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VERBUL ( THE VERB) - CATEGORIILE GRAMATICALE

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VERBUL ( THE VERB)

A. CATEGORIILE GRAMATICALE ( The Grammatical Categories)




I. PERSOANA ( THE PERSON )

sg. pl.

I I we

II You You

III He, she, it They

II. NUMARUL ( THE NUMBER)

Obs. La persoana a III-a sg. verbul primeste la timpul prezent simplu,modul indicativ,terminatia –s sau –es.

Andrew plays football.

He does his homework.

III. DIATEZA ( VOICE )

Diateza activa .( the Active Voice)- subiectul face actiunea.

Andrew came home yesterday.

Diateza pasiva. ( the Passive Voice) -subiectul sufera actiunea savarsita de verb.

The letter is written by Andrew.

Diateza reflexiva – nu este marcata formal in limba engleza ( subiectul face actiunea si el o si sufera).

I wash myself every day.

IV. ASPECTUL ( THE ASPECT)

Aspectul simplu ne arata ca actiunea se repeta sau se face in mod general.

Andrew goes to school every day. t

Aspectul continuu ne arata ca actiunea se desfasoara in mod continuu si neintrerupt intr-o perioada de timp bine definita.

Andrew is going to school now.

Verbe care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu:

verbe care arata sentimente: to love, to hate, to like, to dislike, to detest, to please, to refuse, to prefer, to want, to hope, to wish to satisfy, to regret.

Verbe care arata activitati mentale: to think, to suppose, to belive, to agree, to know, to mean, to forget, to intend, to notice, to remember, to imagine, to expect, to surprise, to need, to understand.

Verbe care arata perceptii senzoriale:to see, to feel, to taste, to hear, to smell, to sound, to look, to look like, to appear.

Verbe care arata o actiune de moment: to begin, to end, to start, to stop.

Verbe modale: can, must, may ,shall, will, ought to, need, dare.

Alte verbe ca: to appear, to be, to belong, to chance, to consist, to contain, to comprise, to cost, to connect, to contribute, to date, to depend, to deserve, to exist, to fail, to have, to hold, to include, to matter, to mean, to possess, to resemble, to suffice, to weigh.

V.TIMPUL (THE TENSE)

Cand actiunea este bine definita in timp avem:

a)       prezent

b)       trecut

c)       viitor

Cand actiunea s-a desfasurat intr-un moment anterior unui timp fix si nu este definita in timp:

a)       prezent perfect

b)       trecut perfect

c)       viitor perfect

VI. MODUL ( THE MOOD)

Moduri personale:

a)       Modul indicativ The Indicative Mood).

b)       Modul subjonctiv. ( The Subjunctive).

c)       Modul conditional. ( The Conditional).

d)       Modul imperativ. ( The Imperative).

Moduri impersonale:

a)       Modul infinitiv. ( The Infinitive).

b)       Modul participiu. ( The Participle).

c)       Modul gerundiv. ( The Gerund).

B. VERBE TRANZITIVE SI VERBE INTRANZITIVE. (Transitive and Intransitive Verbs)

Verbul tranzitiv este verbul dupa care urmeaza in mod obligatoriu un complement direct.

Andrew read Shakespeare’s poems.

Verbul intranzitiv nu primeste complement direct si nici nu are diateza pasiva.

Andrew is reading for his exams.

C. VERBE AUXILIARE. ( AUXILIARY VERBS)

a)       ajuta la formarea unor constructii verbale compuse:



I am singing a song.

b)       nu au inteles de sine statator:

Does he finish his work?

c)       se pun la modul, timpul, numarul si persoana cerute de context:

I have my dress washed.

Verbele auxiliare sunt: TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO, TO LET, SHALL, WILL, SHOULD, WOULD.

D. VERBE MODALE (MODAL VERBS)

a)       sunt verbe speciale:

b)       au echivalenti modali, deoarece nu au toate timpurile si modurile:

c)       nu primesc desinenta –s sau –es la persoana a III-a singular a modului indicativ.

d)       formele interogativa si negativa ale timpurilor prezent si trecut nu sunt formate cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar TO DO.

e)       Nu au forma de infinitiv si verbul care urmeaza dupa un verb modal se pune la infinitivul scurt nu au particula TO nici inaintea lor si nici dupa; exceptie facand verbul OUGHT TO).

Verbele modale si echivalentii lor sunt:

Verb past tense/conditional equivalent

Can could to be able to

Must - to have to

May might to be allowed to

to be permitted to

to be possible to

Shall should -

Will would -

Ought to - -

Need needed -

Dare dared -

Can you speak English?

Father could solve the exercise.

She is able to do that.

You must go now.

May I open the window?

She might go there.

Thomas might have had an accident.

They will do that.

Shall I help her?

The teacher should have corrected the English tests by now.

She would see him tomorrow.

I ought to visit my parents more often.

How dare you do that?

Need I come now?

E. FORMELE VERBULUI VERB FORMS)

1. VERBE REGULATE ( REGULAR VERBS)

- formeaza trecutul si participiul trecut prin adaugarea sufixului –ed la infinitiv.

- prin adaugarea sufixului – ed unele verbe sufera modificari:

to try – tried

to bake – baked

to travel – travelled

2.VERBE NEREGULATE (IRREGULAR VERBS)

a)       care nu sufera nici o modificare in scriere:

to beset to hurt to set

to bet to knit to shed

to bid to let to shut

to broadcast to overcast to slit

to burst to overset to split

to cast to overspread to spread

to cost to put to sweat

to cut to read to thrust

to forecast to recast to upset

to hit to reset

b)       care sufera o singura modificare in scriere:




la past tense si past participle sunt la fel:

abide- abode blend-blent clothe-clad

backbite-backbit bless-blest creep-crept

backslide-backslid breed-bred dare-dared

behold- beheld bring-brought deal-dealt

bend-bent build-built dig-dug

bereave-bereft burn-burnt dream-dreamt

beseech-besought buy-bought dwell-dwelt

bethink-bethought catch-caugth feed-fed

bind-bound cleave-clove feel-felt

bleed-bled cling-clung fight-fought

find-found hamstring-hamstring lay-laid

flee-fled hang-hung lead-led

fling-flung have-had lean-leant

foretell-foretold hear-heard leap-leapt

gainsay-gainsaid heave-heaved learn-learnt

get-got hold-held leave-left

gild-gilt inlay-inlaid lend-lent

gird-girt keep-kept light-lit

grind-ground kneel-knelt lose-lost

make-made overlay-overlaid say-said

mean-meant overleap-overleapt seek-sought

meet-met overshoot-overshot sell-sold

misdeal-misdealt oversleep-overslept send-sent

mislead-misled pay-paid shine-shone

misunderstand-misunderstood rebuild-rebuilt shoe-shod

outshine-outshone relay-relaid shoot-shot

overfeed-overfed rend-rent sit-sat

overhang-overhung repay-repaid sleep-slept

overhear-overheard retell-retold slide-slid

sling-slung stave-stove think-thought

smell-smelt stick-stuck tread-trod

speed-sped sting-stung unbend-unbent

spell-spelt strike-struck undersell-undersold

spend-spent string-strung waylay-waylaid

spell-spilt sunburn-sunburnt wed-wedded

spin-spun sweep-swept weep-wept

spit-spat swing-swung win-won

spoil-spoilt teach-taught wind-wound

stand-stood tell-told withhold-withheld



withstand-withstood

wring-wrung

c) verbe care sufera doua modificari in scriere:

- au forme diferite la infinitive, past tense si past participle

arise-arose-arisen chide-chid

be-was-been choose-chose-chosen

bear-bore-born come-came-come

become-became-become do-did-done

befall-befell-befallen draw-drew-drawn

beget-begot-begotten drink-drank-drunk

begin-began-begun drive-drove-driven

bespeak-bespoke-bespoken eat-ate-eaten

bestride-bestrode-bestrid fall-fell-fallen

betake-betook-betaken fly-flew-flown

bid-bade-bidden forbear-forbore-forborne

bide-bode-bided forbid-forbade-forbidden

bite-bit-bitten forego-forewent-foregone

blow-blew-blown foreknow-foreknew-foreknown

break-broke-broken foresee-foresaw-foreseen

forgive-forgave-forgiven lade-laded-laden

forsake-forsook-forsaken lie-lay-lain

forswear-forswore-forsworn misgive-misgave-misgiven

freeze-froze-frozen mistake-mistook-mistaken

give-gave-given mow-mowed-mown

go-went-gone ourbit-outbade-outbid

grave-graved-graven outdo-outdid-outdone

grow-grew-grown outgo-outwent-outgone

hide-hid-hidden outgrow-outgrew-outgrown

know-knew-known outride-outrode-outridden

outrun-outran-outrun overrun-overran-overrun

outwear-outwore-outworn oversee-oversaw-overseen

overbear-overbore-overborne overtake-overtook-overtaken

overcome-overcame-overcome overthrow-overthrew-overthrown

overdo-overdid-overdone partake-partook-partaken

overdraw-overdrew-overdrawn rid-ridden-rid

overeat-overate-overeaten ride-rode-ridden

overgrow-overgrew-overgrown ring-rang-rung

overlie-overlay-overlain rise-rose-risen

override-overrode-overridden rive-rived-riven

run-ran-run sink-sank-sunk

saw-sawed-sawn slay-slew-slain

see-saw-seen smite-smote-smitten

sew-sewed-sewn sow-sowed-sown

shake-shook-shaken speak-spoke-spoken

shear-sheared-shorn spring-sprang-sprung

show-showed-shown steal-stole-stolen

shrink-shrank-shrunk stink-stank-stunk

shrive-shrove-shriven strew-strewed-strewn

sing-sang-sung stride-strode-stridden

strive-strove-striven undertake-undertook-undertaken

swear-swore-sworn underwrite-underwrote-underwritten

swell-swelled-swollen underdo-underdid-underdone

swim-swam-swum wake-woke-waked

take-took-taken wear-wore-worn

rear-tore-torn weave-wove-woven

thrive-throve-thriven withdraw-withdrew-withdrawn

throw-threw-thrown write-wrote-written

tread-trod-trodden

undergo-underwent-undergone



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