

Male, female          bull, cow                      rooster, hen

Genul poate fi indicat combinand substantive fara gen cu: boy, girl, male, female, man, woman

Boyfriend, girlfriend                      male pilot, female pilot

Man dentist, woman dentist                       policeman, policewoman

·         Nota

Recent, in incercarea de a elimina “discriminarea de gen”, exista o tendinta de a inlocui “terminatiile” man si woman cu person sau de a le elimina complet. In alte cazuri au fost create alte expresii sau alte cuvinte lipsite de gen.

Vechea folosire                             Noua folosire

Salesman, saleswoman                  salesperson

Chairman, chairwoman                  chairperson, chair

Steward, stewardess                                   flight attendant

NUMARUL

In enlgeza substantivele se impart in doua categorii: numarabile si nenumarabile.

Substantivele numarabile se pot numara, adica au numar. Pot avea atat forme de singular cat si de plural. La singular pot fi precedate de a(n) sau one.

Plural

Forme regulate:

1.      La majoritatea substantivelor se adauga –s formei de singular.

Book, books          day, days         house, houses

Donkey, donkeys  safe, safes        girl, girls

2.      Substantivele terminate in o, ch, sh, s sau x primesc –es.

Potato, potatoes         church, churches     brush, brushes

Bus, buses      box, boxes              kiss, kisses

3.      Substantivele terminate in consoana + y pierd pe y si primesc –ies.

Baby, babies          factory, factories         fly, flies

·         Nota

Exista exceptii: kilo, kilos    photo, photos     piano, pianos   radio, radios    soprano, sopranos

Forme neregulate

1.      Unele substantive elimina –f / fe de la final si primesc –ves.

Calf, calves                        wife, wives       wolf, wolves

Loaf, loaves                       leaf, leaves       life, lives

Shelf, shelves         thief, thieves     knife, knives     self, selves

2.      Unele substantive isi modifica vocalele.

Foot, feet   tooth, teeth       goose, geese    man, men

Woman, women     mouse, mice     louse, lice

·         Nota

Atentie!  Child, children                      person, people

3.      Unele substantive au aceeasi forma la singular si la plural:

Sheep,deer, aircraft, trout, series, species, salmon, means, fish, headquarters

4.      Unele substantive exista numai la forma de plural.

Clothes, pants, pyjamas, scissors, glasses, scales, stairs, savings, outskirts, grounds, goods, earnings, valuables, surroundings, arms (weapons), archives, belongings, proceeds, wages, premises, the Middle Ages, braces, customs, trousers

·         Nota

Police este considerat a fi la plural.

The police are inspecting their house.

·         Nota

Aceste substantive nu sunt Niciodata precedate de numere (one, two, three etc.). pentru a indica numarul, folositi some, a little, etc. sau pair/set, group etc. + of.

Ten pairs of pants, three sets of archives, a roomful of belongings etc.

5.      Unele substantive imprumutate pastreaza pluralul greces, italian sau latin.

Crisis, crises          cactus, cacti     phenomenon, phenomena

Datum, data                       libretto, libretti             fungus, fungi

Nucleus, nuclei      stimulus, stimuli           criterion, criteria

Basis, bases                       thesis, theses                oasis, oases

Axis, axes               medium, media                        bacterium, bacteria

·         Nota

Engleza moderna foloseste adesea data, media si bacteria cu sens plural dar cu un verb la singular

            The latest data is highly encouraging.

6.      Numele de familie se pot folosi la plural pentru a indica intreaga familie. Numelui i se adauga un –s. Nu au loc schimbari de ortografie.

The Kennedys are world-famous.

7.      Substantivele colective se refera la un grup de oameni sau lucruri. Sunt in mod normal folosite la singular. In engleza britanica se pot folosi atat verbe la singular cat si la plural. In engleza americana au intotdeauna un verb la singular.

Family       aristocracy      enemy  company          council

Nobility      gouvernment    group   proletariat       press

Opposition gang    jury      community       army    public

Audience    crew     navy     staff      team     committee       

The jury are about to give their verdict. (engleza britanica)

The public is opposed to the new tax.

·         Nota

Spre deosebire de substantivele numarabile normale, substantivele colective nu pot fi direct precedate de numere sau “some”.

        Five OF THE group stayed past midnight.

        Some OF THE opposition switched sides.

·         Nota

Ocazional substantivele colective sunt folosite la plural si sunt numarabile.

        Romeo and Juliet came from two feuding families.

        Only two teams can get to the finals.

Substantivele nenumarabile nu pot fi numarate, adica nu au numar. De obicei au numai forma de singular. Nu pot fi precedate de a(n) sau de numere.

Substantivele nenumarabile se impart in urmatoarele grupuri:

1.      substantive concrete

water         wood    metal    paper   grass    glass    oil

silver          gold     sand     snow    rain      bread   milk

coffee         butter   wine     fire       food     salt      

2.      substantive abstracte

love            beauty  hope    relief    experience       advice

purity         joy       freedom           information      courage

design        duty     capacity           education         evil

time            patience           reality              intelligence

     

·         Nota

Work este nenumarabil dar job este numarabil:

Harriet is looking for work. John has found two jobs.

Works inseamna: fabrica, parte mecanica, productie literara, fapte sau acte.

Mother Theresa of Calcutta is known for her good works.

·         Nota

Iata cateva substantive nenumarabile care in alte limbi se pot deseori numara:

Advice              baggage          luggage                       furniture

Damage           hair      shopping          homework        information

Knowledge       money  weather                        research          progress

Business           spaghetti          news    equipment

3.      Substantive verbale (gerunzii sau verbe in –ing).

Camping    dancing              shopping       jogging                        singing

Smoking is bad for your health.

4.      Nume de limbi

German     English                        Chinese                        Italian  Spanish

5.      Unele nume de boli, stiinte si jocuri au forma de plural dar in mod normal primesc un verb la singular. Sunt considerate nenumarabile.

Measles     mumps             billiards           dominoes

Physics      politics             ethics               acoustics

Statistics    mathematics     news                electronics

Mathematics is an important subiect.

·         Nota

Unele substantive sunt atat numarabile cat si nenumarabile. Dar sensul lor e diferit in fiecare caz.

numarabile                              nenumarabile

a paper                                                paper

a light                                      light

a wood                                     wood

a glass                                     glass

an iron                                     iron

a hair                                       hair

He buys a paper everyday. The student had written an interesting paper on Keats. Paper is made of wood pulp.

·         Nota

Substantivele nenumarabile nu sunt niciodata precedate de numere (a, an, one, two, three etc). Iata cateva expresii folosite pentru a indica numarul/cantitatea:

A piece of information/furniture/advice/equipment/glass/paper/news

A type of atmosphere/behaviour/violence

An item of luggage/news/baggage

A case of mumps/measles/flu

A ray of hope/sunshine

A lot of strenght/security

Adjective folosite ca substantive

Folositi the + adjectiv pentru:

1.      grupuri de persoane cu aceleasi caracteristici. Urmeaza un verb la plural.

The rich are not always as happy as we imagine.

2.      calitate impersonala. Urmeaza un verb la singular.

The impossible has strong attraction for some people.

3.      nationalitate (daca exista un cuvant separat).

The French                        the Chinese      the English       the Japanese

Dar

The Poles               the Germans    the Scots          the Finns

Substantive compuse

Substantivele compuse sunt formate din doua sau mai multe cuvinte care, impreuna, creeaza un nou substantiv cu un nou sens

Babysitter        chec-kup          swimming pool          mother-in-law

Substantivele compuse pot fi:

1.      scrise ca un singur cuvant, cuvinte separate sau cu cratima. Daca aveti indoieli cel mai bine e sa consultati intotdeauna dictionarul.

Armchair   can opener      cover-up          one-way street

2.      numarabile                        sau       nenumarabile

alarm clock                                                fast food

compact disc                                  human race

toothbrush                                     drinking water

waiting room                                 welfare state

yellow pages                                  pocket money

3.      compuse din doua substantive. Primul substantiv este folosit ca adjectiv si este la singular.

Chain factory (a factory for chains)

Cotton skirt (a skirt made of coton)

A ten-year-old girl (a girl who is ten years old)

Car accident (accident involving cars)

A two-week cruise (a cruise lasting two weeks)

4.      substantivele compuse numarabile formeaza pluralul aplicand regulile normale de plural ultimului substantiv.

Mail boxes             dish washers    sleeping bags   T-shirts

·         Nota

Uneori (dar rar) substantivele la plural pot fi folosite ca adjective:

Sports car                    customs department     clothes store

Sales divison                savings bank                news item

5.      substantivele compuse formate din verbe complexe sau substantive legate cu of si in au plurale neregulate.

Passers-by              runners-up       sisters-in-law   

Lilies of the valley

                         

Posesia: of si genitivul sintetic

Posesia se poate exprima folosind:

1.      OF

In multe cazuri folosim of pentru a exprima posesia. Substantivele, folosite ca adjective, pot si ele uneori indica posesia.

Door of the car                              car door

Frame of the picture                      picture frame

Headquarters of the company       company headquarters

The color of the wall                      the wall color

Needles of the pine tree                 pine tree needles

Engine of the car                           car engine

·         Nota

Adjectivele nu au numar. Substantivele care devin adjective sunt la singular.

The tops of the boxes.                         The box tops

2.      Genitivul sintetic

In cazul persoanelor si animalelor folosim genitivul sintetic pentru a exprima posesia.

Forma: formati genitivul saxon adaugand ‘s sau substantivelor

‘s                                                        

toate substantivele singulare               substantivele plurale terminate

substantivele plurale care                    in –s

NU se termina in –s

Nancy’s                                               the teachers’

James’s                                                            the Gallaghers’

His mother’s                                        the Waleses

My children’s                                      his sisters'

Utilizare: folositi genitivul sintetic:

1.      pentru a exprima posesia cu referire la persoane si animale

Helen’s mother is ill.

The old horse’s mane is still very beautiful.         

2.      in expresii temporale

one week’s pay      today’s news                a year’s leave

two hour’s wait      a month’s holiday        yesterday’s partythe The plane had an hour’s delay.

In two weeks’ time I’ll be lying on the beach in Bali.        

3.      cu pronume nehotarate ca: everybody, someone, anybody, anyone, nobody, no one – mai ales daca sunt insotite de else.

It’s nobody’s fault.

That must be somebody else’s bag.           

4.      cu anumite institutii, grupuri, expresii geografice

The government’s decision will be made public tomorrow.

The world’s lakes and rivers are in a disastruous condition.

5.      singur, cand al doilea substantiv inseamna: store, shop, studio, office, restaurant, church sau cathedral.

Go and buy a loaf of bread at the baker’s (shop).

Their weeding was at St.Patrick’s (cathedral).      

6.      cu OF (posesiv dublu).

Mandy is a friend of Ann’s. = Mandy is one of Ann’s friends.

·         Nota

Obiectul posedat pierde articolele si pronumele care il preced cand este folosit cu un genitiv sintetic.

His child owns THAT bicycle. It is broken. His child’s bicycle is broken.

·         Nota

NU folosim genitivul sintetic:

Cu adjective folosite ca substantive:

He intends to improve the condition of the poor.

Cand posesorul este determinat de propozitii subordonate sau expresii lungi.

I’d like you to meet the mother of the boy who won first prize.

Exercitii:

Alegeti forma potrivita a verbelor. Observati diferenta de sens a substantivelor care primesc atat verbe la singular cat si la plural.

1. His phonetics is/are much better than hers. 2. My trousers is/are flared. 3. The scissors is/are lost for ever, I guess. 4. Statistics is/are his favourite study. 5. Cod eats/eat a variety of food. 6. Acoustics is/are a branch of physics. 7. The new statistics shows/show a great increase in manufactured goods. 8. Youth today is/are turning away from the church. 9. What is/are the most efficient means of dealing with this problem? 10. The pliers is/are on the table. 11. The acoustics of the National Theatre Hall is/are excellent. 12. Politics is/are the art of the possible. 13. Poultry was/were expensive that winter. 14. What is/are your politics? 15. The people of the country lives/live beyond their means. 16. He had no time for visitors while the poultry was/were being fed. 17. Everybody’s means is/are being tested. 18. Mathematics is/are given top priority nowadays. 19. What is/are cattle good for? 20. The police has/have made no arrest yet. 21. Fresh-water fish includes/include salmon, trout, carp and eels. 22. Gymnastics is/are not given enough attention in our school. 23. The Italian clergy was/were opposed to divorce. 24. Advice is/are readily given on all the technical aspects.

Combinati expresiile partitive din coloana A cu substantivele nenumarabile din coloana B. Traduceti-le in limba romana.

A                                                         B

An article of                                                    sugar

A bar of                                                           meat

A cake of                                                         bread

A grain of                                                        paper

A heap of                                                        soap

An item of                                                       chocolate

A loaf of                                                          land

A lump of                                                        rice

A pice of                                                         rubbish

A pile of                                                          evidence

A sheet of                                                        information

A slice of                                                         advice

A strip of                                                         luggage

A word of                                                        furniture

                                                                        News

Cheia exercitiilor:

·         1. Are 2. Are 3. Are 4. Is 5. Eat 6. Is 7. Show 8. Are 9. Is 10. Are 11. Are 12. Is 13. Was 14. Are 15. Live 16. Were 17. Are 18. Is 19. Are 20. Have 21. Include 22. Are 23. Were 24. Is

·         a lump / a piece of sugar (o bucata de zahar)

a piece of meat  (o bucata de carne)

a slice / loaf of bread (o felie de paine / o franzela, o paine)

a sheet / piece of paper (o foaie / bucata de hartie)

a cake / bar of soap  (un sapun)

a bar / piece of chocolate (un baton de ciocolata)

a piece / strip of land (o bucata, o fisie de pamant)

a grain of rice (un bob de orez)

a pile / heap of rubbish (o gramada de gunoi)

a piece of evidence (o proba)

a piece / an item of information (o informatie)

a piece / word of advice (un sfat)

a piece of luggage (un bagaj)

a piece / an article of furniture (o piesa de mobilier)

a piece / an item of news (o stire)

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