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Dissertation Paper - Corporational Management in Times of Crisis- Payzone SA

management

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University of Bucharest

The Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures



The European Organisations Culture and Languages

Dissertation Paper

Corporational Management in Times of Crisis- Payzone SA

Bucharest

Introduction

Company history

Company structure

Products and services

Case Study

Glossary

Conclusions

References

Introduction

Good management is strongly connected to good communication skills. A manager cannot manage a crisis well without having the ability to talk to his employees or his colleagues.

Managing a crisis nowadays has become an impossible mission mostly because the companies consider that they do not need a specialist in decision-making. Due to the fact that I consider that specialists should be hired to teach our managers how to socialize I have chosen to talk about this topic.

In this paper I have chosen Payzone SA, a Romanian company that has been facing a lot of bad management decisions. The approach that I have had for this paper is classical, presenting the company and its problems.

The next three chapters are focused on the history of the company, its structure, together with the role that every department has, and its products. The fifth chapter entitled ďCrisis ManagementĒ tackles the problems the company has been facing with in the last year. I have presented the situation from the point of view of the employees, which are most affected by the crisis.

The sixth chapter presents a SWOT analysis of the company that shows relevant facts both for the employer as well as for the employee.

The concept of management in time of crisis is illustrated in the following pages.

Payzone SA

I.       Company history

As of December 5th, 2007, Cardpoint PLC was acquired by Alphyra Group Ltd. Cardpoint PLC, together with its subsidiaries, owns and operates independent automated teller machines and prepaid mobile telephone airtime electronic top-up terminals in the United Kingdom and Europe. It also provides credit and debit card terminals. The company operates cash machines for banks and building societies. Cardpoint provides its cash machines and mobile phone top-up terminals in various locations, including convenience stores, hotels, and motorway service, hospitals, restaurants, shopping centers, cinemas, and train stations. As of September 30, 2006, Cardpoint had 4,475 cash machines in the United Kingdom, 725 cash machines in Germany, and 200 cash machines in the Netherlands. The company was founded in 1999 and is headquartered in Blackpool, the United Kingdom.

In 2005 the company Alphyra entered the Romanian market. It offered prepaid cards for mobile communication. Alphyra is an Irish company founded in 1989, which operated payment services in Europe. Their products were mobile prepaid, mobile top-up, credit and debit card processing, utility bill payment, money transfer and stored values solutions. In Romania the market was opened prepaid mobile cards. At the beginning the company was having only 10 employees at the companyís headquarters in Bucharest.

The company grew in very short time and it developed keeping its staff and hiring new one.

In 2007 Alphyra merged with Cardpoint PLC. Their merger goal was creating a larger European Consumers and Cash Distribution group. The result of the merger is Payzone PLC, being headquartered in Ireland. In order for the costumers not to forget the Alphyra brand, its logo was partially kept in the new Payzone logo:

The products that Payzone offers nowadays at wide-world level are mobile top up, pre paid debit cards, credit and debit cards, bill pay, 3V and international credit cards.

The mobile operators that Payzone works with are O2, Vodafone, Orange, 3, T Mobile, Virgin Mobile, Tesco Mobile, Asda Mobile. The bills that can be paid at world wide level are British Gas, E-On, NPower, Enie Energy, Anglianwater, Hartlepool Water, and United Utilities. The 3V voucher permits the customers to shop online without a credit card. In order to use a 3V card one must be older than 16 years old.

III.      Company structure

 
Organization Chart

The Managing Director of the company gives periodic reports to the Ireland Headquarter. He is in charge of explaining and supporting every decision made by other managers. He is responsible of presenting to the Romanian staff every decision taken by the Board of Directors and he oversees all the Romanian departments.

The Marketing Manager assures the good relation between new clients and the company. He has to make periodic sales reports and he approves the offers that the Sales Agents make to their clients. He is responsible to the Managing Director and responsible for Sales and Advertising and Productions departments. The Advertising and Productions department is responsible with the contracts signed with the Mobile Network Operators. The Sales Department is divided into four sub-divisions: Southern Region, Western Region, Eastern Region and Northern Region, each of them having a Regional Sales Manager in charge.The Regional Sale Managers are taking a very close look on what the sales agents are doing. The RSMs are keeping in touch with all of their Sales Agents clients in order to keep them satisfied.

The Operations Manager is accountable for three departments: Helpdesk, IT and Research and Development. He reports periodically to the General Manager about the three departmentsí activity. The Helpdesk department is divided into Call Center and Back Office. The Call Center talks directly to the clients while the Back Office answers the e-mails and prepares the orders for the Sales Agents. The IT department assures the good work of the computer system that consists of Networking Cisco VPN, OS Support Linux and Microsoft, Transaction Support TNMS and Local Network IT Support, and periodically tests new products and software.

The Finance Department is responsible with all the financial issues and for clientsí credit control. It has to file many reports every week, both for the clients as well as for the company. The Finance department is divided into Financial Management and Accounting. The Accounting Department has to be very attentive in order not to make mistakes and prejudice the client.

The Human Resources Department is accountable to paying the employees and to make sure that no employeesí rights are being violated.

Every employee knows that in order to keep the things going they have to be precautious and to overcome every need a client might have. As long as the clients are happy the business should have no problem.

IV. Products and services

Payzone being the final product coming out of the merger between Alphyra and Carpoint PLC, continued workings on the Romanian market with prepay cards. Since 2008 two more products have been implemented in Romania: Bill payment for the convenience stores and Direct Recharge.

Prepay and Bill payment transactions can be made either with the help of a Hypercom T2100 terminal or with Pc Solution. The Pc Solution system requires installing a link, having a username, both of them being sent via e-mail by the company to the user, a computer and a printer which are userís property. The Pc Solution system requires a minimal financial effort from the company.

On the Romanian market there are, at this point, 11000 terminals installed at clients. Those terminals are Payzoneís property and are being borrowed to the customer on the contractual period.

There are two types of clients Payzone deals with: regular clients and Distribution clients. The regular clients are contracted by the companyís Sales Agents, while the Distribution clients are being contracted by Distribution firms with whom Payzone has contract. At this point, there are ten distribution companies that work with Payzone. Two of the Distribution companies were bought in 2009 by Payzone to help them from bankrupting.

The prepay products that are sold in Romania at this moment are:

  • Orange
  • Vodafone
  • Cosmote
  • Zapp
  • FocusSat

Each of the Operators tries to come up as often as possible with new offers for their clients, helping the telecommunication companies to sell more and more prepaid cards.

Concerning the Direct Recharge, the only Operator that supports this type of

transactions is Vodafone. The Direct Recharge product revolutionizes the market with the innovation of transferring prepay credit directly to a specified number.

The bills that can be collected are:

  • Cosmote
  • Vodafone
  • Zapp
  • Oriflame
  • Ralfi
  • E-on
  • E-on Moldova
  • Enel
  • Electrica
  • Congaz
  • UPC
  • Distrigaz

Bill payment in convenience stores represents a win-win situation: the client does not have to go to another place to pay his bill as long he is in a convenience store, the convenience store manager has a commission for every bill they collect so does Payzone.

V.       Crisis management

At this time the company has, in Romania, more than 150 employees, every one of them having a well-known role in the company. The employees have shown a lot of responsibility when the work volume rose. The decisional power is still in the hands of the Ireland Headquarter. When the crisis started to show itself in Romania at the middle of 2009, the Ireland Headquarter demanded that 10 employees were fired and the remuneration decreased with 15%. At the beginning of this year the remuneration decreased again with 10%.

The employees felt this decreasing very discouraging because the work volume did not stop rising and the responsibilities grew bigger every day.

The Romanian subsidiary was on profit when the crisis showed up in our country. Payzone had, for four years in a row, since Alphyra entered the Romanian market, a contract with the Post. There used to be more than 200.000 bill pay transactions a day and each bill was bringing Payzone profit.

Since August 2009 the contract with the Post expired and the company started to think about dismissing some of the employees because the board of directors did not consider necessary to have the same amount of workforce if, in their opinion, the amount of work has decreased.

That was the critical point of the relationship between the Companyís managers and the employees. There were no management measures taken, and a total silence from the part of the managers. To the employees it felt like everybody was trying to save himself, without thinking about their subordinates.

The employees started to feel depressed because of the lack of respect they were experiencing and started to do mistakes. This is when the Operation Director came and said that the Company is not bankrupt and that everything is going to come back to normal after six months.

It has been almost a year and the situation did not come back to normal, on the contrary, it has worsened. Because of the repeated salary cuts 5 out of 20 women, employees at the Headquarter, remained pregnant, thinking that this will be the best option for them at this point. But the global economical situation has proved them wrong: 4 of those women have come back to work, preferring the salary cut to the small child raise support.

This bad-managed crisis did not ended with the loss of the subsidiary, but with the loss of confidence from the part of the employees towards the managers they once used to trust.

In this case the lack of communication has led to the lack of trust that is being shown now: every employee is looking for a better job, and by better I do not mean better paid, but stable.

There could have been taken a lot of measurements to prevent this situation:

Ø      Explaining the situation in a firm and convincing way

Ø      Asking for the employeesí opinion even if their opinions would not have been taken into consideration

Ø      Preparing a plan to raise the sales and to decrease the losses

Ø      The reducing of the benefits packages

VI.            SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture.

SWOT analysis is an effective method used for strategic planning to identify potential, priorities and creating a common vision of achieving development strategy. In fact SWOT analysis should give the answer to 'Where are we?Ē It involves the analysis of both internal and external environment of the company.

SWOT gives the opportunity to identify appropriate measures to eliminate or reduce weaknesses and largely eliminates threats.

STRENGTHS

- Re-positioning credit limits at various periods of time

- Well- trained team

- A reliable infrastructure for information technology

- Proactive protection against 'malware'

- Good reputation for customer service

- The existence of a contingency plan for risks with high probability

- An existing clientís database

- The existence of a faithful clientele

- Characteristics of the offer (product / service) that differentiated from the competition

- Optimally utilize the experience and professional training of specialists and business partners

- Market leader

- The use of modern means of information and training

- Great power of flexibility

- Existence of a favorable image on the market

- There is a relatively extensive network of territorial units;

- Communication and information transfer is done in real time;

- Professional experience;

- So-called transferable skills (communication, teamwork, leadership, etc.).

- Personal characteristics (professional ethics, self-discipline, resistance to stress, work under pressure, creativity, optimism, energy);

- Involvement or interaction with various groups or associations.

- Opening new operational units (agents);

WEAKNESSES

- Demoralization of the employees by decreasing salaries

- Faulty marketing politics

- Partial lack of procedures

- Faulty internal communication

- Lack of an intern communicator

- Lack of a Human Resources policy

- Lack of clear management targets;

- Lack of motivation of staff;

- The absence of specific knowledge necessary for work in the department concerned or even made hiring new staff;

- Lack of knowledge of its potential

- Lack of discipline;

- Lack of patent law to protect their inventions and innovations.

- Lack of 'brand image'.

- Lack of knowledge necessary to elaborate a business plan or funding request

- Indirect costs are high;

OPPORTUNITIES

- PC Solution- development with little resources

- Bill payment in Gas Stations

- Expansion in the RATB stations

- Opportunities may arise from positive market perceptions about the organization's offer.

- Increasing competition on an increasingly Romanian prepay market and particular emphasis on attracting new customers and retain existing ones, especially through quality products and services but also maintaining it over time;

- National electronic payment system operates under international standards and requirements;

- Positive trends in the field, which will create new jobs or positions (up to local / regional / national level, globalization, technological progress);

- Opportunities that can be created by increasing levels of education;

- The rapid growth of the market;

- Possibilities for extending the classification of products and / or services;

- The existence of demand for new products and / or services in existing markets or new markets;

- The existence of market demand on new products and/ or services;

- Possibilities of concluding, agreements,

THREATS

- Bad payer customers

- Unsatisfied employees

- Intrusion of 'malware' in the computer system of the company is also a risk or a threat

- Obvious obstacles (declining economic environment, increasing competition, loss of customers)

- Technological changes

- Financial issues

- Partial mistrust of consumers on Romaniaís prepay market

- Relatively limited financial resources for implementing new products

- No personal involvement of top managers in quality problems, either from ignorance or from carelessness or from both of them

- Negative trends in the field, which will lead to lower employment;

- Competitorsí experience, superior skills and knowledge;

- Have knowledge and skills that are not needed market;

- Entry into an economic recession nationally or internationally;

- Changes to the needs, tastes and preferences of customers;



- Slower growth, stagnation or even recession of the market;

- Entry of new competitors on the market;

- Increasing demand for alternative products;

- The mounting pressure of competition;

- Vulnerability to the changing business environment

After identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats we can conclude that the Company enjoys the trust of its clients and if it will revise its behavior towards its employees it is able to maintain market leadership at national level. It has a diversified and high quality range of products.

VII.          Glossary

Backup

ID language: en

Definition: a copy of information that is held on computer, which is stored separately from the computer

Definition source: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary

Context 1: In information technology, a backup or the process of backing up refers to making copies of data so that these additional copies may be used to restore the original after a data loss event. The verb is back up in two words, whereas the noun is backup (often used like an adjective in compound nouns).

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: Backups are useful primarily for two purposes. The first is to restore a state following a disaster (called disaster recovery). The second is to restore small numbers of files after they have been accidentally deleted or corrupted. Data loss is also very common. 66% of internet users have suffered from serious data loss

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Grammatical category: noun

Use area: informatics

POS

ID language: en

Definition:

Definition source:

Context 1: Point of sale (POS) or checkout is the location where a transaction occurs. A 'checkout' refers to a POS terminal or more generally to the hardware and software used for checkouts, the equivalent of an electronic cash register.

Context source 1: www.wikipdia.org

Context 2: A POS terminal manages the selling process by a salesperson accessible interface. The same system allows the creation and printing of the voucher.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Grammatical category: noun

Use area: economics

Voucher

ID language: en

Definition: a piece of paper that can be used to pay for particular goods or services or that allows you to pay less than the usual price for them

Definition source: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary

Context 1: A voucher is a recharge number sold to a customer to recharge their SIM card with money and to extend the card's availability period.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: A voucher is a bond which is worth a certain monetary value and which may be spent only for specific reasons or on specific goods. Examples include (but are not limited to) housing, travel, and food vouchers.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Grammatical category: noun

Use area: retailers

FTP

ID language: en

Definition: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to copy a file from one host to another over a TCP/IP-based network, such as the Internet. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and utilizes separate control and data connections between the client and server applications, which solves the problem of different end host configurations (i.e., Operating System, file names).FTP is used with user-based password authentication or with anonymous user access.

Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: FTP can be run in active mode or passive mode, which control how the second connection is opened. In active mode the client sends the server the IP address port number that the client will use for the data connection, and the server opens the connection.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Grammatical category: noun

Use area: informatics

Inbound

ID language: en

Definition: Arriving (such as passengers), or coming in (such as a flow).

Definition source: www.businessdictionary.com

Context 1: An inbound call center is one that exclusively or predominately handles inbound calls (calls initiated by the customer)

Context source 1: wiki.answers.com

Grammatical category: noun

Use area: operational field

Outbound

ID language: en

Definition: That is going out or leaving; 'the departing train'; 'an outward journey'; 'outward-bound ships

Definition source: www.thefreedictionary.com

Context 1: An outbound call center is one in which call center agents make outbound calls to customers on behalf of a business or client. Calls made from the center can include telemarketing, sales or fund-raising calls, as well as calls for contact list updating, surveys or verification services.

Context source 1: wiki.answers.com

Grammatical category: adjective

Use area: operational field

Upload

ID language: en

Definition: To transfer programs or data over a digital communications link from a system near you (especially a smaller or peripheral `client' system) to one further away from you (especially a larger or central `host' system).

Definition source: dictionary.die.ne

Context 1: Users can upload videos, create blogs and participate in forums.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: You can upload multiple files with one time submittion.

Context source 2: www.phpeasystep.com

Nota bene:

Grammatical category: verb

Variants: photo upload, files upload

Commentary: Uploading is necessary when you want to transfer files on a FTP

Use area: Informatics

Status: Informatics

Ro correspondent: a incarca

Correspondent source: Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane, Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica 'Iorgu Iordan', Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998

Adapter

ID language: en

Definition: a type of plug which makes it possible to connect two or more pieces of equipment to the same electrical supply

Definition source: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary

Context 1: An electrical adapter may enable connection of a socket used in one region to a plug used in another by offering connections for the disparate contact arrangements, while not changing the voltage

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: We bought adapters to use our three-prong plugs in the two-prong, unpolarized outlets of the old house.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: from French adapteur

Grammatical category: noun

Variants: AC adaptor

Commentary: An adaptor is used to connect two pieces of equipment.

Use area: Informatics

Status: Electronics

Ro correspondent: adaptor

Correspondent source: Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane, Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica 'Iorgu Iordan', Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998

Cookie

ID language: en

Definition: a piece of information stored on your computer which contains information about all the Internet documents that you have looked at

Definition source:  Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary 

Context 1: A packet of information sent by a server to a World Wide Web browser and then returned by the browser each time it accesses that server, used to maintain state between otherwise stateless HTTP transactions, for example, to identify the user

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: -

Context source 2: -

Nota bene: from Dutch koekje

Grammatical category: noun

Variants: web cookie

Commentary: The cookie is sent as an HTTP header by a web server to a web browser and then sent back unchanged by the browser each time it accesses that server

Use area: computing

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: -

Correspondent source: -

Overclock

ID language: en

Definition: is the process of running a computer component at a higher clock rate (more clock cycles per second) than it was designed for or was specified by the manufacturer, usually practiced by enthusiasts seeking an increase in the performance of their computers

Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: There are several considerations when overclocking. First is to ensure that the component is supplied with adequate power to operate at the new clock rate.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: As an overclocked component operates outside of the manufacturer's recommended operating conditions, it may function incorrectly, leading to system instability

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: -

Grammatical category: verb

Variants: -

Commentary: People who overclock their components mainly focus their efforts on processors, video cards, motherboard chipsets, and random-access memory (RAM).

Use area: informatics

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: a suprasolicita

Correspondent source: Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane, Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica 'Iorgu Iordan', Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998

Link

ID language: en

Definition: a connection between documents on the Internet

Definition source: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary 

Context 1: Click on this link to visit our online bookstore.

Context source 1: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary 

Context 2: -

Context source 2: -

Nota bene:

Grammatical category: noun

Variants: link of a chain

Commentary: This section introduces the link (or hyperlink, or Web link), the basic hypertext construct

Use area: programming

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: legatura

Correspondent source: Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane, Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica 'Iorgu Iordan', Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998

Prepay

ID language: en

Definition: describes a mobile phone which you must pay to use before you are able use it

Definition source: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary 

Context 1: Prepaid accounts are assets, and they are increased by debiting the account

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: A prepaid mobile phone (also commonly referred to as pay-as-you-go, Pay & Go, or prepaid wireless) is a mobile phone for which credit is purchased in advance of service use.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene:

Grammatical category: adj

Variants: postpaid

Commentary:

Use area: telecommunication

Status: infrastructure

Ro correspondent: preplatit

Correspondent source: www.dexonline.ro




Communication

ID language: en

Definition: the act of communicating with people

Definition source: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary 

Context 1: Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: from Latin communicationem

Grammatical category: noun

Variants: communication disorder

Commentary:

Use area: telecommunication

Status: telecommunication

Ro correspondent: comunicare

Correspondent source: Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane, Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica 'Iorgu Iordan', Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998

ATM

ID language: en

Definition: Initialism of automated teller machine

Definition source: www.wiktionary.org

Context 1: A device that provides bank customers with cash withdrawal and other services without the need for a bank teller.

Context source 1: www.wiktionary.org

Context 2: -

Context source 2: -

Nota bene: from English ATM

Grammatical category: noun 

Variants: -

Commentary: -

Use area: banking

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: bancomat

Correspondent source: www.dexonline.ro

Credit Card

ID language: en

Definition: A plastic card, with a magnetic strip or an embedded microchip, connected to a credit account and used to buy goods or services

Definition source: www.wiktionary.org

Context 1: The issuer of the card grants a line of credit to the consumer (or the user) from which the user can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance to the user

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: A credit card is different from a charge card: a charge card requires the balance to be paid in full each month

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene:

Grammatical category: noun

Variants: debit card

Commentary:

Use area: banking

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent:

Correspondent source:

Pin

ID language: en

Definition: Personal identification number. A number used to confirm identity when using an ATM, or more recently when making payment using a credit card or debit card.

Definition source: www. wiktionary.org

Context 1: A personal identification number (PIN; pronounced 'pin') is a secret numeric password shared between a user and a system that can be used to authenticate the user to the system.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: PINs are most often used for automated teller machines (ATMs) but are increasingly used at the point of sale, for debit cards and credit cards.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene:

Grammatical category: noun

Variants:

Commentary:

Use area: banking

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent:

Correspondent source:

Recharge

ID language: en

Definition: to charge again

Definition source: www.wikitionary.org

Context 1: A prepaid mobile phone is rechargeable.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2:-

Context source 2:-

Nota bene: from French recharger

Grammatical category: verb 

Variants: to recharge the batteries

Commentary: To invigorate and revitalize one's energy level by removing stressful agents for a period of time

Use area: telecommunication

Status: electronics

Ro correspondent: a reincarca

Correspondent source: www.dexonline.ro

VPN

ID language: en

Definition: a network set up for use by a limited number of individuals, such as employees of a company, operating over a large area. The network typically uses encryption to keep information secure

Definition source: www.wiktionary.org

Context 1: A virtual private network (VPN) encapsulates data transfers between two or more networked devices not on the same private network so as to keep the transferred data private from other devices on one or more intervening local or wide area networks

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: VPN technologies have myriad protocols, terminologies and marketing influences that define them.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: initialism for Virtual Private Network

Grammatical category: noun

Variants: Voip VPN

Commentary:

Use area: computing

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: -

Correspondent source: -

VOIP

ID language: en

Definition: a telecommunications system that uses the Internet or other Internet Protocol network to transmit telephone calls

Definition source: www.wiktionary.org

Context 1: To prevent the above security concerns the government and military organizations are using; Voice over Secure IP (VoSIP), Secure Voice over IP (SVoIP), and Secure Voice over Secure IP (SVoSIP) to protect confidential, and/or classified VoIP communications

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.com

Context 2: -

Context source 2: -

Nota bene: abbreviation from Voice Over Internet Protocol

Grammatical category: 

Variants:

Commentary:

Use area: telecommunication

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: -

Correspondent source: -

Malware

ID language: en

Definition: Software developed for the purpose of causing harm to a computer system

Definition source: www. wiktionary.org

Context 1: The term 'computer virus' is sometimes used as a catch-all phrase to include all types of malware, including true viruses.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: Software is considered to be malware based on the perceived intent of the creator rather than any particular features.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: blend of malicious and software

Grammatical category: noun

Variants:

Commentary:

Use area: software

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: -

Correspondent source: -

Software

ID language: en

Definition: Encoded computer instructions, usually modifiable (unless stored in some form of unalterable memory such as ROM).

Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: The 'software' comprising the carefully planned interpretive routines, compilers, and other aspects of automative programming are at least as important to the modern electronic calculator as its 'hardware' of tubes, transistors, wires, tapes and the like.

Context source 1: www.wiktionary.org

Context 2: As originally conceived, the word 'software' was merely an obvious way to distinguish a program from the computer itself.

Context source 2: www.wiktionary.org

Nota bene: blend of soft and ware

Grammatical category: noun 

Variants: -

Commentary:-

Use area: computing

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: soft

Correspondent source: Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane, Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica 'Iorgu Iordan', Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998

Application

ID language: en

Definition: A computer program or the set of software that the end user perceives as a single entity as a tool for a well-defined purpose

Definition source: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary 

Context 1: The iPhone application VR+ connects to major social networks

Context source 1: www.wiktionary.org

Context 2:-

Context source 2:-

Nota bene: from French application

Grammatical category: noun

Variants: application programme

Commentary:-

Use area: computing

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: aplicatie

Correspondent source: www.dexonline.ro

Firmware

ID language: en

Definition: Something in-between hardware and software. Like software, it is created from source code, but it is closely tied to the hardware it runs on.

Definition source: www.wiktionary.org

Context 1: Typical examples of devices containing firmware range from end-user products such as remote controls or calculators, through computer parts and devices like hard disks, keyboards, TFT screens or memory cards, all the way to scientific instrumentation and industrial robotics.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: There are no strict boundaries between firmware and software, as both are quite loose descriptive terms.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene:-

Grammatical category: noun

Variants:-

Commentary:

Use area: computing

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent:-

Correspondent source:-

Firewall

ID language: en

Definition: a technological barrier designed to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between computer networks or hosts

Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: Firewalls can be implemented in either hardware or software, or a combination of both.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: -

Grammatical category: noun

Variants: -

Commentary: -

Use area: computing

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent:-

Correspondent source:-

GPRS

ID language: en

Definition: a packet oriented mobile data service available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications (GSM), as well as in the 3G systems.



Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred, while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independent of whether the user actually is using the capacity or is in an idle state.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: GPRS was developed as a GSM response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet switched cellular technologies

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: initials for General Packet Radio Service

Grammatical category: noun

Variants:-

Commentary:-

Use area: telecommunications

Status: informarics

Ro correspondent:-

Correspondent source:-

Mobile network operator

ID language: en

Definition: is a telephone company that provides services for mobile phone subscribers

Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: The essential characteristic that defines a mobile network operator is that they must have acquired a radio spectrum license from the government before they can offer mobile phone service within a country.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2:-

Context source 2:-

Nota bene:-

Grammatical category: noun 

Variants:-

Commentary:-

Use area: telecommunication

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: operator de telefonie mobila

Correspondent source:-

GSM

ID language: en

Definition: the most popular standard for mobile telephony systems in the world

Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: The GSM Association, its promoting industry trade organization of mobile phone carriers and manufacturers, estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: The ubiquity of implementation of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers, who may benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones, and also to network operators, who can choose equipment from many GSM equipment vendors

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: initials for Global System for Mobile communications

Grammatical category: noun

Variants:-

Commentary:-

Use area: telecommunications

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: GSM

Correspondent source:-

SIM Card

ID language: en

Definition: a small, removable card smaller than a credit card which stores mobile phone data such as contact names and numbers, SMSs and security information

Definition source: www. wiktionary.org

Context 1: A subscriber identity module (SIM) on a removable SIM card securely stores the service-subscriber key (IMSI) used to identify a subscriber on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers).

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: SIM cards are available in three standard sizes. The first is the size of a credit card (85.60 mm ◊ 53.98 mm x 0.76 mm)

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: initials for Subscriber Identity Module

Grammatical category: noun

Variants:-

Commentary:-

Use area: telecommunication

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: Card Sim

Correspondent source:-

PUK code

ID language: en

Definition: is a SIM-specific code assigned by the service provider. It is impossible to guess and enter it; thus, if you do not know your PUC (PUK) and are prompted for it, you should get it from your service provider.

Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: A PIN Unlock Code (PUC) or PIN Unlock Key (PUK) is used in GSM mobile phones and some smartcards to unblock a blocked card.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: If the wrong PIN is typed in more than three times, either the SIM card, the device or both become locked. They can be reverted to their original unlocked state by entering a PUC (PUK), provided by the service operator through verification.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene: abbreviation for Personal Unblocking Code

Grammatical category: noun

Variants:-

Commentary:-

Use area: telecommuncation

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent:-

Correspondent source:-

CMS

ID language: en

Definition: a system used for monitoring operations carried out in workplaces

Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: iCMS from IneoQuest Technologies is a new Video Content Monitoring System that provides a never before, real-time, look into the QoE health of the video distribution network by managing multiple Cricket FrameGrabber probes.

Context source 1: www.ineoquest.com

Context 2:

Context source 2:

Nota bene: abbreviation for Content Monitoring System

Grammatical category: noun 

Variants: VCMS

Commentary:-

Use area: informatics

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent:-

Correspondent source:-

Terminal

ID language: en

Definition: In the context of telecommunications, a terminal is a device which is capable of communicating over a line

Definition source: www.wikipedia.org

Context 1: Examples of terminals are telephones, fax machines, and network devices - printers, work stations, routers in a VoIP network.

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: HyperTerminal is the most widely distributed terminal emulator, if not the most widely used.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene:-

Grammatical category: noun

Variants:-

Commentary:-

Use area: telecommunication

Status: electronics

Ro correspondent: terminal

Correspondent source:www.dexonline.ro

Serial Number

ID language: en

Definition: one of a set of numbers that is put on items produced in large quantities, such as computers, televisions, paper money, etc. so that each has a different number and can be recognized

Definition source: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary

Context 1: Serial numbers are valuable in quality control, as once a defect is found in the production of a particular batch of product, the serial number will quickly identify which units are affected

Context source 1: www.wikipedia.org

Context 2: Many computer programs come with serial numbers, often called 'Compact Disc keys', and the installers often require the user to enter a valid serial number to continue.

Context source 2: www.wikipedia.org

Nota bene:-

Grammatical category: noun

Variants:-

Commentary:-

Use area: telecommunication, computing

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: numar serial

Correspondent source:-

MSN

ID language: en

Definition: serial number imposed by the manufactureur

Definition source: https://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com

Context 1:-

Context source 1:-

Context 2:-

Context source 2:-

Nota bene: acronym for Manufactureur Serial Number

Grammatical category: noun 

Variants:-

Commentary:-

Use area: does not have a specific area where it is used

Status:-

Ro correspondent:-

Correspondent source:-

Transaction

ID language: en

Definition: An atomic operation; a message, data modification, or other procedure that is guaranteed to perform completely or not at all

Definition source: www.wikitictionary.org

Context 1: Each transaction at the foreign exchange counter seems to take forever.

Context source 1: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary

Context 2: We need to monitor the transaction of smaller deals.

Context source 2: Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary

Nota bene:-

Grammatical category: noun

Variants: database transaction

Commentary:-

Use area: it has no specific usage

Status: informatics

Ro correspondent: tranzactii

Correspondent source: Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane, Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica 'Iorgu Iordan', Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998

VIII.       Conclusions

Most organizations are very interested in how their reputation is like.

They understand that companies with a good reputation have strong brands and this can mean greater profitability. In addition, it helps with credibility and credit rating. It also makes recruitment less difficult if the companyís reputation is solid and good; those with good reputations tend to attract good people.

A badly handled crisis can damage or ruin that reputation. It hits internal morale and can impinge on productivity among employees. So, there are real commercial reasons for managing crises well. A brand which is supported by many millions of dollars of advertising can be damaged overnight. It is an investment in a word, a name, an image. Its insurance policy is good crisis management strategies.

In essence, by managing a crisis well, a brand is enhanced. The rules of managing a crisis are very simple:

1. Look carefully at the signals. What is the worst-case scenario?

2. A little expense now saves a fortune later on

3. Never rush

4. Overcompensate

5. Things will get worse before they get better and a crisis will not go away if you ignore it

Handle a crisis well and the reputation of a company, sales and profits will all be enhanced. If a crisis is handled badly the risk is to lose the company.

References

O'Mahony Donal, Electronic payment systems, ARTECH HOUSE, 1997

Dominic Barton, Roberto Newell, Gregory Wilson, Managing in Financial Crises, John Wiley & Sons, 2002

Tom Curtin, Managing a crisis, Macmillan, 2005

Michael Watkins, The First 90 Days: Critical Success Strategies for New Leaders at All Levels, Harvard Business School Publishing, 2003

https://www.SMARTfinancial.ro

https://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/10/01/alphyra_cardpoint_merger/

https://www.independent.ie/business/european/share-selloff-unlikely-ahead-of-cardpoint-alphyra-deal-1229497.html

https://www.finfacts.com/irelandbusinessnews/publish/article_1011317.shtml

https://www.dexonline.ro

https://www.wikipedia.org

https://www.wikitictionary.org

www.ineoquest.com

https://www.payzone.co.uk/

*** , Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica 'Iorgu Iordan', Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane, Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998

*** Cambridge Advanced Learnerís Dictionary, Second edition, 2006









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