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THE POLLUTION GENERATED OVER THE PERIOD OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS

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TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

THE POLLUTION generated over the period of construction works

According to the Order of the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environment Protection nr. 125 from 1996 the impact study must present the level of pollution of the environment and the measures for reducing it during the whole period of execution of the motorway and also during its exploitation.

The working technologies, road works organizations and the temporary deviation of the traffic (in the area of the road interchanges, bridges and overpasses) or for the developing of the technological processes will be established by the Contractor who must obtain all the notifications and agreements necessary to carry on with the works, according to the legislation in force. Consequently, the Contractor will ask for the agreements (including those from the environment authorities) needed for the temporary works which are his full responsibility.



The works needed for the construction of the motorway are: road system, water drainage system, crossways and road interchanges, art works (passages and bridges), route signaling and directional marking works, etc.

The execution of the works requires temporary disaffection of some surfaces that are momentarily used in other purposes, in order to locate the site organization, utility park, materials and fuel storage houses, concrete and asphalt stations. The surfaces that are temporarily occupied by the site organization will return to their former destination once the construction works are over.

The execution of the works will require the circulation of a wide stock of vehicles (cement mixers, materials and devices carriers, vehicles for the transportation of the workers, etc.) at the site. The due traffic will generate temporary escape of exhaust fumes into the atmosphere and increased level of the noise creating a lack o comfort for the residents of the area and for those who work in the proximity of the site. All through the period of execution there are several possible sources of pollution: the execution itself, the traffic from the Production Bases to the working fronts and the Site organizations (asphalt and concrete stations, etc.).

The Contractor will have to ask the territorial Inspectorates for the Protection of the Environment for the environment permit for the functioning of the Production Bases and the objectives within the site organizations and also for the work technologies that he is about to adopt.

The main problems raised by the construction of the motorway are the very high prices and the very long period of execution.

These are the main reasons why a calendar phasing of the investment has been proposed, so that the commissioning of different sectors be made as it follows:

Section

Nr. of years of the execution

Period

Beginning year

End year

Bucharest-Ploiesti

4

Ploiesti-Campina

3

Campina-Comarnic

3

Comarnic-Predeal

7

Predeal-Rasnov

3

Rasnov-Codlea

1

In order to increase the profitableness rate of the project, this investment can be done on stages, both longitudinally and transversely.

Section

Nr. of years of the execution

Period

Beginning year

End year

 

Bucharest-Ploiesti (full profile )

Comarnic-Predeal (first way)

Predeal-Rasnov (first way)

An estimation of the exhaustion of polluting substances during the works of construction of the motorway has been made on the section Bucharest - Ploiesti (full profile, 4 traffic lines). The calculation scenario supposed the hypothesis of the necessity of two Production Bases equipped with: installation for the preparation of the asphaltic mixtures; installation for cement preparation, cement station, fuel storage house, filler, lime, units, refectory, etc.

It is highly recommended that the site emplacement avoid sensitive areas in order to limit its impact upon the environment. The areas situated in the proximity of water courses (the Snagov and Caldarusani lakes, the Ialomita, Prahova, Teleajen, Barsa, Ghimbasel rivers as well as their tributaries and valley) and the historically important areas (with archeological sites and historical monuments) are examples of such sensitive areas. The protection areas which have been instituted should be observed during the execution works.

WATER

1.1. SOURCES OF POLLUTION

The possible sources of pollution of the waters during the execution process can be:

v   execution of the works itself

v   traffic on site as a result of the circulation of the heavy duty vehicles transporting materials and workers at the site, utility;

v   site organization made up of: asphalt and concrete stations, service stations for the devices and transport vehicles, refectories, bedroom spaces, offices, etc.

1.2. THE IMPACT UPON THE ENVIRONMENT

The execution of the works

The earthworks determine the drawing of tiny soil particles which can get into the surface waters. The sediments of solid particles into the water courses modify the granularity of the bottom of the water and may damage the aquatic flora and fauna.

The handling and commissioning of the building materials (concrete, bitumen, units) determines emissions specific to each type of material and each type of construction operation. In the case when the works take place in the proximity of water courses, all these represent direct sources of pollution of the waters. The same thing applies in the case of the rain waters which wash the surface of the site drawing the sediments and thus they arrive into the water courses and into the subsoil water layer.

The defective handling of the vehicles which transport different types of materials or of the equipment in the very proximity of water courses represents a potential source of pollution following an accidental material, fuel or oil overflow.

Site traffic

The heavy traffic, specific for the site area, determines the emission of different polluting substances into the atmosphere that result from the fuel burned in the engines of the vehicles (NOx, CO, SOx, COV, slurry particles etc.). On the other hand, heavy traffic is a source of sedimentary particles as a result of the drawing of dust particles on the unpaved roads. There are also particles that result during the execution by the abrasion of the rolling track and the wearing of the tires. The atmosphere is cleaned up by the rain so that the polluting substances in the air are transferred to the other environment factors (surface and subsoil water layers, soil).

Site organizations

Asphalt and concrete stations placed in the proximity of a water course can become sources of pollution as a result of the washing of the polluting substances in the atmosphere or in the soil by the meteoric waters. Special attention needs to be paid to the areas where the level of the subsoil water layer is high because leaks of fuel and bitumen can be a source of pollution.

The fuel tanks can be sources of pollution if they are not tight.

Oils, fuels, dirty water from the washing of the machines result from the transport vehicles and service stations.

Waste waters from refectories and toilets are a result of site organizations. Generally these waters are normally loaded biologically speaking and they abide by the demands of the Norm NTPA 002/1997. The meteoric waters resulted in the area of the Site organizations are considered conventionally clean waters. Technological waters result from the location of Production bases as well.

1.3. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION MEASURES

v   It is highly recommended to avoid the location of Site organizations in the proximity of water courses (the Snagov lake, the Ialomita, Prahova and Teleajen, Barsa, Ghimbasel rivers as well as in their tributaries and valleys).

v   It is recommended that a projection of a sewerage, filtering and discharging system of both waste waters resulted from the refectory, sanitary spaces and meteoric waters that clean the platform of the site be done for the Site organizations and the Production bases. A system with one or more septic tanks that must be periodically emptied or a one piece type filtering plant that should insure a high level of filtering will be adopted, depending on the number of persons who will use the water for domestic purposes. In the last case the filtered water can be unloaded in a drainage channel or in the surrounding area. The resulted technological waters need a local pre-filtering in decanter type sewerage.

v   The platform of the organization must be projected so that the meteoric water be collected as well by a drain or a paved gutter system, where a deposit should produce before unloading, or several outflows can be made, then the water is introduced into the modulated filtering plant due to domestic water use.

AIR

2.1 SOURCES OF POLLUTION AND EMISSIONS OF POLLUTANTS

The works of execution of the motorway represent, on one hand, a source of dust emission as a result of heavy traffic, and on the other hand it is a source of emission of the polluting substances specific to burning fossil fuels (distilled oil products ), both in the engines of the devices and in the transport means that are used. Supplementary, the impact upon the environment generated by the functioning of the asphalt and concrete mixture stations should be taken into consideration during the execution process.

In this sense, when evaluating the impact upon the environment during the execution of the motorway, the following sources of polluting substances exhausted in the atmosphere have been separately analyzed:

v   Linear sources represented by the daily traffic from the Site organizations to the working fronts,

v   Surface sources represented by the functioning of the equipment in the area of the working fronts,

v   Punctiform sources represented by the Site organizations : asphalt, concrete and settled sand stations.

The effects generated by the punctiform sources and the mentioned surface are less felt than linear sources such as traffic.

The construction process may have, on a temporary basis (during the execution), a considerable local impact upon the quality of the atmosphere.

A) Linear sources

The emissions of polluting substances exhausted into the atmosphere are the result of the traffic, transport of materials, prefabs, personnel etc.

The circulation of transport vehicles represents an important source of pollution of the environment on construction sites and round the working fronts.

The pollution specific for traffic is evaluated by:

v   fuel consumption (polluting substances: NOx, CO, COVNM, material particles resulted by combusting fuels etc),

v   distances (polluting substances : material particles on the roads drawn by traffic).

We appreciate that polluting the air while fuel supplying, maintaining and servicing the transport means is quite low and can be ignored.

Fuel combustion in the engines of the vehicles for the transport of materials, prefabs, personnel, fuel etc from the Production Bases to the working fronts.

Site traffic is determined by the traffic of the heavy duty vehicles from the material discharge points (C.F station) to the production bases and from here further on to the working fronts.

The evaluation of the polluting substances emissions has only been made for the first section of the PloiestiBucharest motorway, about 66 km. long. They supposed that 2 Production bases with asphalt stations, bitumen and settled ballast stations will be needed for this section. The location of the Production Bases has been chosen so that the access to the railway be quite easy: at km 8 on the motorway, in the area of the Bucharest By-Pass railway and respectively in the area of the Dumbrava place, at about 1 km. from the Bucharest-Brasov railway.

A 5 year period has been taken into account for the execution of this section. The evaluation of the impact upon the environment has been made for the significant periods, those with the most intense activity. In this sense a 40 months program has been estimated, 20 days per month, 10 hours a day, and resulted an actual working period of about 8000 days.

The following types of transport have been considered for the evaluation of the emissions:

earthworks,

asphalt,

settled ballast,

ballast and sand,

aggregates for asphalt,

concrete.

In order to estimate the number of heavy duty vehicles needed for the works of execution of the motorway, they have taken into account the periods of stops for loading, discharging, etc.

Three borrow pits have been supposed to be needed for the execution of the volumes of roadbeds. The average distance of transport for a vehicle has been considered of 20 km (round trip). As a consequence 50 heavy duty vehicles/day will be needed for the transport of the earthworks, each of them having to make 15 runs daily. The daily fuel consumption for the number of vehicles mentioned above is about 7500 l/day.

A 60 km average transport distance (round trip) has been considered for the transport of the asphalt from the Production bases to the working point. The number of heavy duty vehicles that are needed for the transport of the asphalt is 15 vehicles/day, each one making 8 runs/day. For the preparation of the asphalt there has been used the hypothesis of the functioning of two stations with an hour capacity of 100 t/h, respectively 800t/day. The daily fuel consumption for the above mentioned number of vehicles is about 3600 l/day.

The following has been taken into account for the stabilized ballast: the transport of the ballast from the Station to the Production bases and the transport of the stabilized ballast from the Production bases to the working points. The average distance between the Station and the Production bases has been considered to be of 6 km (round trip); 10 heavy duty vehicles will be needed daily, each one making 16 runs. A 60 km (round trip) average transport distance has been considered for the transport of the stablized ballast from the Production bases to the working points. Consequently, the number of heavy duty vehicles needed for the transport of the settled ballast is 37 vehicles/day, each one making 4 runs daily. The daily fuel consumption for the above mentioned number of vehicles is about 4440 l/day.

The ballast and the sand needed for the works of execution of the motorway are supposed to be transported by train, and then from the station to the working points. The number of heavy duty vehicles needed for the transport of these materials has been considered to be 50 vehicles/day, each one making 31 runs. The daily fuel consumption for the above mentioned number of vehicles is about 6000 l/day.

The aggregates for the asphalt are transported from the Station to the Production bases with the aid of 7 heavy duty vehicles, each one of them making 16 runs daily. The average distance from the Station to the Production bases is of 3 km. When evaluating the total emissions of polluting substances resulted from transport, the contribution of the transport of the aggregates from the Station to the Production bases is negligible.

An average transport distance of 60 km.(round trip) has been considered for the transport of the concrete from the Production bases to the working points. The necessary number of heavy duty vehicles for the concrete transport is 35 vehicles/day, each one making 4 runs daily. For the preparation of the asphalt they have considered the hypothesis of the functioning of two stations with an hour capacity of 120 t/h, respectively 1000 t/day. This estimation has been made for the top periods when the two stations are supposed to work at full capacity. The daily fuel consumption for the above mentioned number of vehicles is about 4200 l/day.

The evaluation of the emissions of polluting substances during the execution has been made on the basis of the daily average consumption of fuel (Diesel oil) from the heavy traffic between the Production bases and the working fronts. In Romania the average fuel consumption for a heavy duty vehicle was estimated to be of 50 l /100 km.

The total need of Diesel oil for the heavy duty vehicles is estimated at 22.000 l/day. In this estimation there have also been included the afferent fuel consumptions for the transport of prefabs, fuels workers, etc. A 0,7 simultaneousness coefficient has been applied to the sum total of heavy duty vehicles.

The means of transport are included in the category of heavy duty vehicles (heavy duty vehicles, according to CORINAIR). The 16 t made in Romania tip-up trucks have a high fuel consumption, 40-45 l/100 km while the CORINAIR methodology estimates an average fuel consumption of 27,5 l/100 km for the heavy duty vehicles.

According to the simplified CORINAIR (1999) methodology, the factors result from the emissions presented in the table 2.1 - 1. The particles are expressed as PM 10.

Table 2.1 - 1 – Debits of polluting substances resulted from the combustion of fuels in the engines of transport heavy duty vehicles

Nature of the polluting substance

Daily emissions

(kg/70 km)

Monthly emissions

(t/70 km)

NOx

CO

COV

Particles

It is appreciated that the emissions of polluting substances resulted from the circulation of transport means can be uniformly distributed along the working process. Referring to the emissions in table 2.1- 1 to the length of the considered section, respectively 70 km, there result the emissions specific for 1 km of the work, as shown in table 2.1 – 2.

Table 2.1 - 2 – Specific emissions, for 1 km of work, as a result of the combustion of fuels in the engines of transport heavy duty vehicles

Nature of the polluting substance

Daily emissions

(kg/km)

Monthly emissions

(t/km)

NOx

CO

COV

Particles

Dust particles on unpaved roads drawn by the traffic from the Production bases to the working fronts

The AP – 42 methodology has been used for the evaluation of the emissions of particles in suspension. As far as the unpaved roads are concerned, the average annual emissions (kg/km) are calculated with the following formula:

Where:

Eext = annual emission factor

K ~ multiplication factor for the particles dimension

K = 10 for d = 30µm

s = the dust volume of the surface of the road (S = 8,5)

W = vehicle weight (W = 16 t - 40 t ~ 25 t)

Mdry = the content of the material out of which the surface of the motorway is made, both in humidity and dry conditions (Mdry = 0.2)

p = number of days when the rain is at least 0.254 mm (p = 270)

E = 4,22 kg/km ~ 4 kg/km.

The calculation has been made for the most unfavorable situation, for particles with 30 µm in diameter, considered as representative for the construction period.

According to the hypothetical evaluations that have been made, the average daily traffic on the site during the execution of the BucharestPloiesti motorway section is about 232 heavy duty vehicles/day (including the construction devices).

In these conditions, for a reference section of 1 km, 1,4 t of daily emissions of slurry particles come out. The total daily emissions for the 70 km section are of about 97,44 t.

These values of the emissions are appreciated to be maximum. They appear on unpaved roads, when it does not rain for a longer period of time and the platform of the road is not sprinkled with water, while all the heavy duty vehicles and devices function simultaneously.

B) Surface sources

The emissions of polluting substances exhausted into the atmosphere are generated by the functioning of devices on working fronts.

The activity of the devices includes, principally, the scraping and storing of the vegetal soil, excavations and filling in the roadbed with mud and ballast, the transport of the materials to the CF station and to the Production bases in order to prepare the concrete and the asphalt, etc.

The quantities of polluting substances exhausted in the atmosphere by the devices depend on the following factors: the technological level of the engine, the capacity of the engine, the fuel consumption on aggregate, the capacity of the device, the age of the engine/device, the presence of pollution decreasing devices.

It is obvious that the more advanced the performances of the engine are, the more the emissions of polluting substances decrease, the world tendency being that of making engines with low fuel consumption on aggregate and with a very restrictive control of the emissions.

The pollution specific for the activities of the devices is appreciated by the fuel consumption (polluting substances NOx, CO, COVNM are material particles resulted from fuel combustion etc.) and the area where these activities carry on (polluting substances are sedimentary slurry material particles).

It is appreciated that the type of pollution specific for fuel supplying, maintenance and servicing of the devices is low.

The functioning of the devices in the area of working fronts

The emissions of slurry particles varies from one day to another, depending on the specific of the operation and the weather conditions.

The pollution specific for the activity of the devices is appreciated taking into account the area where these activities take place ( polluting substances are sedimentary slurry material particles) and the fuel consumption (polluting substances NOx, CO, COVNM, material particles resulted from fuel combustion, etc.)

According to the AP – 42 methodology the emissions of slurry particles resulted from the activity of the construction devices during the works can be estimated at 2,69 t/ha/month.

The quantity of slurry particles is proportional to the area of the lot where the activities take place.

Supposing that the construction works take place on a 40 m width and about 0,5 km length area (for a working front), the monthly emissions of particles on this section are of 2 ha x 2,69 t/ha = 5,38 t/0,5 km/month, which corresponds to 269 kg/km/day.

The impact of the emissions of slurry particles upon the environment factors is maximum on unfavorable weather conditions (wind with a speed equal or lower than 1m/s).

Slurry particles resulted from the activity of the devices are added to those resulted from transport means on the sections where both activities take place.

By cumulative effects, in these areas higher concentrations than those maximum acceptable in the above mentioned weather conditions can be reached, but only for limited periods of time.

The emissions of polluting substances exhausted into the atmosphere as a result of fuel combustion in the engines of the devices depend on the number and the type of the devices that work simultaneously on a working front.

Hypothesis taken into account for the evaluation of the utility fleet necessary for the execution of the BucharestPloiesti motorway section:

v   it is supposed that 3 borrow pits will be necessary for the earthworks,

v   two working points have been considered on the way,

v   they have taken into account the transport of the materials from the Station to the Production bases and the number of transport means for their delivering to the Asphalt and Concrete Stations

The estimation of the utility fleet has been made in the hypothesis of the functioning of two Production bases along the studied section: at km 8 on the motorway (1 km away from the Bucharest Belt Railway) and respectively in the proximity of the Dumbrava place (about 1 km away from the BucharestBrasov railway).

Consequently, it has been appreciated that the total fleet of devices will be made up of:

excavating machine n = 4, pieces,

bulldozer  n = 6 pieces,

loader  n = 10 pieces,

motor grader n = 4 pieces,

tyre firming device n = 10 pieces,

compaction roller n = 10 pieces,

vibro-plates  n = 2 pieces,

motor tarring device n = 2 pieces,

water truck n = 1 piece,

settled ballast distributor n = 2 pieces,

concrete distributor n = 2 pieces,

mechanic brush n = 1 piece.

As far as the pollution produced by the activity of the devices is concerned, the pollution of the environment, especially that of the air, is evaluated by the consumption of Diesel oil (for the emissions of polluting substances specific of fuel combustion: NOx, CO, SO2, particles) and by the specific of the activity (for the emissions of slurry sedimentary particles).

Important emissions of polluting substances result when unloading the asphalt in the area of working points. According to the AP – 42 methodology , the total emissions of organic carbon in the first 8 minutes after loading/unloading the asphalt can be estimated with an emission factor of 0,00055 kg/t of asphalt loaded/unloaded. An unloading represents at most 16 t, respectively the capacity of a heavy duty transport vehicle. In these conditions the total emission of organic carbon with an unloading is about 0,0088 kg/vehicle. 15 vehicles are daily used for the transport of the asphalt, each one of them making 8 runs. The total daily emission of organic carbon is calculated taking into account the daily traffic of heavy duty vehicles and the afferent number of runs for each of them, consequently it is estimated at about 1,06 kg/day.

Similarly, the emissions of carbon monoxide have been estimated by multiplying the emission factor specific for the total organic carbon with a value of 0,32, resulting a value of about 0,0028 kg/t of unloaded asphalt, the total emission being estimated at 0,34 kg/day.

The solution of the mixture of bitumen + “cutback” type solvent has been lately changed on the working fronts with the solution of an emulsion of cationic type. It is made of bitumen mixed up with water and emulsifier, that is why the emissions of volatile substances, when pouring in the working fronts (specific for the solvent contained in the “cutback” type mixture) are excluded.

It is supposed that only earthworks and ballasting works will be necessary for the first year of execution of the Bucharest - Ploiesti motorway section. Starting the second year the rest of devices will begin their activity as well, so the maximum daily number of vehicles will be 54.

The daily fuel consumption has been separately estimated for each type of device, depending on their number and effective working time. (table nr. 2.1 – 3).

Table 2.1 - 3 – Daily fuel consumption, depending of the type of utility

Type of utility

Functioning time

(h)

Fuel consumption

(l/h)

Nr. devices

Total fuel consumption

(l/day)

Total fuel consumption (kg)

excavating machine

motor grader

bulldozer

loader

settled ballast and concrete distributor

compaction roller

tyre firming device

The emissions of polluting substances (g/kg of fuel) have been estimated on the basis of the factors of emission indicated in the Copert III (table nr. 2.1-4) Methodology.

Table 2.1 - 4 – Emissions of polluting substances in the atmosphere resulted from fuel combustion during the functioning of the devices

Equipment type

Emissions of polluting substances (kg/day)

Emissions of polluting substances (t/month)

NOx

CO

COV

particles

NOx

CO

COV

particles

Excavating machine

Motor grader

Bulldozer

Loader

Stabilized ballast and concrete distributor

Compaction roller

Tyre firming device

C) Punctiform sources

Production Bases are considered to be punctiform sources of pollution during the works of execution of the Bucharest-Ploiesti motorway section. In order to evaluate the emissions two Production bases were supposed to be needed for the execution of the motorway – 1 section (Bucharest-Ploiesti). Each Base will be provided with:

v   Asphalt station,

v   Concrete station,

v   Stabilized sand station.

The functioning of the Asphalt Station

The quantities of asphaltic mixtures that are to be used depend on the solution that is to be adopted for the superstructure. The type and number of asphalt stations that will be used for the preparation of the asphaltic mixtures is still unknown; the estimations in the Impact Study have been realized on the basis of a purely hypothetical scenario.

In order to evaluate the quantities of polluting substances exhausted into the atmosphere, the calculation scenario started from the hypothesis of the functioning of two asphalt stations, corresponding to each Production Base. The asphalt stations are supposed to be provided with dust filters.

There are two types of emissions resulted from the Asphalt Stations:

v   fugitive emissions – specific for the activity before the preparation of the mixture and for some operations during the mixing process.

v   controlled emissions – specific for the production process.

Dust emissions previous to the asphaltic mixture preparation are associated to the traffic on the site roads (paved or unpaved) and to the activities of the aggregates. Fugitive emissions of dust include particles with dimensions between 0,1 – 300 µm.

The fugitive emissions appeared during the production process are combinations of gaseous polluting substances and material particles and are associated to the following operations:

v   the unloading of the asphalt in the transport means – organic vapors and aerosols result from here.

v   bitumen storage.

Controlled emissions specific for the production process are collected and exhausted into the atmosphere in a controlled way through furnaces. The main sources of controlled emissions are:

v   the dryer the following material particles produced by combustion result from here: CO2, NOx si SOx , carbon monoxide and small quantities of compounds: COV, CH4 – they result from the incomplete combustion of the fuel.

v   bitumen melting tank – the following material particles produced by combustion result from here: CO2, NOx and SOx, carbon monoxide.

Fugitive emissions resulted from the production process

Fugitive emissions resulted from the Asphalt Stations have been evaluated on the basis of the emission factors presented in the AP – 42 methodology, depending on the source:

Bitumen storage

Polluting substance

Hour volume of polluting substance

(kg/h)

Daily volume of polluting substance

(kg/day)

Total material particles

Organic material particles

Total organic carbon

Carbon oxide

The unloading of the asphalt in the means of transport

Polluting substance

Hour volume of polluting substance

(kg/h)

Daily volume of polluting substance

(kg/day)

Total material particles

Organic material particles

Total organic carbon

Carbon oxide

The emission factors have been evaluated on one ton of asphalt. An asphalt Station was supposed to produce an average quantity of 100 t/h, respectively 800 t/day.

Controlled emissions resulted from the production process

Two asphalt stations have been considered in order to evaluate the emissions of polluting substances resulted from the production activity, one for each Production base. The evaluation has been made on the premise of the functioning of the Asphalt Stations with an average hour capacity of 100 t, respectively 800 t/day. Air pollution has been estimated in these production tops. The asphalt stations are supposed to be provided with filters.

According to the AP – 42 methodology, the emission factors and the polluting substances weight rates have the values in the table 2.1 - 5 .

Table 2.1 - 5 –Emission factors (kg/Mg) and volumes of polluting substances for the asphaltic mixture station

Nature of the polluting substance

Volumes of polluting substances (kg)

 

hours

(k g/ 100 t/ h)

daily

(kg / 800 t / day)

CO

 

NOx

 

COV

 

SO2

 

CH4

 

Total particles (filterable + condensable)

 

In the case of the asphaltic mixture station, the emissions of particles resulted through the exhausting furnace are concentrate emissions. In order to abide by the Romanian laws regarding the emissions (CMA – 50 mg/Nmc), the asphalt station should be provided with textile filter bags. In order to comply with the particle concentrations which should be of maximum 50 mg/Nmc, they should be checked periodically by measurements.

The functioning of the Concrete Station

The type of pollution specific for this activity refers exclusively to the fabrication of concrete.

The recipe of the preparation of concrete consists of a mixture of water, concrete, sand and aggregates. The concrete preparation station provides the storage, the transport (on creepers), the weighing and the unloading of the constituents in transport vehicles to the working fronts.

Starting from the concrete production process, the only emissions of polluting substances that are of some interest are the material particles (concrete, aggregates and sand particles). There are two types of emissions of polluting substances: fugitive emissions and punctiform emissions.

Fugitive emissions are generated by: the transfer of the sand and the aggregates, the loading of the transport vehicles, the loading of the mixer, the traffic of heavy duty vehicles, wind carving in the areas where the sand and the aggregates are stocked.

Punctiform emissions appear only in a certain area, namely in that of transfer of the concrete to the cement bins. There are also emissions that may be exhausted if the Concrete Station is not equipped with air-tight packing or if they are worn out.

The emissions of material particles resulted from the production process

The emissions of material particles resulted from the concrete stations have been evaluated on the basis of the emission factors presented in the AP – 42 methodology, in terms of the source:

Pollution sources

Flow of polluting substances (kg)

Hours

(kg/120 t/h)

Daily

(kg/960 t/day)

The transfer of the sand and aggregates to the cement bin

Pneumatic discharge of the concrete in cement bins

Charging of the charging scales

Charging of the mixer

Traffic on unpaved roads

Wind carving in the areas where the sand and aggregates are stocked

In order to evaluate the quantities of polluting substances exhausted into the atmosphere, a concrete station equipped with dust filters has been taken into account. A 50 m3/h, respectively 120 t/h capacity concrete station has been considered for the calculation of the hour flows of polluting substances.

Emissions resulted from the operations of manipulation of the aggregates and wind carving in the storage areas

Supplementary emissions of particles appear within the Site Organization as a result of the manipulation of the aggregates and their storage in areas named paddocks. The quantity of emissions resulted from the manoeuvring operations depend on the volume of the aggregates that are stored. These emissions also depend on a series of parameters specific for the storage conditions such as the humidity content and the number of fine aggregates. A solution has been lately adopted of covering the fine aggregates of the sand type (especially the fine aggregates for the asphalt) smaller than 3 mm, because of their capacity of retaining humidity for long periods of time. The emissions of particles are higher in the first days after the storage of the aggregates.

The dust emissions resulted from the manoeuvring of the aggregates are found especially in the area of discharge of the aggregates in paddocks.

The quantity of particles resulted from the manoeuvring operations has been evaluated on the basis of the formula recommended by the AP – 42 methodology:

(kg/t)

where:

E = emission factor

K = multiplication factor for the dimension of the particles, k = 0,74 for d < 30 µm

U = wind speed (m/s), has been chosen U = 6,7 m/s

M = humidity content (%), has been chosen m = 0,25

The maximum quantities of dust emissions from the aggregates’ stocking paddocks are generated on dry, windy weather conditions.

= 0,093 kg/t

The emission factor has been calculated on one ton of stored aggregates.

The aggregates are used within the Production Bases for the preparation of the asphalt, the concrete and the settled ballast.

The total emission resulted from the charging of the aggregates stocking paddocks for the preparation of the asphalt, concrete and settled ballast is about 275 kg/day.

Supplementary emissions of dust particles appear in the stocking areas as a result of wind carving. A number of 13 paddocks distributed on sorts and the specific of the production (5 paddocks for the storage of the aggregates for asphalt, 4 – for concrete and 4 for settled ballast) has been taken into account. The maximum capacity of the paddock was supposed to be 200 m3 and an area of 0,02 ha.

The emission factor has been chosen according to the AP – 42 methodology:

E = 3,9 kg/ha/day.

Considering these hypothesis, the total emission of dust particles with a dimension of < 30 µm resulted from wind carving in the stocking areas is estimated at 1,01 kg/day.

THE IMPACT UPON THE AIR

The execution of the works is, on one hand, a source of dust emissions, and on the other hand a source of emission of the polluting substances specific for the fossil fuel combustion (distilled oil products) both in the engines of the devices and the transport means that are used.

The construction activity may have, temporarily (as long as the execution takes), a great local impact on the quality of the atmosphere. The impact upon the air is significant within the Site Organizations not only because of the functioning of the Asphalt and Concrete Stations but also because of the traffic of heavy duty vehicles.




The influence of these air polluting substances upon human health is felt when they exceed a maximum level of concentration, named the noxious limit. The noxiousness of the polluting substances depends on their concentration and on the duration of the exposure. Their effects upon human health are the following:

v   carbon monoxide (CO): intoxications may appear when inhaling this substance, which have several effects such as eyesight disorders, headaches, dizziness, fatigue, palpitations and even death when 66% of the haemoglobin in the blood changes into carboxihaemoglobin;

v   nitric oxides (NOx): in some concentrations it causes serious intoxications (chronic respiratory diseases and inflammatory injuries);

v   hydrocarbons (HC): especially those aromatic monocyclic (benzene) and polycyclic (benzopyrene) are hemato and neurotoxic, causing cancer;

v   soot particles (smoke): the smoke can contain lead particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons causing respiratory disorders and causing cancer at the level of the larynges, bronchi, lungs;

v   lead and lead compounds: it can enter the body through the lungs, the digestive tract and the skin, its toxic effect being the result of the perturbation of the biosynthesis of the haemoglobin, the nervous system and anaemia may appear or it may have a negative effect on the intellectual abilities;

v   sulphur oxides (SOx): they have an irritating effect on the respiratory system.

In order to evaluate the impact upon the environment factors during the execution of the motorway they have made up a scenario where all the potential sources of pollution described in chapter 2.1 have been included:

A) Linear sources represented by the daily traffic between the Site Organizations and the working fronts.

B) Surface sources represented by the functioning of the devices in the area of the working fronts and by the fugitive emissions from the Asphalt, concrete and settled sand Stations.

C) Punctiform sources represented by the Site Organizations: asphalt, concrete and stabilized sand Stations.

The evaluation of the impact of the polluting substances exhausted by the studied objective upon the quality of the air was made by the mathematical simulation of the polluting substances’ dispersion. The following models have been used:

v   The climatic model recommended by the U.S Environment Protection Agency (E.P.A.) for this kind of operational applications.

v   The traffic model described in chapter 7.2.1.

The climatic model that has been used is a Gaussian type model for the estimation of the concentrations of polluting substances on long term, of mediation for continuous punctiform or surface sources. The fundamental physical base of the model is the supposition that the space distribution of the concentrations is given by the Gaussian key formula.

The average CA concentration in a receiver found at ρ distance from a surface source and at z height from the ground is given by the relation:

where: 

k = index for the sector of wind direction;

qk(r òQ(r q)dq for k sector;

Q(r q) = the emission in time unit of the surface source;

r = the distance from the receiver for an infinitesimal surface source;

q = the angle in polar coordinates centered on the receiver;

l = index for the class of wind speed;

m = index for the class of stability;

F(k,l,m) = frequency function of the meteorological states;

S(r,z;Ul,Pm) = function that defines dispersion;

z = height of the receiver above the ground;

ul = representative wind speed;

Pm= stability class.

For punctiform sources, the average CP concentration as a result of « n » sources is given by the relation :

where: 

kn = the wind sector for the a « n » source;

Gn = the emission for the a « n » source;

rn = the distance of the « n » source from the receiver.

If the receiver is on the ground (respiratory level) then z=0 and the form of the function S(r,z;ul,Pm) will be:

if sz r) < 0,8 L, and

if sz r) > 0,8 L

where: 

sz r) = vertical dispersion function;

h = height of the source;

Δh = super-elevation of the polluting substance key, calculated with Briggs relations;

L = mixture height;

T1/2 = time of halving of the polluting substance.

The possibility of the disappearance of the polluting substance by physical or chemical processes is given by the expression:

exp (-0,692ρ/ul T1/2 )

The total concentration for a mediation period is the sum of the concentrations due to all the sources for that period.

Entry dates include information regarding:

calculation grid;

emission dates;

meteorological parameters.

The calculation grate – the model allows the calculation of the average concentration of the polluting substance in any point found at certain distances from the source/sources by taking into account of the contribution of all the sources. As a consequence it is possible for the concentrations on the area around the source to be calculated.

For this reason the interest area is limited and on its surface a grate is fixed, usually square, the loops of which are the receivers.

The number of loops and the pace of the grate are chosen in terms of the characteristics of the source, of the area of interest and of the problems it has to respond to.

The grate will have an origin and a system of coordinates with the Ox axis towards the east and the Oy axis towards the north; in terms of that the coordinates of the sources and of the loops are established.

The emission dates include the characteristics of the sources: the concentrations of the poisonous gases exhausted, geometrical height, the diameter or the area of emission, the speed and temperature of exhaustion of the polluting substances.

The meteorological parameters are introduced as the F(k,l,m) frequency function of the wind direction, speed class of the wind and stability class, established on long rows of data (multi-annual).

For instance, if they work on 16 sectors of wind, 8 classes of speed and 7 classes of stability then the table of values of the frequency function contains 896 entries.

The dispersion program has been worked on with the emission data obtained by theoretical estimations for all the considered sources.

The concentrations in the atmosphere of the following polluting substances have been calculated:

v   Suspension powders – particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 30 microns – resulted from traffic (<10 microns), re-suspension because of their drawing on unpaved roads (10-30 microns), fugitive emissions from the Site Organizations (10-30 microns).

v   NOx;

v   SO2;

v   CO;

v   COVtot.

The spatial distributions of the calculation results of the model of dispersion for each poisonous gas (not only the annual average concentration but also the maximum concentration for 30 minutes) are shown in the attached schemes.

The evaluation of the impact upon the quality of the air is made in terms of the maximum admitted concentrations (CMA) stipulated in STAS 12574 – 87 “ Air in protected areas” for the protection of people’s health.

As far as the above analyzed polluting substances are concerned (NOx, SO2, CO, suspension powders and COV), there are norms not only for short time mediation (30 min.) but also for long time mediation (1 year), CO being an exception (only 30 min.).

The results that have been obtained are presented in tables 2.2-1 and 2.2-2 (the extreme values of the concentrations on the calculation grid have been wrote down).

Table 2.2-1The results of the dispersion calculations – The Production base

Polluting substance

Cmax 30 min

[μg/m3]

Cmed annual

[μg/m3]

CMA30 min

[μg/m3]

CMAannual

[μg/m3]

Suspension powders

NOx

SO2

CO

COVtot

1 - 6

Tabel 2.2-1The results of the dispersion calculations – Working front

Polluting substances

Cmax 30 min

[μg/m3]

Cmed annual

[μg/m3]

CMA30 min

[μg/m3]

CMAannual

[μg/m3]

Suspension powders

NOx

SO2

CO

COVtot

The general characteristic of the spatial distribution of the concentration fields, determined by the geometry, physical characteristics and location of the sources, consists of the location of the maximum impact area within the objective. This is mainly due to the existence of the surface sources with a low emission height (2-5 m) which generates great concentrations at the level of the ground in the very proximity of the source.

Thus the maximum concentrations in 30 minutes reach high values in the case of slurry powders very close to the Production Base (about 4000 µg/m3) which are 8 times higher than the norm imposed by STAS 12574-87. The relatively high values (which exceed the norm) of the maximum concentrations in the case of powders can expand to 1,5 km to the north, in the proximity of Tunari place.

High values of slurry powder concentrations can also be found in the proximity of the working front (500 µg/m3).

In the case of all the other analyzed polluting substances the values of the concentrations abide by the norms imposed by STAS 12574-87, both in terms of the level of the maximum concentration for 30 minutes and the annual average.

The traffic model (linear sources) has been rolled on the two sections of unpaved road where there are transport operations. The results are presented in the tables nr. 2.2-3 and 2.2-4.

Table nr. 2.2-3. The results of the dispersion calculations for the production base-working front section

The distance from the axis of the motorway

The annual average concentration

mg/m3)

The maximum concentration for 30 min.

mg/m3)

CO

NOx

Powders

COVtot

CO

NOx

Powders

COVtot

< 50 m

>50 m, <100 m

>100m, <250 m

>250 m, <500 m

> 500 m

STAS 12574-87

Alert limit

Intervention limit

Table nr. 2.2-4. The results of the dispersion calculations for the working front-borrow pit section

The distance from the axis of the motorway

The annual average concentration

mg/m3)

The maximum concentration for 30 min.

mg/m3)

CO

NOx

Powders

COVtot

CO

NOx

Powders

COVtot

< 50 m

>50 m, <100 m

>100m, <250 m

>250 m, <500 m

> 500 m

STAS 12574-87

Alert limit

Intervention limit

From the analysis of the results presented in tables nr. 2.2-3, 2.2-4 and of the dispersion map, it can be seen that the levels of pollution at different distances from the axis of the working roads, for CO, NOx and COVtot abide by the norms imposed by STAS 12574-87 and the Order 756/97, so there is no exceeding from the limit values and the alert and intervention limit.

In the case of suspension powders, there are very high values of the annual average concentrations and of the maximum in 30 minutes; so as far as the working front – borrow pit section is concerned the concentrations are 10 respectively 13 times higher than the norms imposed by STAS 12574-87. This is mainly due to the high emissions of powders as a result of the drawing into the air of the dust on the unpaved roads when there is traffic. It can be said that the values of the concentrations are overestimated, because these powders bigger than 30 microns in diameter deposit in the very proximity of the axis of the road; the model does not take into account this physical aspect of dispersion.

ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION MEASURES

v        As a general measure, it is recommended the use of less polluting technologies, of asphaltic and concrete mixture stations provided with installations for the filtering of the dust and gases exhausted into the atmosphere, so that the level of emissions does not exceed the limits established by STAS 12574 – 1987 – “Air quality conditions in the protected areas”.

v        As for the asphaltic mixture stations, the emissions of particles exhausted through the gas exhaustion furnace are concentrated emissions. In order to abide by the Romanian laws regarding the emissions – Order 462/93 “ Technical conditions regarding the protection of the atmosphere. Norms of decreasing the emissions of polluting substances for the firing plant”, (CMA - 50 mg/Nm3) – the asphalt stations should be equipped with fabric-type dust collectors. The abiding by of the particle concentrations when emitted will be periodically checked by measurements.

v        As for the concrete stations, the most important emissions are those of concrete. It is compulsory for the stocking cement bins to be provided with fabric - type dust collectors; the checking for leaks of the unloading/loading compressed-air service is a compulsory measure as well in order to diminish the cement leaks and to keep the concentration of material particles within legal regulations.

v        A suitable fuel (natural gases or liquid fuel – CLU – with maximum 1% sulphur (S) content) should be used in the heating stations and the asphalt mixture preparation stations. The firing plants should be adequately maintained and periodically checked in order to provide maximum efficiency when burning the fuel and to keep the concentrations of polluting substances in the roast gases within the admittance limits.

v        In the case of dust emissions resulted from the storage of the aggregates, their periodical moistening represents a temporary measure of reducing the emissions; this measure applies only for the aggregates used for the preparation of concrete and stabilizer.

v        The enclosing or the covering of the inactive paddocks are measures of reducing wind carving. Covering measures of the stocking paddocks for fine aggregates are adopted as well.

v        The only way to decrease the emissions of polluting substances resulted from the devices consists of using new devices and trucks, provided with modern systems of minimizing and retaining of the “Euro 2” type polluting substances in the atmosphere.

v        The Order 1957 / 1995 – “Work medicine norms” – establishes the maximum admitted concentrations for the above mentioned poisonous gases for the workers on the Site.

3 SOIL

3.1 SOURCES OF POLLUTION AND EMMISIONS OF POLLUTANTS

Similarly to the pollution manifested upon the air, there are three types of soil polluting sources during the works of execution of the motorway:

v   Linear sources as a result of the traffic of heavy duty vehicles and devices from the Production Bases to the working fronts. The emissions of polluting substances exhausted into the atmosphere by fuel combustion as a result of traffic and the functioning of the devices in the area of the working fronts settle on the ground and produce a temporary modification of the natural properties of the soil. The quantities of dust exhausted into the atmosphere during the works of execution of the motorway can be significant. The pollution manifests on a limited period of time (during the construction process) and on a restricted area.

v   Surface sources represented by the functioning of the devices in the area of the working fronts. There is a supplementary risk of accidental oil or fuel leaks as a result of technical disorders of the devices.

v   Punctiform source, represented by the Site Organizations. The following potential polluting sources of the soil can be found within the Site Organization:

The Asphalt Station, by the following operations: the heating of the aggregates (the source being the liquid fuel that is used), bitumen smelting (the sources being the liquid fuel that is used for the heating of the bitumen and the bitumen itself), the charging of the storage bin with mixture (the source being the asphaltic mixture);

The activities developed within the Production Base imply the maneuvering of large quantities of potentially polluting substances for the soil. This category includes dyes, solvents, fuels etc ;

The fuel storage houses as a result of possible leaks when the walls of the tanks are not tight;

The supplying with Diesel oil of the devices and the transport means;

The waste resulted in the area of the Production Bases. The waste can be domestic, resulted from people’s activity and technological. The category of technological waste includes the slimes resulted from the concrete production process or those resulted from fuel storage tanks: liquid waste, solid deposits impregnated with fuels, oil products accidentally emptied on concrete platforms.

The waste domestic and technological waters resulted on the location of the Production Bases.

3.2. THE IMPACT UPON THE SOIL

The main impact upon the soil during the execution process is represented by the temporary occupation of plots of land for provisional roads, platforms, Production and Supply Bases, waste dumps, etc. The rehabilitation of the ecological area when the works are over is a compulsory measure.

The works of excavation of the land may have a significant impact upon the soil in the extremely vulnerable areas because of the erosion process. This is a local phenomenon though and can be avoided by several safety measures during the works.

The impact manifested by the traffic between the Production Bases and the working fronts has a temporary character and it exists because of the drawing of the polluting substances by the rain waters which finally infiltrate in the upper layers of the ground.

The execution of the works require earthworks and several borrow pits are necessary. In the calculation scenario for the determination of the quantities of emissions resulted from the traffic of the heavy duty vehicles for the transport of the roadbeds it has been supposed that the works for the BucharestPloiesti section will require 3 – 4 borrow pits. This estimation has a presumptive character, the Contractor being finally the one to establish exactly their number and location.

The impact determined by the leaks of fuels or oils as a result of the defective functioning of the devices can be significant in restricted area as well. The cleaning of the surfaces that have been polluted with oil products is quite expensive and takes a long time.

The impact upon the soil produced by the deposits of unorganized waste is the more intense the more aggressive the deposited substances are. Rain waters clean the waste deposits charging with organic substances. The lixiviation resulted from the decomposition of the organic substances are a big problem in the case of the uncontrolled deposits. They are characterized by a low flow but they are extremely charged with organic substances, that is why they are very hard to purify.

The waste domestic and technological waters resulted within the Production Bases infiltrate very easily into the ground if there are no concrete platforms or drainage, collecting and filtering systems.

3.3. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION MEASURES

v        The fields temporarily occupied for the location of the Site Organizations, provisional roads and platforms will be return to their former destination when the construction works are over. In case of degradation ecological reconstruction measures will be applied. The final occupation of the plots of land will be made on the basis of expropriation.

v   The location of the Site Organizations will avoid valuable soil areas.

v        The speeding of the erosion process in the unstable areas can be avoided by choosing a suitable route. Temporary measures can also be applied during the works of execution and permanent measures – such as consolidation – during the exploitation period. Landslides took place along the motorway, in the area of the Breaza locality.

v        It is recommended that the temporary storage of the excavated land be made on small areas. The scouring of the vegetal soil will be carefully made, for it will be stored and finally put back on slopes.

v        The location of the borrow pits will be chosen by the Contractor so that the impact upon the environment be minimum. Protection measures will also be applied, such as: enclosure in order to avoid the illegal storage of waste in the borrow pits, guarding trench all around in order to avoid the water collection. The pits should be rearranged, leveled up and covered with vegetal soil in order to return to their former destination.

v        The periodical sprinkling with water of the unpaved roads is an efficient measure of reducing the quantities of dust resulted from the traffic of the heavy duty vehicles. The diminishing of the emissions of polluting substances resulted from the fuel combustion in the engines of the heavy duty vehicles and devices will be done step by step by executing the European norms and the providing of the vehicles with special cleaning devices.

v        The oil leaks accidentally resulted in the area of the working fronts as a consequence of the defective functioning of the devices could have a low impact upon the environment, respectively upon the soil if there was a prevention program for the accidental pollution. In this sense the training of the staff represents an efficient measure in the reducing of the effects of the pollution.

v        It is necessary that the storage of the fuels, oils and raw materials which are part of the asphaltic mixture process of fabrication be made in tight tanks. In order to avoid accidents it is recommended that the access of the vehicles to fuel and the asphaltic or concrete mixture plant be made according to a pre-established flow.

v        The domestic waste resulted from the daily activity of the staff within the Production Bases should be collected into standardized garbage cans located in special places. It is necessary that the garbage cans be periodically taken over by the sanitation service in the area, on the basis of a contract.

v        The waste resulted from the fuel storage tanks generally have low sulphur content, < 2%, so they can be taken over, wrapped up in plastic bags and burned.

v        The waste resulted from the accidental leaks of oil products on the concrete platform can be taken over and discharged in a grease extractor. In the case where the Production Base has a grease extractor, the oil products should be collected, periodically drained and taken to the closest filtering plant able to take over these quantities and filter them.

v        The waste waters resulted from the hygiene and sanitary activities have a normal biological charge and can be discharged into the sewerage system existent within the objective and then lead towards a septic tank.

v        A local pre-filtering water separator is necessary for the technological waters. The platform of the Site Organization is generally made of concrete in order to avoid the infiltrations of the rainwaters into the soil.

4. FLORA AND THE FAUNA

4.1. SOURCES OF POLLUTION

The sources of pollution for the flora and the fauna specific for the construction period are:

v   The emissions of polluting substances and the noise generated by the traffic on Site: heavy duty vehicles transporting roadbeds, asphalt, ballast, fuels, prefabs, workers to the working points, concrete mixer truck, etc;

v   The emissions of polluting substances and the noise resulted from the activity of the construction devices: bulldozers, loaders, compactors, distributors, etc. in the area of the working front;

v   The emissions of polluting substances and the noise resulted from the activity developed within the site organizations: asphalt stations, concrete stations, the maneuvering of the construction materials, etc.

4.2. THE IMPACT UPON THE ENVIRONMENT

The Site as a whole has a complex negative impact upon the vegetation. The temporary occupation of plots of land, the potential pollution of the soil, the waste dumps etc., all these have negative effects upon the vegetation in the sense that the vegetal areas are reduced and they sometimes lose their initial qualities.

Given the length of the motorway, one of the strongest impacts is supposed to be the occupation of the plots of land which at the moment have different destinations.

About a 4 ha area of land is estimated to be occupied for the construction of 1 km of motorway. Given these conditions, the works of construction imply that in some areas trees will be cut down. There are several areas in the proximity of forests where trees will be cut down in order to carry on with the construction works (this applies to the following forests the kilometrical location of which is approximate):

Km 22+500 - Km 23+125 (Surlari forest),

Km 24+700 – Km 26+450 (Vlasia forest),

Km 43+250 – Km 44+250 (Calinesti or Chitoreanca forest),

Km 45+000 – Km 46+000 (Calugareasca forest),

Km 48+300 – Km 48+500 (Dumbrava forest),

Km 49+560 – Km 51+500 (Moara Domneasca forest),

Km 53+900 – Km 54+025 (Rafoveanca forest),

Km 74+250 – Km 74+400 (Buda forest),

Km 118+350 – Km 146+800 ( forests belonging to the Sinaia and Azuga Forestry District),

Km 146+800 – Km 157+000 (forests belonging to the Brasov and Rasnos Forestry District),

Km 157+000 – Km 161+000.

The emissions of polluting substances into the atmosphere during the execution of the motorway have been estimated in chapter 2. The values, which are possible to be reached, of the emissions of the already studied chemical polluting substances (NOx, VOC, TSP, and CO) resulted from the combustion of the fuel in the engines of the devices and transport means during the works of construction are lower than those maximum admitted according to STAS 12574 / 1987.

There are no Romanian norms which establish the dangerous concentrations for the vegetation.

The International norms elaborated by the International Organizations Union for the Studying of the Forests recommends the following concentrations as guide-values for plant protection:

v   SO2

annual average: 50 µg/m3 in order to maintain the whole production,

25 µg/m3 in order to maintain the whole production and protect the environment.

the average for 30 minutes: 150 µg/m3 in order to maintain the whole production,

25 µg/m3 in order to maintain the whole production and protect the environment.

v   NOx

value – protection guide for a 40 hours interval: 95 µg/m3.

If from a chemical point of view the pollution of the air does not seem dangerous for the vegetation, the suspension particle pollution (dust) can have negative effects. They appear mainly on very dry weather and on restricted areas. The dust settles on the leaves and reduces the intensity of the photosynthesis processes. Plants do not grow up normally and the productions are quite reduced. The effect upon the woods is less visible. The high concentrations of dust in the air appear for limited periods of time.

As for the fauna, it will not be affected by the emissions of polluting substances. There are other factors specific for the construction sites which have a negative impact upon the fauna: the noise, the traffic, the banned access in certain areas, etc.

4.3. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION MEASURES

v   The emplacement of a physical barrier is recommended, not to affect other areas than those necessary for the construction. On the other hand, these barriers can stop the moving of the animals by restricting their natural habitat. But this situation has a temporary character. In order to allow the access of the animals to the migration route, the project stipulates the emplacement of two culverts for animals crossing in the area of km 44 and km 48 (l = 10 m and h = 3,50 m). In order to ensure animals’ access to their migration routes, the project stipulates the construction of two footbridges in the area of km 44 and km 48. The representatives of the Forestry Districts did not thought as necessary to set culverts in the rest of the sectors because the animals do not come in that areas or they can use the other projected art works (bridges, overpasses, viaducts).

v   When the construction works are over the Contractor is obliged to take measures in order to restore the affected areas. This applies to the borrow pits which need ecological measures. The environment factors need to be monitored in order to see the changes that come up compared to their initial state.

v   The plots of land that were temporary occupied by the Site Organization or in other purposes must return to their former destination and/or put at the disposal of the local authorities for other useful purposes (gas stations, motor workshops, etc) abiding by the law in force.

5. NOISE AND VIBRATIONS

5.1 SOURCES OF POLLUTION

The works of construction of the motorway imply 4 sources of noise and vibrations:

v       the technological processes of execution of the road, as a result of the functioning of some groups of devices with adequate functions. These devices at work represent as many sources of noise.

v   the traffic of the transport means from the Production Bases to the working fronts.

v   the functioning of the devices and plants within the Production Base.

v   the functioning of the equipment within the sorting-crushing station.

The sound level depends mainly on the following factors:

meteorological phenomena: the speed and direction of the wind, the temperature and wind gradient;

the absorption of the acoustic waves by the soil; this is known by the name of “soil effect”;

the absorption in the air, depending on pressure, temperature, relative humidity, the spectral component of the noise;

the plan of the land;

vegetation.

The main source of noise and vibrations is represented by the functioning of the devices.

Further on the types of devices that are used and their associated acoustic powers are presented:

bulldozers Lw ~ 115 dB(A)

Wolla loaders Lw ~ 112 dB(A)

excavating machines Lw ~ 117 dB(A)

motor graders Lw ~ 112 dB(A)

firming devices Lw ~ 105 dB(A)

finishers Lw ~ 115 dB(A)

trucks Lw ~ 107 dB(A)

The heavy duty construction devices constitute sources of vibrations because of the traffic and their activity at the working fronts.

The second source of noise and vibrations within the site is represented by the traffic of the transport means.

Few or more than 40 ton trucks /heavy duty vehicles are supposed to be used for the transport of the materials (ground, ballast, prefabs, concrete, asphalt, etc.). A 16 ton average has been taken into account for the evaluation of the emissions of heavy duty vehicles.

The evolution of the sound level depends on the evolution of the works and the changing of the location of the working fronts.

The villages crossed over by the heavy duty vehicles are the most affected by the noise and vibrations. The number and location of the Site Organizations are still unknown and will be established by the Contractor.

From literature and the observations made in time on sites, one can say that when the dumpers engaged in the construction process cross a locality, the level of noise for a 24 hour reference period of time can reach more than 50 dB(A), if the number of crossings exceeds 20. The level of noise can reach 60 - 62 dB(A) for about 100 crossings and more than 65 dB(A) for about 200 crossings. It is then obvious that the average site traffic can not be directed through localities.

The third source of noise is considered to be the functioning of the equipment and the devices within the Production Bases.

The location of the Production Bases is to be chosen by the Contractor. They may be settled in the proximity of the CF stations.

As far as the asphalt mixture preparation plant is concerned, the sound levels that it produces are mainly a result of their functioning:

Burners,

Compressors,

Ventilators,

Electric generators,

Engines.

The fourth source of noise is represented by the functioning of the exploiting devices afferent to the sorting – crushing station:

The devices for the exploitation of the aggregates: loaders, bulldozers, dragline excavators,

The devices within the sorting-washing-crushing plant,

The means of transport, dumpers.

5.2 THE IMPACT UPON HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

The impact of the noise and vibrations during the execution has a temporary character. The Production Bases need to be located outside the cities so that the impact upon the locals be minimum.

The staff within the Production Bases is affected by the high level of the noise, so special measures of antiphonic protection are required.

The level of the noise generated by the traffic between the Production Bases and the working fronts represents a stress factor not only for the people but also for the wild animals the natural habitat of which is disturbed. This factor is better felt mainly in the areas where the motorway crosses afforested areas. Special protection measures are required here.

It is estimated that, on the basis of the data regarding the acoustic powers of the sources of noise and those presented in literature, the level of the noise on the site and in the proximity of working fronts reaches 90 dB(A), for some time periods.

During the construction process, on the working fronts and in some sectors, for a limited period of time the level of the noise reaches important values without exceeding 90 dB(A) expressed as Leq for no longer than 10 hours. This estimation applies to the asphaltic mixture and concrete stations as well. Several measurements made by specialized institutes at several aggregate sorting and asphaltic mixture and/or cement concrete stations indicated that near the plants the Leq level of noise reaches about 90 dB(A). These levels abide by the limits accepted by the work protection norms.

The level of exposure to noise is very important because of its effects upon the human factor by reducing the work capacity, the accuracy and the movement efficiency. The noise represents an important cause of the increasing frequency of work accidents by the diminishing of the capacity to perceive sound signals, of the attention and eyesight disturbances.

ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION MEASURES

v   Special attention will be paid to the maneuvering of the devices in the proximity of inhabited areas and the objectives which develop their activity near the road.

v   Heavy traffic on unleveled roads can generate important levels of noise and vibrations; that is why it is recommended that the routes of the transport means avoid the inhabited areas.

v   The execution of the works will generate high levels of the noise resulted from the traffic of the construction devices, the vibration of the concrete, the striking of the pilots, etc. It is necessary that all antiphonic protection measures be taken within the site organization and in the area of the working fronts.

v   A series of problems with a great impact upon the human factor can also appear during the works of execution of the motorway, as follows:

v   During the execution the site can be a source of insecurity. The constructor will draw up a documentation regarding the traffic control by establishing strict rules in order to provide a fluency of the traffic and to avoid collisions, by using proper light signals. The documentation will be presented to the Consultant for approval, as beneficiary representative.

v   The site traffic will be controlled so that traffic jams in the working areas be avoided.

v   Traffic local deviation measures are supposed to be needed in the areas where works of connection to other access ways will be necessary. This deviation will be only temporary.

v   Routes will be established for the working devices so as to ensure the easiest access to the site, with minimum disturbances.

v   The site will be signaled with warning panels in order to oblige the drivers to reduce the speed in the working areas and to pay more attention to the traffic so as to avoid the hurting of the locals who are on the connecting roads.

v   The contractor is obliged to keep the road clean during the execution.

v   When the sites are done with, the land that has been temporary used for the site organization or in other purposes will return to its former destination and/or put to the disposal of the local authorities for other utilities (gas stations, motor workshops, etc.) abiding by the laws in force.

WASTE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

According to the Government’s Decision number 155 from March 1999 regarding the “Introduction of the waste control management and of the European Waste Catalogue”, the Contractor, as waste generator, must keep a monthly account of the producing, temporary stocking, treating and transport, recycling and storage of the waste. The Contractor will sign a contract with a specialized company which will ensure the transport and the storage of the waste to the specially arranged platforms.

The “Intern Record of Waste Management” is presented in the 1st annex of the above mentioned decision. Construction waste (including road construction) are classified according to the European Waste Catalogue with the code 17 00 00 in the 2nd annex of the above mentioned decision. Waste quantities can be globally estimated by the lists of work quantities.

Sources of waste

The projector can globally estimate the types and quantities of waste by the lists of work quantities.

Waste from the device bases and the asphalt and concrete stations will result beside those from the technological processes used for the construction of the motorway. Important quantities of motor oil, metallic spare parts (spare parts from the reparation of the devices), tyres, concrete and asphalt leavings will accumulate.

Domestic waste will result from the Site Organizations but they are much inferior to those resulted from the construction works.

The domestic waste should be collected in standardized trash cans and periodically taken over by the sanitation services in the area.

The waste resulted as residues from the fuel storage tanks are inflammable and sulphurless so they can be collected, wrapped up in plastic bags and burned.

The waste waters resulted from the Site Organizations will be introduced in the sewerage system. If there is no such system in the area, the waters will be collected and filtered in septic tanks. The mud resulted after the filtering process must be periodically collected and transported to the nearest filtering station in the city.

Waste recycling

Part of the waste resulted from the construction works can be reused. The use of the waste has a positive impact upon the environment by:

the reducing of stone materials extracted from the lithosphere;

the decreasing of the production of construction material factories and the reducing of the pollution caused by the technologies these factories use;

the reducing of energy consumption for the producing of construction materials ;

the reducing of the volume of waste dumps which spread over important areas and are sources of air, soil and water pollution, contributing to the degradation of the area.

7. TOXIC AND DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES MANAGEMENT

According to the European Waste Catalogue – EWC – the main types of waste resulted from road construction activities, except for the insulating materials, are not included in the category of dangerous waste. The same Catalogue includes dyes, inks, adhesives and resins, solvents, strip lightings and other waste containing mercury as dangerous waste in the category of city degradable waste from commerce, industry, etc. All these substances and lightening objects will be used on the site’s area. Other dangerous or toxic substances or objects can be used in small quantities as well.

The management of dangerous and toxic substances will abide by the laws in force.

The contractor must store and use these substances within safety conditions. He will have to keep a record of these materials. The waste and the packages of the toxic and dangerous substances will be stored in safe places and delivered to special units for permanent storage, recycling or burning.

8. THE MONITORING OF ENVIRONMENT FACTORS

Monitoring the environment factors is necessary during the works of execution of the motorway in order to control the efficiency of the applied measures and to establish corrective measures if the admitted values were exceeded. It is suggested that the following measures should be applied by the Contractor and the Bucharest, Ilfov and Prahova Environment Protection Inspectorates:

v   the identification and monitoring of the sources of pollution: location, quality parameters– specific emissions of polluting substances;

v   the establishing of a measurement program for the evaluation of the level of noise during the works, both within the Production Bases and along the motorway;

v   the control of the way of functioning of the plants within the Site Organizations (asphaltic mixture preparation station) in order to ensure maximum efficiency. Measurements are recommended to be done at exhaustion for the gases and powders resulted from the Asphalt Stations. The main polluting substances exhausted into the atmosphere as a result of the functioning of the Station are: CO, CO2, SO2 and NOx;

v   the control of the functioning of the cleaning plants and measures regarding their periodical cleaning;

v   the periodical checking of the devices for possible breakdowns;

v   the periodical checking of the tightness of the fuel or toxic substances storage tanks;

v   the control of the waste resulted within the Production Bases and in the areas of the working fronts;

v   the establishing of an intervention program when the quality indicators specific for the environment factors (air, water, soil) exceed the norms imposed by the legislation in force.

v   the establishing of a program for the prevention and control of the pollution: measures that need to be taken, emergency teams, equipment and supplies for emergencies in case of accident.

The monitoring of the environment factors during the execution of the motorway as well as the abiding by the measures suggested in chapter 1 – 7 have as a target the functioning of the Site Organizations with minimum impacts upon the natural habitat.



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