Present Simple (Indefinite)
Naudojamas nusakyti veiksmą, kuris vyksta nuolat arba tai yra gerai inoma tiesa.
Souvenirs cost money. I am a schoolgirl.
Naudojamas nusakyti įprastus veiksmus.
Dog wags its tail, fetches a ball, and responds.
Naudojamas nusakyti įvykius, kurie vyksta eilės tvarka.
A tourist finds a beautiful rug and asks the price.
Naudojamas nusakyti laikui ateityje, kai yra kalbama apie transportą, kalendorių, tvarkaratį, pramogų laiką.
Tomorrow is Thursday. The plane comes at six.
Laiką nuskantys odiai: every, seldom, sometimes, often, never, always, occasionally, frequently.
+ V, sng. 3 + s, es
? do / does + V
- dont / doesnt + V
Asmenavimas (III asmenyje +s)
to be to have to go to play
I am have go play
You are have go play
He/she/it is has goes plays
We are have go play
You are have go play
They are have go play
Veiksmaodiai, kuriems nereikia pagalbinių do, does klausiamuosiuose ir neigiamuose sakiniuose:: to be (am, is, are), can, must, may, have, has, could, might, need.
+ I am a girl. + He plays the piano. +We play the piano.
- I am not a girl. - He does not play the piano -We do not play the piano
? Am I a girl? ? Does he play the piano? ? Do we play the piano?
Dėmesio: turėti isireikimas britai have/has got
+ I have a brother. + I have a shower every day. + I have got a brother.
- I have not a brother. - I do not have a shower every day. - I have not got a brother.
? Have I brother? ? Do I have a shower every day? ? Have I got a brother.
Do sit down maldauja sėstis.(Tai ne pagalbinis)
Present Progressive (Continuous)
Naudojamas nusakyti vaiksmui, kuris yra atliekamas dabar ir nėra ubaigtas.
A tourist is admiring the beautiful oriental rugs on display.
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui ateityje, kuris buvo i anksto suplanuotas.
So youre visiting another country this year?
Ireikiamas laiko periodas artimas dabarčiai.
I am living at my aunts.
Naudojamas ireikti blogiems įpročiams.
She is always chatting during lessons.
+ am/is/are + Ving
? am/is/are +Ving
- not + Ving
Laiką nuskantys odiai: now, right now, at this moment, this season, today.
I have a
Were having dinner now.
Asmenavimas Galūnės ing pridėjimo taisyklės
I am going +We are playing the piano. 1) go + ing = going
You are going -We are not playing the piano. 2) come + ing = coming (nebėra e)
He/she/it is going ?Are we playing the piano. 3) hop + ing = hopping
put + ing = putting
We are going run + ing = running
You are going swim + ing = swimming
They are going
Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous)
Naudojamas irekti veiksmui, kuris trunka neilgai, kai yra laikina situacija.
John has been working at firm for a year.
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui, kuris vis dar yra atliekamas.
Firm has been developing advanced robots for years.
Jungia praeitį ir dabartį. Kai yra nurodoma prasidėjimo data.
He has been making trips abroad since 1995.
+ have/has been + Ving
? have been + Ving
- havent/hasnt been + Ving
I have been going +We have been playing the piano.
You have been going -We have not been playing the piano.
He/she/it has been going ?Have we been playing the piano.
We have been going
You have been going
They have been going
Jungia praeitį ir dabartį, kai veiksmas prasidėjo praeityje ir tesiasi iki momento dabartyje.
Bargaining has existed for centuries.
For is used to show an amount of time.
Naudojamas irekti ilgesni beistęsianti veiksmą.
Professor has worked for a robotics firm for over 20 years.
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui, kuris jau yra ubaigtas.
General Robotics has developed a robot dog.
Naudojamas ireikti būseną, veiksmą, kuris buvo įprastas praeityje.
Arranged marriage has never had much currency in Amer.
Nusakoma veiksmų, atliekamų vienas po kito, seka.
This is the firs time, I have ever smoked.
I have seen it twice.
Prie aukčiausio laipsnio būdvardius.
He is the cleverest boy, I have ever met.
10 h Have you written the letter this morning?
12 05h Did you write the letter this morning?
Ive worked here for 10 years. (dar dirbu).
I worked here for 10 years. (dirbau, bet nebedirbu).
have/has + V3
? have/has +V3
- havent/ hasnt +V3
Laiką nuskantys odiai: ever, never, just, already, yet, recently, lately, so far, up to now.
I have gone +We have played the piano.
You have gone -We have not played the piano.
He/she/it has gone ?Have we played the piano.
We have gone
You have gone
They have gone
Past Progressive (Continuous)
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui, kuris preityje buvo atliekamas tam tikru moment, bet nebuvo nubaigtas.
Sister was looking for someone really special.
Su blogais įpročiais.
She was always chatting during the lessons.
+ was/were + Ving Asmenavimas
? was/were + Ving I was going +We were playing the piano
- wasnt/ werent + Ving You were going -We were not playing the piano.
He/she/it was going ?Were we playing the piano.
We were going
You were going
They were going
Past Simple (Indefinite)
Naudojamas ireikti būseną ar veiksmą praeityje, kai neturi ryio su dabartimi arba tai yra istorinė tiesa.
He liked the idea, so he advertised for bride on the Internet.
It is ages since we met last.
Naudojamas ireikti laikui ubaigtam praeityje, kai yra atsakoma į klausimą Kiek laiko?.
The Second World War lasted nearly six years.
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmų sekai.
He opened door and went out.
Laiką nuskantys odiai: yesterday, last, ago, in1983, in May
Asmenavimas (+ed) (keičiasi forma) Galūnės ed pridėjimo taisyklės:
to be to have to play to see play + ed = played
I was had played saw dance + ed = danced
You were had played saw stop + ed= stopped
He/she/it was had played saw
We were had played saw
You were had played saw
They were had played saw
Veiksmaodiai, kuriems nereikia pagalbinių did klausiamuosiuose ir neigiamuose sakiniuose:: was, were, could, had, might.
+ I was a girl. + He played the piano. +We went to the park.
- I was not a girl. - He did not play the piano -We did not go to the park.
? Was I a girl? ? Did he play the piano? ? Did we go to the park?
+ V2, Ved
? did + V
- didnt + V
Naudojamas ireikti būsenai, veiksmui ar įvykiui, kuris įvyko prie tam tikrą momentą prateityje.
He hadnt met his bride yet.
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui praeityje, kaiū vienas veiksmas įvyko anksčiau nei kitas.
By the time the wedding day rolled around, he had prepared everything.
Laiką nuskantys odiai: by, by the time, hardly, no sooner
I had gone +We had played the piano. + had + V3
You had gone -We had not played the piano. ? had + V3
He/she/it had gone ? Had we played the piano. - hadnt + V3
We had gone
You had gone
They had gone
Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous)
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui kuris tęsėsi iki tam tikro momento praeityje.
I didnt get home until , because Id been working late at the office.
I had been going +We had been playing the piano.
You had been going -We had not been playing the piano.
He/she/it had been going ? Had we been playing the piano.
We had been going
You had been going
They had been going
+ had been + Ving
? had been + Ving
- hadnt been + Ving
Future Simple (Indefinite)
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui ar būsenai ateityje kalbėjimo metu.
I will close the window.
Naudojamas ireikti nesuplanuotui veiksmui ateityje.
Maybe I will free.
Naudojamas ireikti spėjimui.
It will rain tomorrow. (We think so).
Laiką nuskantys odiai: think, expect, sure, perhaps, maybe, probably, hope, suppose, to be afraid, wonder.
+ will + V I will go + I will go home.
? will/shall + V You will go - I will not go home.
- wont/ shant + V He, she, it will go ? Will I go home?
We will go
You will go
They will go
Future Progressive (Continuous)
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui, kuris vyks tam tikru momentu ateityje.
I am writing test tomorrow at 8.
+ Shall/will be + Ving I will be going + I will be going home
? Shall/ will be + Ving You will be going - I will not be going home.
- wont/ shant +Ving He, she, it will be going ? Will I be going home?
We will be going
You will be going
They will be going
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui ar būsenai ateityje, kuris įvyks iki tam tikro momento ateityje. (By, by the time).
If you go home without having experienced bargaining, you will have missed out on one of lifes most interesting experiences.
+ will have + V3 Asmenavimas
? will have + V3 I will have gone +We will have played the piano.
- wont have + V3 You will have gone -We will not have played the piano.
He/she/it will have gone ? Will we have played the piano.
We will have gone
You will have gone
They will have gone
Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous)
Naudojamas ireikti veiksmui ar būsenai, kuris vyks tam tikru metu ateityje.
By the end of summer, youll have been traveling for several weeks.
+ will have been + Ving Asmenavimas
? will have been + Ving I will have been going +We will have been playing the piano.
- wont have been + Ving You will have been going -We will not have been playing the piano.
He/she/it will has been going ? Will we have been playing the piano?
We will have been going
You will have been going
They will have been going
To be going to
Use was/were going to or would + base form to describe a state, event, or action that was planned in the past (before now). Future in the past.
He had know for a long time that he was going to get married in 1998.
He just didnt know who he waould be marrying.
Use to show a planned future. To express a state, action, or event already planned before the moment of speaking.
In this weeks column, Im going to give you some tips.
Use to talk about future situation that is already developing.
Look at those dark clouds! Its going to rain.
Im goin to be studying tonight.
Use used to + base form to show a habitual state, event, or action, possession, locaion that was true in the past but is no longer true.
Arranged marriages used to be common in many countries. (Theyre not very common anymore.)
? did + pronoun ( vardis)/name + use
didnt use to
never used to (stronger in meaning)
Would + base form to express actions or events that occurred regularly during a period in the past.
Friends would repeatedly ask him when he was going to get married.
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