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MODALITATI DE EXPRIMARE A VIITORULUI - ENGLEZA

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Modalitati de exprimare a viitorului - ENGLEZA

2.Boli si dureri la Doctor, la farmacie

WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE

1.Viitorul simplu




Se formeaza astfel:

la afirmativ

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + SHALL/ WILL + Verb (inf.)

la negativ

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + SHALL NOT (SHANT) + Verb (inf.) sau

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + WILL NOT (WONT) + Verb (inf.)

la interogativ

SHALL / WILL + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + Verb (inf.) ?

Folosirea lui SHALL la toate persoanele are nuanta unei obligatii.

Folosirea lui WILL la toate persoanele lasa la voia vorbitorului aceasta obligatie.

Exemplu: I shall (will) come tomorrow. Trebuie sa vin maine. (Eu am hotarat sa vin maine)

Observatie: SHALL si WILL pot avea si inteles modal (vezi Cursul 4)

PARTICULARITATI

SHALL in intrebari exprima o oferta, o propunere, o sugestie; este mai literar iar daca este folosit la persoana a IIa si a IIIa are semnificatia unui ordin sau a unei promisiuni foarte ferme.

Exemplu: The work shall be completed by July 31. Lucrul va fi terminat (trebuie) pana pe 31 iulie.

You shall have a bike for your birthday. Vei primi o bicicleta de ziua ta (iti promit).

Shall I open the window ? Sa deschid fereastra ?

Shall we meet at the stop ? Ne vedem in statie ?

WILL este foarte frecvent folosit in engleza vorbita acum. Este o forma mult mai politicoasa de a exprima o rugaminte sau o invitatie.

Exemplu: Will you open the window ? Esti amabil sa deschizi fereastra ?

Will you have a cup of coffe ? Vrei o cafea ?

In limba vorbita se folosesc frecvent si formele contrase (prescurtate) :

I shall = Ill ; You will = Youll

In intrebarile directe viitorul simplu exprima adesea o cerere directa si se foloseste WILL pentru politete.

Se traduce in romaneste cu viitor.

Utilizarea viitorului simplu

  1. pentru a exprima actiuni sau stari ce vor avea loc dupa momentul vorbirii.

Ca adverbe de timp se folosesc:

- tomorrow, next (week, summer, year)

  1. pentru a exprima presupuneri despre actiuni care se vor intampla in viitor.

In acest caz se incepe cu:

I think, I suppose, I guess, I belive (cred ca, presupun ca );

probably, its possible (e posibil sa)

Exemplu: I suppose he wont refuse you. Presupun ca nu te va refuza.

Probably she will be late Probabil ca ea va intarzia. (E posibil ca ea sa intarzie.)

Exemplu general:

Will you come tomorrow evening ?

Yes I will. Ill come tomorrow evening.

No, I wont. I wont come tomorrow evening.

I dont think so

Vii maine seara ?

Da . Vin maine seara (voi veni).

Nu. Nu voi veni maine seara.

Nu prea cred !

2.Exprimarea viitorului prin prezent (vezi Cursul 2)

Prezentul simplu se foloseste in loc de viitor pentru actiuni oficial programate (vezi avion, tren etc.)

Prezentul continuu se foloseste ca viitor ca aranjamente neoficiale facute de vorbitor.

3.Viitorul apropiat sau viitorul ,,intentie

In limba engleza se mai numeste Viitorul Going to Future

Se formeaza astfel:

afirmativ :     I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + TO BE (prezent) + GOING TO + Verb

negativ : I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + TO BE (prezent) + Not + GOING TO + Verb

interogativ:     TO BE (prezent) + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + GOING TO + Verb

Observatie: Verbul to be se conjuga la prezent la fiecare persoana la afirmativ, negativ si interogativ.

Se traduce prin: urmeaza sa , intentionez sa

Exemplu:   

- interogativ: Are you going to sell your flat ? Intentionezi sa-ti vinzi apartamentul ?

- afirmativ:    Yes, Im going to sell my flat.

- negativ:    No, Im not going sell my flat.

Utilizare

a.Pentru a exprima actiuni ( intentii) ce se vor intampla intr-un timp f. scurt dupa momentul vorbirii.

Exemplu: Im going to sell my car. Intentionez sa-mi vand masina.

b.Pentru a exprima presupuneri despre lucruri ce se vor intampla imediat.

Exemplu Look ! Its cloudy ! Priveste ! Este innorat !

If going to rain. Sta sa ploua.

4.Viitorul apropiat (cu alta constructie)

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + TO BE (prezent) + ABOUT TO + Verb (inf.)

going to - intentia

about to - obligatia

Se foloseste pentru a exprima actiunea in viitorul apropiat avand nuanta unei obligatii sau a unei necesitati.



Exemplu: The train leaves at 2.30 Im about to leave for the station. Trenul pleaca (va pleca) la 2,30. Urmeaza (trebuie) sa plec la gara. (ma obliga ceva sa plec imediat)

You are about to tell her the news. Ii vei spune vestile (urmeaza sa i le spui).

Hes about to say something. El este pe punctul de a spune ceva.

APLICATII

Traduceti:

    1. Im going to see my boss tomorrow Maine ma intalnesc (intentionez sa) cu seful.
    2. My parents are going to come and Im going to show them round some castles.

Parintii mei urmeaza sa vina si intentionez sa-i duc sa vada cateva castele.

    1. Look out ! Its going to fall ! Atentie ! Va cadea !
    2. Will you see Mr Marks tomorrow about this ? Vreti sa discutati maine cu dl Marks despre asta ?
    3. He will almost certainly be there, especially if its fine.    Va fi acolo aproape sigur mai ales daca va fi frumos.
    4. Ill help you, dont worry. Ill peel the apples if you like. Te voi ajuta, nu-ti face griji. Voi curata merele, daca vrei.
    5. Hold on ! Ill come straght away !    Stai ! Vin imediat !
    6. If lions bore you, I wont take you to the zoo.    Daca leii te plictisesc, nu te duc (te voi duce) la zoo.

5. Prezentul pe post de viitor

Prezentul simplu cu sens de viitor se folosette pentru a exprima actiuni viitoare oficial programate si anuntate (orare mijloace de transport, conferinte, spectacole etc.) complementul de timp este obligatoriu. Se traduce prin viitor.

Exemplu The plane takes off at 7.30 a.m. tomorrow. Avionul va decola maine dimineata la 7.30.

Prezentul continuu cu sens de viitor se foloseste pentru a exprima aranjamente si planuri pe care le face cineva pentru viitor. Se traduce prin viitor.

Exemplu: What are you doing next week-end ? Im having dinner with my friends.

Ce vei face in week-endul urmator ? Voi lua masa cu prietenii mei.

6. Viitorul anterior = FUTURE PERFECT

Se formeaza asfel: pentru toate persoanele

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + SHALL / WILL + HAVE + Verb ( - ed pt.verbe regulate )

(forma a III a pt. verbe nereg)

Observatii: Negativul si intrebarea se vad pe SHALL si WILL.

Se traduce prin viitor anterior SHALL si WILL pot fi prescurtate prin LL

Utilizare

Se foloseste pentru a exprima actiuni care vor incepe si se vor termina inaintea unei alte actiuni din viitor.

Exemplu: Ill have finished my work by 10 oclock tomorrow.

Imi voi fi terminat treaba pana maine la ora 10.

Many animals will have disappeared by the end of the century.

Multe animale vor fi disparute pana la sfarsitul secolului.

APLICATII

Traduceti:

  1. My parents are arriving on June 1 and they are leaving on 15 Parintii mei vor sosi pe 01.06 si vor pleca pe 15.06.
  2. Next year im going to China for my holidays Anul viitor ma voi duce in China in vacanta.
  3. The plane leaves at 8 p.m. tomorrow Avionul va pleca maine seara la 8.
  4. The President arrives at 10 a.m. tomorrow. She visits the shipyard in the morning and then, she lunches with the mayor Presedinta va sosi maine la 10 dimineata. Va vizita santierul naval dimineata, apoi va lua pranzul cu primarul.
  5. We are spending a day in Athens. Some friends are meeting us at the airport. Its all planned.     Ne vom petrece o zi la Atena. Niste prieteni ne vor astepta la aeroport. Totul este aranjat.
  6. Another time well do the journey by air Altadata voi face drumul cu avionul.
  7. You shall make a cup of coffe Vei face cafea ----- > ordin
  8. Shall we have a cup of coffe ? Bei o cafea ? ----- > sugestie
  9. Will you have a cup of coffe ? Bei o cafea ? ----- > invitatie
  10. Will you make a cup of coffe ? Bei o cafea ? ----- > rugaminte

LA DOCTOR

Vocabular

first aid box trusa de prim ajutor

public health ocrotirea sanatatii

to fall (to be taken) ill a se imbolnavi

to feel ill a se simti rau

to have a fit of a avea o criza de

to undergo an operation a fi supus la o operatie

to clean (dress ) up a wound a curata (a pansa) o rana

to be injured in accident a fi ranit in accident

to enjoy good health a se bucura de o sanatate de fier

to sneeze a stranuta



to faint a lesina

to cough a tusi

bloodshot congestionat

painful dureros

shivers frisoane

first aid primul ajutor

blood transfusion transfuzie de sange

medical chart (card) fisa medicala

disease boala

injury leziune, rana

medical certificate C F M

sick (maternity, rest) leave concediu de boala (maternitate, de odihna)

strecher targa

physician, doctor doctor, medic

surgeon chirurg

VET veterinary surgeon veterinar

hospital , emergency spital, urgente

nurse asistenta medicala

midwife moasa

health resort statiune climaterica

spa statiune balneo (ape)

dumb mut

blind orb

deaf surd

lame schiop

squint eyed sasiu

humpbacked cocosat

operating theatre sala de operatie

sun stroke insolatie

Good morning doctor Gray !

Good morning Mr Brown ! You dont look well ! You look pale. It looks as if you were going to faint !

I dont know whats the matter with me. Im upset with everything. I feel too tired to move. Every bone in my body seems to ache. My appetite has gone. Im suffering from sleepessness. And I often have giddy turns. My nose is running !

Come here, please ! Draw near and sit down. Let me feel your pulse Yes, the pulse is quick and irregular ! Just as I throught ! Show me your tongue . It is quite furred ! And the uvula is swollen!

What is your oppinion doctor ? Im dying

Mr Brown ! You arent a child ! Let me check your lungs and to listen to your heart Breathe in and out deeply ! O.K !

Is this disease dangerous ? Is it catching ?

Mr Brown !! Nothing to worry about ! Keep indoor for a few days. Ill prescribe you some medicine Do not overtire yourself. Youll soon recover completly !

Am I confined to bed ? I be operated on ?

Mr Brown !! I think you have got the flu (influenza) ! A simple flu, dont worry ! You are tired, you smoke too much This is the result of your behavior !

Oh, I feel much relieved, doctor. Thank you ! What is your fee, sir ?

No fee for you Mr Brown ! Free of charge ! Pay attention and take care of you !

Thanks a lot, doctor ! Bye !



Bye and cheer up, Mr Brown !

II.

Whats the matter with you pal ?! You look rather seedy (indispus).

I have a terrible toothache doctor ! I suffer much, chiefly at night time !

Why dont you come to me earlier ?

I hate detists !

Everybody hate us but you need our help ! I know, knocking and drilling (sfredelitul) ones teeth is not at all very entertaining but is necessary !

Oh, Im exaggerating ! You are a painless dentist !

Come here ! Sit down and lean (lasa) your head back ! Sit still please ! Open your mouth !

Oh, it hurts me !

Come on ! The upper (lower) front tooth has a problem, the filling has come out ! You have also a hollow molar in the upper jaw (maxilar) I shall clean out the cavity and fill it ! Rinse your mouth with this antiseptic mouth wash ! OK ! Im ready. Did it hurt ?

Oh, no ! You are the master !

So, dont eat anything for a couple of hours, sir ! In the tooth keeps aching come quickly. Ill have to kill the nerve. Avoid sitting in a draught (curent). Or youll get an abscess ! You can have a soothing drug if necessary !

Thank you doctor ! you

I know, Im the master ! Take care of you ! Bye !

Thanks ! Bye ! Id like to say see youz soon but I dont want to !

No problem ! Youre welcome !

LA FARMACIE PHARMACY / AT THE CHEMISTS

Can I have a prescription made ?

Of course, sir ! Give it to me ! Oh, yes ! But it will take you more than an hour to wait until I get it prepared. Do you mind coming later to collect it ?

OK ! Im going to collect it !

So, my prescription is made ?

OK, sir ! Do not forget to shake the bottle before using ! Store it in a cool place.

Is this stuff reliable ?

Of course, sir !

How many spoonfuls am I to take a day ? Shall I take the medicine before or after the meals ?

Sir, sir !! This medicine is intended for external use only ! Is a massage lotion !

Oh, that one ! OK ! Thanks !

VOCABULAR

pachet de vata a package of cotton wool

alcool (spirt) alcohol, alcoholic extract

alifie, unguent ointment, vaseline

antinevralgic antineuralgic

calmant sedative, pain-killer

fiola phial

pilula (pastila) pill, injection

medicament medicine, drug

pansament dressing, bandage, gauze (tifon)

picaturi drops

plasture plaster

sirop de tuse throat syrup

purgativ purgative, laxative

aspirin, tonic, lotion

prescription reteta

sleeping-draught somnifer

a day & night service farmacie permanenta






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