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Tenses

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Tenses

Present Simple (Indefinite)

1.      Naudojamas nusakyti veiksmą, kuris vyksta nuolat arba tai yra gerai žinoma tiesa.



Souvenirs cost money. I am a schoolgirl.

2.      Naudojamas nusakyti įprastus veiksmus.

Dog wags its tail, fetches a ball, and responds.

3.      Naudojamas nusakyti įvykius, kurie vyksta eilės tvarka.

A tourist finds a beautiful rug and asks the price.

4.      Naudojamas nusakyti laikui ateityje, kai yra kalbama apie transportą, kalendorių, tvarkaraštį, pramogų laiką.

Tomorrow is Thursday. The plane comes at six.

Laiką nuskantys žodžiai: every, seldom, sometimes, often, never, always, occasionally, frequently.

+ V, sng. 3 + s, es

? do / does + V

- don’t / doesn’t + V

Asmenavimas (III asmenyje +s)

to beto haveto goto play

Iamhavegoplay

Youarehavegoplay

He/she/itishasgoesplays

Wearehavegoplay

Youarehavegoplay

Theyarehavegoplay

Veiksmažodžiai, kuriems nereikia pagalbinių do, does klausiamuosiuose ir neigiamuose sakiniuose:: to be (am, is, are), can, must, may, have, has, could, might, need.

+ I am a girl.+ He plays the piano.+We play the piano.

- I am not a girl.- He does not play the piano-We do not play the piano

? Am I a girl?? Does he play the piano?? Do we play the piano?

 

Dėmesio: turėtiišsireiškimasbritai have/has got

+ I have a brother.+ I have a shower every day.+ I have got a brother.

- I have not a brother.- I do not have a shower every day.- I have not got a brother.

? Have I brother?? Do I have a shower every day?? Have I got a brother.

Do sit down – maldauja sėstis.(Tai ne pagalbinis)


Present Progressive (Continuous)

1.      Naudojamas nusakyti vaiksmui, kuris yra atliekamas dabar ir nėra užbaigtas.

A tourist is admiring the beautiful oriental rugs on display.

2.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui ateityje, kuris buvo iš anksto suplanuotas.

So you’re visiting another country this year?

3.      Išreiškiamas laiko periodas artimas dabarčiai.

I am living at my aunt’s.

4.      Naudojamas išreikšti blogiems įpročiams.

She is always chatting during lessons.

+ am/is/are + Ving

? am/is/are +Ving

- not + Ving

Laiką nuskantys žodžiai: now, right now, at this moment, this season, today.

STATIVE VERBS!

I have a blue Toyota Camry.

We’re having dinner now.

Asmenavimas Galūnės –ing pridėjimo taisyklės

Iam going+We are playing the piano.1) go + ing = going

Youare going-We are not playing the piano.2) come + ing = coming (nebėra –e)

He/she/itis going?Are we playing the piano.3) hop + ing = hopping

put + ing = putting

Weare goingrun + ing = running

Youare goingswim + ing = swimming

Theyare going



Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous)

1.      Naudojamas išrekšti veiksmui, kuris trunka neilgai, kai yra laikina situacija.

John has been working at firm for a year.

2.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui, kuris vis dar yra atliekamas.

Firm has been developing advanced robots for years.

3.      Jungia praeitį ir dabartį. Kai yra nurodoma prasidėjimo data.

He has been making trips abroad since 1995.

+ have/has been + Ving

? have been + Ving

- haven’t/hasn’t been + Ving

Asmenavimas

Ihave been going+We have been playing the piano.

Youhave been going-We have not been playing the piano.

He/she/ithas been going?Have we been playing the piano.

Wehave been going

Youhave been going

Theyhave been going


Present Perfect

1.      Jungia praeitį ir dabartį, kai veiksmas prasidėjo praeityje ir tesiasi iki momento dabartyje.

Bargaining has existed for centuries.

For is used to show an amount of time.

2.      Naudojamas išrekšti ilgesni beistęsianti veiksmą.

Professor has worked for a robotics firm for over 20 years.

3.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui, kuris jau yra užbaigtas.

General Robotics has developed a robot dog.

4.      Naudojamas išreikšti būseną, veiksmą, kuris buvo įprastas praeityje.

Arranged marriage has never had much currency in Amer.

5.      Nusakoma veiksmų, atliekamų vienas po kito, seka.

This is the firs time, I have ever smoked.

I have seen it twice.

6.      Prieš aukščiausio laipsnio būdvardžius.

He is the cleverest boy, I have ever met.

10 h Have you written the letter this morning?

12 05h Did you write the letter this morning?

I’ve worked here for 10 years. (dar dirbu).

I worked here for 10 years. (dirbau, bet nebedirbu).

+ have/has + V3

? have/has +V3

- haven’t/ hasn’t +V3

Laiką nuskantys žodžiai: ever, never, just, already, yet, recently, lately, so far, up to now.

Asmenavimas

Ihave gone+We have played the piano.

Youhave gone-We have not played the piano.

He/she/ithas gone?Have we played the piano.

Wehave gone

Youhave gone

Theyhave gone

Past Progressive (Continuous)

1.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui, kuris preityje buvo atliekamas tam tikru moment, bet nebuvo nužbaigtas.

Sister was looking for someone really special.

2.      Su blogais įpročiais.

She was always chatting during the lessons.

+ was/were + VingAsmenavimas

? was/were + VingIwas going+We were playing the piano

- wasn’t/ weren’t + VingYou were going-We were not playing the piano.

He/she/itwas going?Were we playing the piano.

Wewere going

Youwere going

Theywere going


Past Simple (Indefinite)

1.      Naudojamas išreikšti būseną ar veiksmą praeityje, kai neturi ryšio su dabartimi arba tai yra istorinė tiesa.

He liked the idea, so he advertised for bride on the Internet.




Columbus discovered America.

It is ages since we met last.

2.      Naudojamas išreikšti laikui užbaigtam praeityje, kai yra atsakoma į klausimą “Kiek laiko?”.

The Second World War lasted nearly six years.

3.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmų sekai.

He opened door and went out.

Laiką nuskantys žodžiai: yesterday, last, ago, in1983, in May.

Asmenavimas (+ed)(keičiasi forma)Galūnės –ed pridėjimo taisyklės:

to beto haveto playto seeplay + ed = played

Iwashadplayedsawdance + ed = danced

Youwerehadplayedsawstop + ed= stopped

He/she/itwashadplayedsaw

Wewerehadplayedsaw

Youwerehadplayedsaw

Theywerehadplayedsaw

Veiksmažodžiai, kuriems nereikia pagalbinių did klausiamuosiuose ir neigiamuose sakiniuose:: was, were, could, had, might.

+ I was a girl.+ He played the piano.+We went to the park.

- I was not a girl.- He did not play the piano-We did not go to the park.

? Was I a girl?? Did he play the piano?? Did we go to the park?

+ V2, Ved

? did + V

- didn’t + V

Past Perfect

1.      Naudojamas išreikšti būsenai, veiksmui ar įvykiui, kuris įvyko prieš tam tikrą momentą prateityje.

He hadn’t met his bride yet.

2.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui praeityje, kaiū vienas veiksmas įvyko anksčiau nei kitas.

By the time the wedding day rolled around, he had prepared everything.

Laiką nuskantys žodžiai: by, by the time, hardly, no sooner.

Asmenavimas

Ihad gone+We had played the piano.+ had + V3

Youhad gone-We had not played the piano.? had + V3

He/she/ithad gone? Had we played the piano.- hadn’t + V3

Wehad gone

Youhad gone

Theyhad gone


Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous)

1.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui kuris tęsėsi iki tam tikro momento praeityje.

I didn’t get home until eight o’clock, because I’d been working late at the office.

Asmenavimas

Ihad been going+We had been playing the piano.

Youhad been going-We had not been playing the piano.

He/she/ithad been going? Had we been playing the piano.

Wehad been going

Youhad been going

Theyhad been going

+ had been + Ving

? had been + Ving

- hadn’t been + Ving

Future Simple (Indefinite)

1.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui ar būsenai ateityje kalbėjimo metu.

I will close the window.

2.      Naudojamas išreikšti nesuplanuotui veiksmui ateityje.

Maybe I will free.

3.      Naudojamas išreikšti spėjimui.

It will rain tomorrow. (We think so).

Laiką nuskantys žodžiai: think, expect, sure, perhaps, maybe, probably, hope, suppose, to be afraid, wonder.

Asmenavimas



+ will + VI will go+ I will go home.

? will/shall + VYou will go- I will not go home.

- won’t/ shan’t + VHe, she, it will go? Will I go home?

Wewill go

Youwill go

Theywill go

Future Progressive (Continuous)

1.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui, kuris vyks tam tikru momentu ateityje.

I am writing test tomorrow at 8.

Asmenavimas

+ Shall/will be + Ving I will be going+ I will be going home

? Shall/ will be + VingYou will be going- I will not be going home.

- won’t/ shan’t +VingHe, she, it will be going? Will I be going home?

Wewill be going

Youwill be going

Theywill be going


1.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui ar būsenai ateityje, kuris įvyks iki tam tikro momento ateityje. (By, by the time).

If you go home without having experienced bargaining, you will have missed out on one of life’s most interesting experiences.

+ will have + V3Asmenavimas

? will have + V3Iwill have gone+We will have played the piano.

- won’t have + V3Youwill have gone-We will not have played the piano.

He/she/itwill have gone? Will we have played the piano.

Wewill have gone

Youwill have gone

Theywill have gone

Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous)

1.      Naudojamas išreikšti veiksmui ar būsenai, kuris vyks tam tikru metu ateityje.

By the end of summer, you’ll have been traveling for several weeks.

+ will have been + VingAsmenavimas

? will have been + VingIwill have been going+We will have been playing the piano.

- won’t have been + VingYouwill have been going-We will not have been playing the piano.

He/she/itwill has been going? Will we have been playing the piano?

Wewill have been going

Youwill have been going

Theywill have been going

To be going to

1.      Use was/were going to or would + base form to describe a state, event, or action that was planned in the past (before now).Future in the past.

He had know for a long time that he was going to get married in 1998.

He just didn’t know who he waould be marrying.

2.      Use to show a planned future. To express a state, action, or event already planned before the moment of speaking.

In this week’s column, I’m going to give you some tips.

3.      Use to talk about future situation that is already developing.

Look at those dark clouds! It’s going to rain.

4.      m goin to be studying tonight.

Used to/would

1.      Use used to + base form to show a habitual state, event, or action, possession, locaion that was true in the past but is no longer true.

Arranged marriages used to be common in many countries. (They’re not very common anymore.)

? did + pronoun (įvardis)/name + use

-         didn’t use to

-         never used to (stronger in meaning)

2.      Would + base form to express actions or events that occurred regularly during a period in the past.

Friends would repeatedly ask him when he was going to get married.








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