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ARTICOLUL

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ARTICOLUL

Forma: In engleza articolele au doua forme: nehotarat A sau AN si hotarat THE. Articolele sunt invariabile si nu au gen.




A se foloseste in fata cuvintelor care incep cu un sunet consonantic chiar daca prima litera e o vocala. An se foloseste in fata cuvintelor care incep cu vocala sau h mut. Ambele se pot folosi numai cu substantive numarabile la singular.

A dog a computer

A desk a university (sunet consonantic)

A man a house

An orange a son

An umbrella an hour (h mut)

An idea an honour (h mut)

A building an example

Nota

The se pronunta (π∂) cand sta in fata unui substantiv care incepe cu un sunet consonantic si (πi:) inaintea unui substantiv care incepe cu un sunet vocalic.

The se foloseste in fata oricarui substantiv numarabil sau nenumarabil, atat la singular cat si la plural.

The dog the dogs

The atmosphere the wine

The house the time

The eggs the information

The rice the apple

Nota

Cand ne referim la acelasi lucru sau aceeasi persoana pentru a doua oara, folosim de obicei pe the.

There is an apple and an orange for the dessert. I’ll eat the apple.

Utilizare: A sau AN se folosesc:

inaintea unui substantiv pentru a ne referi la ceva sau cineva pentru prima data.

I’ve received a postcard from a friend of mine in the US.

pentru a exprima ce este ceva sau cineva, inclusiv slujbe sau profesii.

My next-door neighbour is a dentist and his wife an architect.

Jenny doesn’t eat meat; she’s a vegetarian.

That was a kind thing to say.

dupa verbul be sau verbe copulative urmate de un adjectiv sau substantiv sau cand este urmat de locutiuni prepozitionale sau propozitii relative care ofera mai multa informatie despre cineva sau ceva:

Jack’s son is a talented artist.

I bought a painting that reminded me of my childhood home.

cu unele expresii numerice insemnand unu sau cu expresii ale pretului, vitezei, raportului si cantitatii.

A hundred guests were invited.

Petrol costs £ 1.50 a litre in England.

He’s crazy driving at 190 kilometres an hour.

Nota

A / An si one sunt uneori interschimbabile dar nu in toate cazurile.

Spunem:

A hundred pounds sau one hundred pounds

Dar

a lot of / a great deal of

cu substantive numarabile la singular pentru a da definitii, a face afirmatii generale, exclamatii sau cand exprimam dorinte.

A dog is more company than a cat.

I’d like a nice cool glass of beer.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

Utilizare: THE se foloseste:

inaintea unui substantiv singular numarabil sau nenumarabil sau a unui substantiv plural numarabil pentru a face o noua referire la ceva ce a fost deja mentionat sau la care s-a facut deja aluzie.

He wanted to go to a bank to change some money, but all the banks were on strike.

Do you remember the fun we had when we were at school together?

pentru a face referire la cineva sau ceva anume.

I like the painting above the fire place.

The American economy is suffering at the moment.

in fata unui substantiv reprezentand o anume persoana sau un lucru sau un grup de persoane sau lucruri.



Shall I drive the car? (aceasta masina)

Will you make the tea, please? (ceaiul pe care ne pregatim sa-l bem)

cu referire la ceva unic in mod absolut.

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

The President of the United States visited the Pope last May.

in fata adjectivelor pentru a face referire la un anumit grup sau clasa de oameni. In acest caz nu este nevoie de substantiv.

Only the strong survive.

Robin Hood stole from the rich to give to the poor.

in fata unui substantiv la singular pentru a se referi la un anume grup de oameni, animale sau obiecte.

The Indian elephant is smaller than the African elephant.

The customer is always right.

Nota

Exista exceptii.

Omaha is in North America.

The branch manager was sent to South-East Asia on a reconnaissance trip.

inaintea unor substantive proprii pentru a denumi zone geografice, nume de mari si rauri, lanturi muntoase, grupuri de insule, nume la plural de tari si deserturi.

The Atlantic, the Bay of Biscay, the Middle East, the north of England, the West of Ireland, the Ivory Coast, the Black Country

The Mediterranean Sea, the English Channel, the River thames, the Rhein, the Straits of Gibraltar

The Himalayas, the Pennines

The Channel Islands, the Hawaiian Islands, the Falklands

The United States of America, the Netherlands

The Arizona Desert, the Gibbon Desert

Nota

The nu se foloseste cu nume de munti izolati:

Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Scotland.

Nota

Nu se foloseste the cu nume de lacuri.

Lake Windermere, Lake Superior, Lake Victoria

in fata numelor de instrumente muzicale.

The guitar has always been my favourite instrument.

Do you think your father will let us play the drums in his garage?

in fata unor adjective – nationalitati cu referire la oameni dintr-o anumita tara- aici se foloseste un verb la plural.

The French and the British have worked together to build the “Channel”.

The Dutch are said to be hard workers.

Nota

In anumite cazuri se pot folosi numai substantive la plural.

The Germans were upset about losing the semi-finals.

The Americans hosted the 1994 World Football Championship.



inaintea adjectivelor superlative si a numeralelor ordinale.

Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.

That is the silliest thing I have ever heard.

Nota

Uneori numeralele ordinale pot fi folosite fara the atunci cand se face referire la ordinea in care se petrec evenimentele.

Brendan came first and Collin second in the 100 meters.

We went to Manhattan first, then on to Brooklyn.

Utilizare: Nu se foloseste articolul:

in fata substantivelor nenumarabile sau numarabile la plural cand se face o afirmatie generala.

Pollution in big cities is very worrying.

Dogs make good companions.

Aceste cuvinte sunt adesea precedate de determinanti ca: some, any, a piece of, a lot of

Is there any bread in the kitchen?

Are there any apples in the bowl?

Nota

Iata o lista de substantive care sunt de obicei la singular si nenumarabile in engleza, dar uneori nu si in alte limbi:

Luggage, baggage, furniture, news, information, advice, behaviour, damage, permission, traffic, weather, work, accommodation, bread, luck, progresss, hair

in fata substantivelor abstracte cand sunt folosite in mod generic: beauty, happiness, fear, hope, knowledge, intelligence; cu exceptia cazurilor cand sunt folosite cu sens mai bine specificat.

Knowledge comes to us through our senses.

She got the job because she has a knowledge of English.

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

What a beauty!

in fata substantivelor proprii, nume de persoane si numele unei companii, cu exceptia situatiilor cand se vorbeste de familie ca de un tot.

He works for Unimotor Ltd.

Helene and Geoff Parker are coming to dinner tonight.

Dar The Parkers are coming to dinner tonight.

pentru a vorbi despre sporturi, in fata numelor de echipe

He loves football but she isn’t keen of golf.

She supports Manchester United.

inaintea numelor meselor zilei: breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper.

Where did you have breakfast?

inaintea cuvintelor home, church, university, prison, hospital, market, atunci cand ele reprezinta o institutie sau o idee generala. The se foloseste totusi atunci cand se face o referire speciala la locul respectiv.

John Bragg was arrested and put into prison for corruption.

His wife can go to the prison once a week to visit him.

Emma and Sam are at school.

Their mother often goes to the school to talk to their teacher.

Exercitii:

Alegeti articolele: a, an, the, Ψ

1. Nearly all … furniture had been taken out of … dining-room. 2. … big piano was put in … corner and then there came … row of flower pots and then there came … goldy chairs. 3. That was for … concert. 4. When Sun looked in … white-faced man sat at … piano – not playing, but banging at it. 5. He had … bag of … tools on … piano and he had stuck his hat on … statue against … wall. 6. So they went into the dining-room; … red ribbons and … bunches of … roses tied up … table at … corners. 7. In … middle was … lake with … rose-petals floating on it. 8. ‘That’s where … ice-pudding is to be’ said … Cook. 9. Two silver lions with … wings had … fruit on their backs. 10. And all … winking glasses and shining plates, and all … food! 11. ‘Are … people going to eat … food?’ asked Sun. 12. While they were being unbuttoned … Mother looked in with … white thing over her shoulders; she was rubbing … stuff on her face. 13. ‘I’ll ring for them when I want them, … Nurse.’

Alegeti articolele: a, an, the, Ψ

1. Out of … ignorance he made … mistake after … mistake. 2. They sailed through … Straits of Magellan. 3. … school and … home were far away. 4. I’ll start as … deck boy at … pound … month. 5. … children of … lane used to play together in … field: … Browns, … Pages, little Tom … cripple. 6. They walked along … North Strand Road till they came to … Finlandia House and then turned to … right along … Wharf Road. 7. I went from … room to … room singing. 8. At … Victoria Station … crowd of … people pressed to … carriage doors. 9. That’s an order, said … Major Dunn. 10. … police officer Dan Taylor stood guard over her outside … St. Francis Hotel. 11. … judge James Taylor was not lenient. 12. … Chinese language is totally unlike … Japanese. 13. … Japanese have transcribed their language into … Roman alphabet as well. 14. I thought about it … day and … night. 15. They transmitted television pictures back to … earth. 16. … earth shone … brilliant blue green, curved at … horizon, against … blackness of … space, below the two ships as … Soyuz trailed … Apollo. 17. She settled down to sip … tea from … paper cup. 18. … crocodiles can be bred commercially just like … cows or … pigs. 19. … lava and … ash from … Merapi Volcano, … Central Jawa have forced 170 families to flee their homes. 20. … female crocodile lays about 40 eggs … year. 21. … farm life doesn’t agree with them. 22. She was training for … Swan Lake. 23. … lack of … parking space forces … motorists to double-park reducing … wide streets to … narrow lanes. 24. They discovered … fossils of … bony fishes on … field trip to … Ellesmore Island in … Artic. 25. The fire broke out near … Lake Hemet, south of … mountain resort of … Idyllwild, and burned to … southeast.

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. The, the 2. The, a, a, the 3. The    4. a, the 5. A, Ψ, the, a, the 6. Ψ, Ψ, Ψ, the, the 7. The, a, Ψ 8. The, Ψ 9. Ψ, Ψ 10. The, the 11. Ψ, the 12. Ψ, a, Ψ 13. Ψ

1. Ψ, Ψ, Ψ 2. The 3. Ψ, Ψ 4.a, a, a 5. The, the, the, the, the, the 6. The, Ψ, the, the 7. Ψ, Ψ 8. Ψ, a, Ψ, the 9. Ψ 10. The, Ψ 11. Ψ 12. The, Ψ 13. The, the 14. Ψ, Ψ 15. Ψ 16. The, a, the, the, Ψ, the, the 17. Ψ, a 18. Ψ, Ψ, Ψ 19. Ψ, Ψ, Ψ, Ψ 20. A, a 21. Ψ 22. Ψ 23. The, Ψ, Ψ, Ψ, Ψ 24. Ψ, Ψ, a, Ψ, the 25. Ψ, the, Ψ, the








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