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SUBSTANTIVUL in limba engleza

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SUBSTANTIVUL




Formare:

a.       Substantive simple: boy, day, animal

b.      Substantive formate prin derivare cu sufixe sau prefixe: unhappiness, impossibility

c.       Substantive formate prin compunere: weekend, classroom, bedroom

d.      Substantive formate prin conversiune, din alte parti de vorbire:

adjective : the good= binele

verbe la infinitiv: fall= cadere

verbe la Gerund : reading

verbe la participiul trecut: the injured= cei raniti

e.       substantive formate prin contragere: fridge (refrigerator); lab (laboratory) ; pub (public house)

f.        abrevieri: Dr (doctor), Mr. (mister)

Numarul

Formarea pluralului:

pluralul regulat- prin adaugarea desinentei –s la forma de singular a substantivului : book-books, table- tables

substantivele terminate in –s, -ss, -z, -x, -ch, -sh    +es: bus-busses, glass-glasses, buzz-buzzes, box-boxes, watch-watches, brush-brushes

-unele substantive terminate in –s nu primesc marca de plural: barracks (baraca); headquartes (sediu); means (mijloc); series (serie); species (specie); works (uzina). Ex: this is an army barracks. These are army barracks. The bus is a means of transport. Busses are means of transport.

substantivele terminate in –o adauga desinenta –s numai in urmatoarele cazuri:

o       cand –o e precedat de o vocala: cuckoos, kangaroos, radios, scenarios, studios, zoos.

o       La substantivele proprii: Filipinos, Eskimos, Neros, Romeos

o       In abrevieri: kilos (kilogrammes), photos (photographs), pros (professionals)

o       La unele substantive straine: concertos, dynamos, solos, sopranos, tangos, tobaccos.

o       Adauga –es la substantive ca: echoes, heroes, negroes, mosquitoes, potatoes, tomatoes.

o       Au doua forme de plural: banjos/banjoes; buffalos/buffaloes, cargos/cargoes; momentos/momentoes; mottos/mottoes; volcanos/volcanoes; zeros/zeroes.

substantivele terminate in consoana + y transforma pe y in i si adauga –es: city-cities; factory-factories

transformarea nu are loc:

a)      dupa vocale: boy-boys; play-plays

b)      in substantive proprii: the Kennedys

c)      in substantive compuse: stand-bys

literele, numeralele si abrevierile formeaza pluralul prin adaugarea     unui apostrof si –s: A’s; 1920’s; MP’s( members of parliament); sau direct, prin adaugarea unui –s: in the 1920s; the MPs; Mts (mountains); vols (volumes); lbs (pounds). Acesta forma este mai folosita.

pluralul substantivelor compuse se formeaza in general adaugand –s la ultimul element: classrooms; forget-me-nots, horse races (exceptii: mothers-in-law; passers-by)

–f final devine –ves; -fe devine -ves: calf-calves; elf-elves, half-halves, knife-knives, leaf-leaves; life-lives, loaf-loaves, self-selves, shelf-shelves, thief-thieves, wife-wives, wolf-wolves

Plural regulat:

a)      belief-beliefs

b)      chief-chiefs

c)      cliff-cliffs

d)      proof-proofs

e)      roof-roofs

f)       safe-safes

Forme duble:

g)      dwarf-dwarfs-dwarves

h)      handkerchief-handkerchiefs-handkerchieves

i)        hoof-hoofs-hooves

j)       scarf-scarfs-scarves

k)      wharf-wharfs-wharves (chei)

plural neregulat: man-men (si compusii lui man: postmen, Englishmen, etc); woman-women; foot-feet; goose-geese; tooth-teeth; mouse-mice; louse-lice, ox-oxen, child-children, brother-brethren (membru al unei societati religioase); die-dice

numele de nationalitati terminate in –ese nu primesc marca de plural: he is speaking to a Portuguese. The Portuguese live in Europe.

cateva animale nu primesc marca de plural: fish, sheep, deer, carp, salmon, trout.

plurale straine:

a)      –us -i : stimulus-stimuli, bacillus-bacilli

b)      –us -uses: bonuses, campuses, choruses, circuses,

c)      –us -ora: corpus-corpora

d)      –um -a: agendum-agenda; bacterium-bacteria, stratum-strata

e)      –um -ums: albums, gymnasiums, museums

o       cactus-cactuses-cacti

o       genius-geniuses(oameni de geniu)-genii (spirite, duhuri)

o       syllabus-syllabuses-syllabi

o       terminus-terminuses-termini

o       antenna-antennas-antennae

o       formula-formulas-formulae

o       vertebra-vertebras-vertebrae

o       aquarium-aquariums-aquaria

o       curriculum-curriculums-curricula

o       sanatorium-sanatoriums-sanatoria

o       symposium-symposiums-symposia

o       appendix-appendixes-appendices

o       index-indexes (cuprinsuri)-indices (indici-in matematica)

o       automaton-automatons-automata

o       bureau-bureaus-bureaux

o       plateau-plateaus-plateaux

o       libretto-librettos-libretti

o       virtuoso-virtosos-virtuosi

o       medium-mediums-media

f)       –is -es: analysis-analyses, ellipsis-ellipses, axis-axes, hypothesis-hypotheses; basis-bases, crisis-crises, paralysis-paralyses, diagnosis-diagnoses, parenthetis-parentheses, synthesis-syntheses, thesis-theses

g)      –a as: arenas, dilemmas, diplomas, dramas, encyclopedias, eras

h)      –a ae: larva-larvae

i)        –on -a: phenomenon-phenomena

j)       –on ons: demons, electrons, lexicons

k)      doua forme

Substantive nenumarabile (mass nouns)

-denumesc notiuni vazute ca intreg. Pot fi:

a)      concrete: sugar, coal

b)      abstracte: beauty, kindness, patriotism

A.    Substantive invariabile la singular

au numai forma de singular

Se acorda cu verbul la singular

a)      substantive concrete: bread, butter, chalk, food, gold, jam, silver, etc

b)     substantive abstracte: advice, information, knowledge, nonsense, etc

c)      cateva substantive terminate in –s:

news (stiri, vesti): here is the 9 o’clock news= acestea sunt stirile de la ora 9.

Nume de boli: measles (pojar), mumps (oreion), rickets (rahitism) : measles is a catching disease.

Nume de stiinte si obiecte de studiu terminate in –ics: acoustics, aesthetics, cybernetics, economics, electronics, linguistics, phonetics, physics, athletics, ethics, gymnastics, politics: acoustics is the science of sound.

Nume de jocuri: billiards, bowls, cards, darts, dominoes, draughts, marbles, ninepins, skittles: dominoes is a game for children dar: a billiard-table, a bowling-alley, a dart-board, a drought-board

Unele substantive proprii: Athens, Brussels, Naples, Wales, the Thames

d)     Adjectivele abstracte substantivizate: the beautiful, the sublime, the good, the evil: in fairy stories the good always wins.

B.     Substantivele invariabile la plural

au numai forma de plural

se acorda cu un verb la plural

a)      substantive care denumesc obiecte formate din doua parti egale (summation plurals). Pot denumi:

unelte: binoculars, compasses, glasses, pincers(cleste), pliers(patent), scales(balanta), scissors, spectacles, tongs(cleste): where are the scissors?= unde este foarfeca?

Articole de imbracaminte: braces(bretele), clothes, flannels, jeans, overalls(salopeta), pants, pyjamas, shorts, trousers: these trousers are too long for you

b)     Unele substantive proprii: the Alps, the USA, the Netherlands.

c)      Substantive nemarcate la plural: cattle, clergy, gentry, people, police, vermin, youth, family

The people are on the street. The cattle are in the field.

Atentie: peoples=popoare



The family are all at home. The families gathered at the meeting.

d)     Alte substantive folosite numai la plural (pluralia tantum) terminate de regula in –s:

Invariabile

Variabile

Advices

Instiintari, avize

Advice

Sfaturi

Airs

Aere

Air

Aer

Annals

Anale

Archives

Arhiva

Arms

Arme

Arm

Brat

Ashes

Cenusa

Ash

Scrum

Auspices

Auspicii

Bowels

Intestine

Brains

Intelect

Brain

Creier

Colours

Steag, drapel

Colour

Culoare

Contents

Continut

Content

Capacitate, substanta

Costs

Cheltuieli

Cost

Pret, cost

Customs

Vama

Custom

Obicei

Damages

Despagubiri

Damage

avarie

Earnings

Castig

Fireworks

Artificii

Funds

Fonduri

Fund

Baza (de cunostinte, de bani)

Glasses

Ochelari

Glass

Pahar, sticla

Goods

Bunuri, marfa

The Good

Binele

Grounds

Zat, drojdie; teren

Ground

Pamant, motiv, cauza

Holidays

Vacanta

Letters

Litere, literatura

Letter

Litera, scrisoare

Manners

Purtare, maniere

Manner

Mod, maniera

Minutes

Proces verbal

Minute

Minut

Oats

Ovaz

Outskirts

Periferie

Pains

Osteneala

Pain

Durere

Receipts

Incasari

Receipt

Chitanta

Regards

Salutari

Regard

Privire, consideratie

Remains

Resturi, ramasite

Respects

Omagii

Respect

Stima, consideratie

Sands

Plaja

Sand

Nisip

Savings

Economii

Scraps

Resturi de mancare

Scrap

Bucatica, fragment

Spectacles

Ochelari

Spectacle

spectacol

Spirits

Dispozitie (buna/rea)

Spirit

Spirit, fire, atitudine

Stairs

Scari

Suds

Clabuc de sapun



Surroundings

Imprejurimi

Thanks

Multumiri

Tropics

Tropice

Valuables

Obiecte de valoare

Wages

Salariu

genul substantivelor

feminine

substantivele care sugereaza o caracteristica feminina, un caracter bland, afectuos: affection, devotion, faith, hope, justice

substantivele care denumesc trasaturi negative de caracter: ambition, folly, jealousy, revenge, vanity

substantive abstracte ca: fortune, liberty, mercy, nature, peace, science.

MASCULINE

substantivele nume de animale mari: horse, elephant

substantivele ce denumesc pasiuni intense si actiuni violente: anger, fear, murder, terror

fenomene naturale puternice: ocean, river, sun, thunder, wind, death

nume de fluvii: the Danube, the Thames

nume de munti: the Carpathians, the Cheviot

NEUTRE

substantive nume de animale mici: frog, fish

substantive nume de obiecte: umbrella, table, book, etc.

Reguli de formare a femininului:

Brother

Sister

Earl (=count)

Countess

Dog

Bitch (catea)

Drake(ratoi)

Duck

Father

Mother

Gentleman

Lady

Gander(gascan)

Goose

Boy

Girl

King

Queen

Lad(young man)

Lass(young woman)

Lord

Lady

Man

Woman

Monk(calugar)

Nun

Mr.

Mrs. Miss

Nephew

Niece

Uncle

Aunt

Ram(berbec)

Ewe

Boar(vier)

Sow(scroafa)

Stag(cerb)

Hind(caprioara)

Cock

Hen

Stallion

Mare(iapa)

Bull(taur)

Cow(vaca)

cuvinte diferite

cu ajutorul unor cuvinte la care genul este marcat: he/she, male/female, etc:

Boy-friend

Girl-friend

Male-student

Female-student

Policeman

Policewoman

Chairman

Chairwoman

Cock-sparrow

Hen-sparow

He goat

She goat

Tom cat

She cat

Jack-ass(magar)

Jenny-ass

Male frog

Female frog

prin adaugarea unui sufix

la forma de masculin:

a.      –ess

Actor

Actress

Count

Countess

Duke

Duchess

God

Goddess

Heir

Heiress

Host

Hostess

Master



Mistress

Negro

Negress

Waiter

Waitress

Lion

Lioness

Tiger

tigress

b.      –ine : hero-heroine

la forma de feminin:

a.       –er: widow-widower

b.      –groom: bride- bridegroom (man who has just got married)

exista substantive care au o singura forma atat pentru masculin cat si pentru feminin. Ele apartin genului comun.

Artist, cook, cousin, doctor, friend, inhabitant, musician, neighbour, novelist, parent, professor, person, pupil, relative, speaker, student, teacher, writer, etc.

I have a new girl-friend.

Our new teacher is very nice. She always dresses in black.

My neighbour is pregnant.

### Pentru unele animale, exista un termen generic, nemarcat d.p.d.v. al genului, care are alte doua forme pentru masculin si feminin. Vezi tablelul de la 1 (cuvintele bolduite)

Care e femininul si care e masculinul?

Sister

Brother

Countess

Count

God

Goddess

Hostess

Host

King

Queen

She cat

Tom cat

Monk

Nun

Niece

Nephew

Jack-ass

Jenny-ass

Stag

Hind

Stallion

Mare

Countess

Earl

Drake

Duck

Lady

Gentleman

Boy

Girl

Lass

Lad

Man

Woman

Mr.

Mrs. Miss

Uncle

Aunt

Sow

Boar

Hen

Cock

Bull

Cow

Cazul substantivelor

Cazul nominativ

The boy is waiting for his friend.

Cazul acuzativ

I ate an icecream an hour ago. I asked him a question.

* acuzativul intern: sing a song, fight a fight, atc

*marcat de prepozitii: I’m looking at John. The boys were talking about the match.

Cazul    dativ

arata catre cine sau catre ce este indreptata actiunea exprimata de verb (CI)

marcat de prepozitia to sau for

a)      dupa verb tranzitiv + CD + to + CI: deny, give, lend, offer, pay, read, tell, throw, write, wish : I paid the money to the shop assistant. I’m writing a postcard to my friend. Dar: I paid the shop assistant the money. I’m writing my friend a postcard.

b)      Indiferent de ordinea CI-CD, cu prepozitia To: address, announce, communicate, describe, explain, introduce, mention, relate, repeat: I introduced him to my friend

c)      Dupa verb tranzitiv + CD + for +CI: buy, choose, do, leave, make, order, reserve, save, spare: She made a new dress for her daughter.

Cazul genitiv

exprima ideea de posesiune; functie de atribut.

Genitivul sintetic

Anna’s bag is new.

‘S

la forma de singular a substantivului: the girl’s dress, the pupil’s question

la cateva substantive cu forma neregulata de plural: Men’s clothers are more expensive than women’s. We keep the children’s toys here.

la forma de plural a substantivelor regulate: the boys bicycles; the drivers attention.

La substantive nume de persoane terminate in –s: Dickenslife, Charles novels.

*** in grupurile de cuvinte, marca de genitiv se adauga la ultimul cuvant: my sister-in-law’s job, Henry the VIII’s court

*** doi posesori ai aceluiasi obiect: Tom and Mary’s parents (Tom si Mary sunt frati)

***daca obiectul nu apartine amandurora: Tom’s and Mary’s parents (Tom si Mary nu sunt frati)

Folosirea genitivului sintetic

a.       cu nume proprii: Tom’s car

b.      cu substantive care desemneaza persoane: the boy’s new shirt

c.       cu substantive colective: the nation’s security

d.      cu substantive care denumesc animale mari: the lion’s roar

e.       cu denumiri geografice si ale unor institutii: Europe’s future, the school’s programme

f.        cu substantive care denumesc unitati de timp, spatiu, masura: today’s work, a mile’s distance, a pound’s weight, yesterday’s newspaper, in two years’ time

g.      cu cateva substantive comune urmate de cuvantul sake: for pity’s sake, for mercy’s sake, for order’s sake, art for art’s sake

h.      substantive (abstracte) care prin personificare au genul feminin sau masculin: truth’s victory, the ocean’s roar

i.        unele pronume nehotarate ca: another, either, neither, one si compusii lui some, any, no, every si adverbul else: somebody’s advice, nobody’s fault, another’s claim

j.        in unele expresii: a needle’s eye, her heart’s desire, the journey’s end, at a stone’s throw, to my heart’s content

k.      cand substantivul determinat este omis: St Paul’s (Cathedral) is in London. I bought this bag at Selfridge’s (store)

genitivul analitic- cu of

Se foloseste cu:

a.       substantive nume de obiecte: the title of the book

b.      denumiri geografice urmate de nume: the City of London, the Gulf of Mexico.

c.       Cand dorim sa subliniem numele propriu: the sonnets of William Shakespeare.

d.      Cu substantive care desemneaza persoane, daca substantivul determinat e precedat de articol nehotarat: I am a great admirer of this writer.

e.       Pentru intarire: the arrival of his grandfather surprised him (not the arrival of his father)

f.        Cu nume de animale mici: the tail of the mouse, the wings of the butterfly.

genitivul implicit

-lipseste marca de genitiv: the audience participation, student hostel, afternoon tea

genitivul dublu

Genitivul sintetic+ genitivul analitic- cu substantive nume de persoane : this joke of Peter’s.

A description of Eliade= o descriere a lui Eliade facuta de altcineva

A description of Eliade’s= o descriere facuta de Eliade






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