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The Personal Pronoum

Gramatica

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ADVERBUL IN ENGLEZA

The Personal Pronoum

Pronumele este partea de vorbire care tine locul unui substantiv.




Pronumele personal este acel pronume care desemneaza anumite persoane si in limba engleza are urmatoarele forme:

Persoana

Nominativ

Dativ

Acuzativ

I

I

(to) me

me

II

You

(to) you

you

III – m

He

(to) him

him

III – f

She

(to) her

her

III – n

It

(to) it

it

I

We

(to) us

us

II

You

(to) you

you

III

They

(to) them

them

Text Box: Pronumele personal la persoana I sg. (I) se scrie intotdeauna cu litera mare oricare ar fi locul lui in propozitie.

Folosiri:

Pronumele personal are functia de subiect sau nume predicativ in Nominativ.

a)    He knows the rules. – subiect

b)    Who is it ? It is I! – nume predicativ

Pronumele in cazul Acuzativ este folosit cu functia sintactica de complement direct sau complement indirect

a)     I see him. – complement direct

b)    I work for him. – complement indirect

c)     I don’t want to talk to her. – complement indirect

Pronumele personal in Dativ are functia sintactica de complement indirect

a)     I give a book to him. – complement indirect

b)    I give him a book. – complement indirect (trece in fata CD dar dispare prepozitia).

Pronumele personal it se foloseste

a)     Pentru a inlocui substantive ce denumesc lucruri, animale

The book is interesting. It is on the table.

b)    in expresii care denumesc timpul, vremea, distanta, temperatura

It is five o’clock. - timpul

How far is Bucarest ? It is 180 Km. – distanta

It is cold. – temperaturi

It snows. - vreme

I.          Pronume si adjective demonstrative

Forma

Singular

Plural

de apropiere

this

these

de departare

that

those

Adjectivele demonstrative sunt singurele care se acorda in numar cu substantivul.

II.       Adjective si pronume cantitative:

some; any; no (folosite ca adjective);

none (folosit doar ca pronume);

much (folosit pentru a exprima cantitatea);

many (folosit pentru a exprima numarul).

Observatii:

Some – se foloseste in propozitii cu verbul la afirmativ.

I have some books.

Any – se foloseste in propozitii cu verbul la negativ sau interogativ.

Have you any books ?

I haven’t any books.

No – se foloseste in propozitii cu verbul la afirmativ, acest adjectiv avand sens negativ

Text Box: In limba engleza intr-o propoziie nu pot exista doua negatii.
I have no books.

III.           Adjective si pronume posesive

Forma

Adjective

Pronume

I

my

mine

II

your

yours

III – m

his

his

III – f

her

hers

III – n

its

its

I

our

ours

II

your

yours




III

their

theirs

Observatii:

Pronumele posesive sunt folosite pentru a inlocui adjective posesive si substantivele lor:

This is my pencil. It is mine.

in limba engleza adjectivele posesive se acorda in numar si gen cu posesorul:

A boy loves his mother.

A girl loves her father.

Verbul

A) Definitie: Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprima o actiune (a munci), o stare (a dormi), sau modificarea unei stari (a inflori).

B) Clasificari

Din punct de vedere al structurii morfologice verbele se impart in:

a)     Verbe simple: to work; to go;

b)    Verbe compuse: to spotlight = a proiecta;

c)     Verbe cu particula adverbiala: to put up = a se caza;

d)    Verbe cu prepozitie obligatorie: to look at = a privi;

e)     Locutiuni verbale: to take care of = a avea grija de.

Din punct de vedere al sensului lexical verbele se impart in:

a)     Verbe cu sens lexical plin (numite si verbe notionale): to go; to read; to write;

b)    Verbe cu sens lexical redus (in aceasta categorie intrand):

verbe copulative: to be; to appear;

verbe auxiliare: to be; to have; to do; shall; will (marci ale viitorului);

verbe modale – exprima atitudinea vorbitorului fata de enunt: can; may; must.

C) Verbele auxiliare – indeplinesc functia de marca a categoriilor gramaticale, adica ajuta la formarea timpului, aspectului, modului si diatezei.

in limba engleza fiecare timp are doua aspecte: simplu si continuu.

Aspectul continuu se formeaza cu ajutorul auxiliarului “to be”, iar verbul deconjugat primeste terminatia “-ing”.

Diateza pasiva se formeaza intotdeauna cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar “to be”, iar verbul deconjugat este la participiu trecut.

Timpurile perfecte se formeaza intotdeauna cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar “to have” urmat de participiul trecut al verbului deconjugat.

D) Timpul – categoria gramaticala a timpului se refera la ordinea evenimentelor in timp, asa cum este perceputa aceasta de vorbitor in momentul vorbirii.

Momentul vorbirii este momentul prezent. Fata de acest moment evenimentele sunt:

a)    anterioare: Present Perfect; Past Tense; Past Perfect.

b)    posterioare: Future Tenses;

c)     simultane: Present Tense.

Pentru a stabili corect un timp in limba engleza trebuie facuta analiza acestuia luand in considerare trei elemente:

a)     Momentul vorbirii – momentul in care enuntul este pronuntat de vorbitor;

b)    Momentul savarsirii actiunii – momentul in care a avut loc actiunea sau starea;

c)     Momentul de referinta - reprezinta axa timpului pe care se plaseaza vorbitorul in perceperea evenimentului (se foloseste pentru stabilirea timpurilor perfecte).

E) Verbele auxiliare “to be” si “to have” conjugate la trecut:

TO BE

TO HAVE

Afirmativ

Interogativ

Negativ

Afirmativ

Interogativ

Negativ

I was

Was I ?

I was not

I had

Had I?

I had not

You were

Were you?

You were not

You had

Had you?

You had not

He    was

Was he ?

He    was not

He had

Had he?

He had not

She was

Was she?

She was not

She had

Had she?

She had not

It was

Was it?

It was not

It had

Had it?

It had not

We were

Were we?

We were not

We had

Had we?

We had not

You were

Wereyou?

You were not

You had

Had you?

You had not

They were

Were they?

They were not

They had

Had they?

They had not



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