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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

comunications

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TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Read the following text:

But why do I need a computer anyway?



Word processing is the chief requirement, of course. But what does WP actually mean?

In its simplest form, WP is an electronic screen equivalent of a typewriter. Instead of typing directly onto a page, you write to a screen. Your words are saved on a disk and may be retrieved at a later date for editing. When you are happy with what you have written, you output your words to a printer which turns them into “hard-copy” to be used as you would the product of a typewriter. The simple advantages of WP are the ease of editing which working on a screen gives you – no need for Tippex or hasty scrawls on supposedly finished manuscripts. Most users believe their output and the quality of their writing increase considerably when they move to the screen, and no one (…) has moved back to the typewriter from the word processor.

So there is a basic advantage to be gained from shifting your writing from typewriter to screen. But WP programs are becoming increasingly sophisticated. They no longer just emulate typewriter tasks, but introduce new tools for the writer, some of which are very good indeed. These include some excellent integral spelling checkers which pick up mistakes as you write. (…) You probably think a spelling checker is something you can do without – we did until we owned a good one. Once hooked, they become invaluable aids in the production of a clean manuscript. (…)

The automatic numbering of footnotes, printing in two or three columns, and a clearer indication onscreen of what your printed page will look like – WYSIWYG, “What You See Is What You Get” in computer jargon – are also features which are rapidly becoming more popular.

Finally, the more powerful programs – which also tend to be the most expensive – can drive new kinds of printers designed to give output of a quality close to typesetting. This means that they must have typographical control over text, spacing, and the design of the page. Magazines which consist principally of text and rudimentary design elements can be produced as pages in this way. More complex publications require…

Desktop publishing. This is the computer industry’s latest buzzphrase, though one which is becoming increasingly imprecise. In a nutshell, it should mean the use of personal micros to output full pages of text and graphics from a laser printer through the use of a page makeup programme. You may think that DTP does not affect you, but you are probably wrong. Word processing as the world knew it a year ago is dying on its feet. The future of writing on computers lies, not in the production of manuscripts, but in the creation of pages. But if you’re a novelist, why should you learn about producing pages? You hardly need to. The machine will take care of the production work for you, numbering each page and footnote and printing an index in the end. When you’re finished, your disk goes to the publisher who, staggered by the production costs you’ve saved him, pays you twice the royalty he’d originally planned. That, at least, is how it should work, and will if those who produce the goods learn how to negotiate.

So even the most individual and isolated of writers will eventually become involved in what is called now DTP. Others, those who want to produce their own small publications, will find that the very cheap costs involved will spur them into action. Several small publishers now exist who could never have survived without the savings in money and time which DTP allows.

Accounts. Everyone keeps accounts, be he or she freelance writer or company director. With the right software a computer is extremely proficient at maintaining financial records across a broad field of tasks, from VAT to payroll. The key question you must ask yourself is whether off-the-shelf accounting software can cope with your needs. For simple tasks, it probably can. But if your requirements are unusual you must either customise software yourself or get someone in to do the job for you. Which prompts two questions: can you do the former and how much would the latter cost in addition to the price of the software?

If your accounts are sufficiently simple to be happily maintained in an ordinary ledger, keep them there. Don’t computerise for the sake of it.

Other uses. Mailing lists are handled very well on computer, and there is a wide range of tailormade programs around to do the job. If your list is larger than 1,000 names and addresses , check whether your machine has sufficient storage space on disk to keep them all on one file. If not, you may need a hard disk . Mailing programs often boast that they can handle 64,000 entries or so. This is highly misleading. That is the number of entries which the software can handle – the hardware will impose its own limits.

Communications is a growing field. It works by connecting your computer to the phone network through a device called a modem. Once connected, your machine can link you to electronic libraries, telex, electronic mail, and other computers to send and receive information around the world.

( from Business English by Michael Brookes and David Horner)

Answer the following questions:

Try to find some of the features that give the computer simple or major advantages in its contest with the typewriter.

You work with a mail program which boasts that it can handle 64, 000 entries but when your list becomes larger than 1, 000 names and addresses, you may discover that something is wrong. Why?

What is a spelling checker and why does a WP user need one?

If the future of writing on computers lies not in the production of manuscripts, but in the creation of pages, a novelist or a poet will bring to the publisher only the final part of the work. Among so many advantages the work with the computer brings, can you specify if the manuscript offers any valuable particularities?

What does the computer do excepting the emulation of the typewriter tasks?

Which operations are necessary at a computer, from the desire of a user to have a text until the existence of the printed text itself?

Find in the text:

a.          the synonym for:

necessity - ………………..

to recover - ………………..

to imitate - ………………..

to move from one position to another - …………………

pay-sheet - ……………….

to deal with - ………………..

piece of work - ………………..

help - …………………

rash - ………………..

domain - ……………….

b.          the antonym for:

to waste - …………………

to input - ………………..

along - …………………

the most complex - ………………..

to lose - ………………….

to last - ………………..

Correct the mistakes:

Our computer system provides information on advertising, distribution and profits.

Theirs profits are down by 50 %.

We must find a new way of coping to the situation.

Hardly the novelist had finished speaking when the publisher accepted the offer.

Foreign Ministers are meeting at talks in Geneva to negotiate a treaty banning all chemical weapons.

We interviewed one inexperienced candidate and an experienced one, and then chose the last.

The WP corporation has already lost $200 million this year and its feature looks increasingly uncertain.

The freelance writer knew the hardware inventor was dieing.

UNIT II

PRESENTATIONS

TYPES OF PRESENTATIONS: press conference, briefing, demonstration, product launch, lecture, talk, seminar, workshop etc.

PREPARATION: DOS AND DON’TS (TIPS FOR A STAND-UP PRESENTATION)

a.       Find out about the audience

b.      Find out about the venue and the facilities

c.       Plan the content and the structure, but don’t write the complete text of the presentation

d.      Write notes on sheets of paper, not on cards

e.       Try to memorize the first five sentences of your talk

f.        Prepare visual aids: pictures, diagrams

g.      Rehearse your presentation with friends or colleagues

INTRODUCTION (KEY PHRASES):

Introduce yourself and the subject: “My name is Amanda Rear and I work for Medstar Ltd. My talk is called “Public Relations Skills for the 21st Century”.

Outline what you are going to talk about: describe the different sections of your talk: “There are three main skills areas I want to talk about today…”

Say whether people should ask questions during the talk or at the end: “If you have any questions I’ll be very happy to answer them at the end of the session.”

MAIN PART

TIMING: - Start on time. Don’t wait for latecomers.

- Plan how long you’re going to spend on each point and keep to these timings

Don’t spend too much time on sa particular point

Don’t digress unless you have a particular purpose on mind

Finish on time. Don’t run over.

VOICE: - Project your voice to the back of the room, but don’t shout

Use a microphone if you need one.

Speak in a natural tone of voice. Don’t speak in a monotone. Vary the pitch of your voice.

GAIN THE AUDIENCE’S ATTENTION BY: - telling an anecdote

mentioning a really surprising fact

stating a problem

asking a question

KEY PHRASES FOR THE MAIN PART:

“OK. To begin, let’s look at the first type of skills that PR officers need: technical skills. Of course, related to…But I’m digressing, let’s get back to technical skills…That’s all I have time for on technical skills.”

“Let’s move on to the second area: personal skills. As you can see…I think that covers everything on personal skills.”

“Time is moving on, so let’s turn to the third area:…”

CLOSING AND QUESTIONS

BODY LANGUAGE:

make eye contact

face the audience all the time

smile, but not too much

use gestures

stay more or less in one place; don’t move around too much

avoid mannerisms

VISUAL AIDS: flipchart, bullet points, screen, projector, computer screen, whiteboard, blackboard, transparencies, overhead projector (OHP)

KEY PHRASES:

“Let us sum up. Firstly, we looked at… Secondly, at… and last, but not least, at… In my view, … That brings me to the end of my presentation. Are there any questions?”

ANSWERING QUESTIONS:

a.      That’s a fair point.




b.      That’s confidential.

c.       That’s not really my field, but…

d.      Well, I think that goes beyond the scope of today’s presentation

e.       I’m afraid we’ve run out of time, but…

ENDING: “I think that’s a good place to stop. Thank you for listening.”

(adapted from Business Vocabulary in Use by Bill Mascull)

PRACTICE

1.Correct the mistakes in the following sentences referring to the main part of a presentation:

a.       OK. For begin, let we look for the most basic product in our range

b.      Of course, related with product specifications of our basic model is the issue of product performance.

c.       But I’m a digression, let’s get back on the product specifications themselves.

d.      That’s all I’m having time for on product specifications. Let’s moving on to our mid-range model.

e.       As you can be seeing, on this transparency, there are two key features I want to talk about in relative to our mid-range model.

f.        I think that covers up everything on our mid-range model.

g.      Time is moved on, so let’s turn up to our top-of-the-range model

Read the advice below about the use of technology in presentations. Choose the best word to fill each gap from A, B, C or D. There is an example at the beginning.

Guidelines for giving Presentations

Most presentations today (0) on the use of some sort of technology, such as a laptop computer linked to a projector. While this technology can help to (1) presentations better, it also has a (2) of getting in the way. As a general (3) , it si better to (4) on the content of a presentation as a means of (5) your audience’s attention, rather than relying on sophisticated equipment.

Bear in mind that when an organisation invites (6) for a contract, they may (7) four or five presentations first from different companies in the same day. Each of these companies will probably be using the same computer graphics (8) and the same equipment. The chances are the presentations will be similar too.

That’s why the content and (9) of what you say are important. Think about what you want to say and how to say it as clearly as possible. As a first step, you need to (10) the main points you want to get across. Audiences are easily bored and (11) to remember only the most entertaining, exciting, or unusual ideas.

Next create your materials, choosing the images for your presentation very carefully. Remember you do not want to stop your audience from listening to you, nor do you want to (12) them.

Finally, make all the necessary (13) for the equipment you need. If technology is to be an important (14) of your presentation, make sure you know how to use it (15) and test it out beforehand.

Example:

A calculate B depend C determine D lean

0 – B

1.

A produce

B. make

C. construct

D. build

2.

A. behaviour

B. habit

C. practice

D. routine

3.

A. method

B. law

C. rule

D. course

4.

A. focus

B. define

C. target

D. direct

5.

A. gaining

B. acquiring

C. collecting

D. taking

6.

A. requests

B. calls

C. bids

D. commands

7.

A. appoint

B. programme

C. schedule

D. catalogue

8.

A. parcels

B. packets

C. bundles

D. packages

9.

A. formation

B. design

C. structure

D. system

10.

A. catalogue

B. label

C. mark

D. identify

11.

A. point

B. tend

C. lead

D. move

12.

A. disorder

B mistake

C. confuse

D. complicate

13.

A. appointments

B. procedures

C. arrangements

D. organisations

14.

A. share

B. role

C. function

D. element

15.

A. precisely

B. suitably

C. properly

D. accurately

  1. Group-work – speaking: imagine that you work for an important company and you have to make a presentation either for a new product or for a theoretical item you are a specialist in. In groups of 3 or 4 prepare your presentation and then deliver it to the rest of the class.


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