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ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING - EXERCISES

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NEI 11akf series notes - General Description
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING - EXERCISES

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

 

AIM:

 

To recognize the English technical terms related to electrical and electronics engineering;

OBJECTIVES:

 

On successfully completing this unit the student should be able to:

-                                 identify correctly the terms describing the branches of electrical and electronics engineering;

-                                 recognise the specific terms related to electronic devices;

-                                 characterise the main areas related to electronics;

-                                 identify the types of electronic devices used in the past and at present in electronics;

-                                 describe the evolution of the main domains: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control and computers;

-                                 assimilate at least 30 terms specific of electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control and computers;

KEY TERMS:

electric power and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid-state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, fibre optics, direct current (DC) mode,  alternating current (AC) mode, circuit, device, to amplify electronic signals, to add binary numbers, to demodulate radio signals, waveforms, digital information, resistors, capacitors, inductors, vacuum tubes, semi conductive material, electron-beam lithography, micro-manipulator, ion-beam implantation, chip of silicon, Fourier analysis, linear systems theory, linear algebra, complex variables, differential equations, probability theory, automated manufacturing, electrical noise, interference, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), microminiaturization, superconducting material.

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

1.1. INTRODUCTION

The largest and most diverse field of engineering, it is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field in the late 1980s are electric power and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid-state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and fibre optics.

Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.

1.2. ELECTRIC POWER AND MACHINERY

The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power. Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the system while it is in operation.

A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency of the current fed into them. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way.

1.3. ELECTRONICS

Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. Information is now generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue unabated.

Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks, such as amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and demodulating radio signals to recover the information they carry. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing, as in television, and for correcting errors in digital information, as in telecommunications.

Prior to the 1960s, circuits consisted of separate electronic devices—resistors, capacitors, inductors, and vacuum tubes—assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky package. Since then, there has been a revolutionary trend toward integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semi conductive material. The complex task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology, including computers, electron-beam lithography, micro-manipulators, ion-beam implantation, and ultra clean environments. Much of the research in electronics is directed toward creating even smaller chips, faster switching of components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits.

1.4. COMMUNICATIONS AND CONTROL

Engineers in this field are concerned with all aspects of electrical communications, from fundamental questions such as “What is information?” to the highly practical, such as design of telephone systems. In designing communication systems, engineers rely heavily on various branches of advanced mathematics, such as Fourier analysis, linear systems theory, linear algebra, complex variables, differential equations, and probability theory.

Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday, passenger-actuated, as those that run an elevator, to the exotic, as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. Control systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships, in military fire-control systems, in power transmission and distribution, in automated manufacturing, and in robotics.

Engineers have been working to bring about two revolutionary changes in the field of communications and control: Digital systems are replacing analogue ones at the same time that fibre optics are superseding copper cables. Digital systems offer far greater immunity to electrical noise. Fibre optics are likewise immune to interference; they also have tremendous carrying capacity, and are extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture.

1.5. COMPUTERS

Virtually unknown just a few decades ago, computer engineering is now among the most rapidly growing fields. The electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems, of central processing units, and of peripheral devices. Foremost among the avenues now being pursued are the design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and new computer architectures. The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering; however, the task of making computers more “intelligent” (artificial intelligence,), through creation of sophisticated programs or development of higher level machine languages or other means, is generally regarded as being in the realm of computer science.

One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. Using VLSI, engineers continue to work to squeeze greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. Another trend is toward increasing the speed of computer operations through use of parallel processors, superconducting materials, and the like.

 You may want to go back to the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each one. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, you can use the glossary provided at the end of the textbook).

 

 

 

 

 

 


EXERCISES

A.         READING

The purpose of the following exercises is to develop reading strategies and reinforce topic related vocabulary, not to check background knowledge.

A.1. Having read the text, answer the following questions (the specifications in brackets refer to the section in the text where the answer can be found):

1. What is electrical and electronics engineering concerned with? (1.1)

2. What is the most revolutionary change brought about by electronic engineering?         (1.3.)

3. What are the specific tasks performed by modern electronic circuits? (1.3.)

4. What were circuits like before the 1960s and what is the current trend? (1.3.)

5. What are the two revolutionary changes in the field of communications and control? (1.4)

6. What is the current trend in computer engineering? (1.5.)

A.2. Fill in the following table with information about electrical and electronics engineering given in the text. Some of the spaces may remain blank, as the information is not given.

Table 1.1.

Related areas

Current modes

Types of electric motors

Specific tasks of circuits

Technology used for manufacturing silicon chips

 

Control systems

  1. VOCABULARY WORK

The purpose of the following exercises is to promote the acquisition of new lexical items by providing collocations, terms followed by prepositions lexical sets and translations of the terms considered relevant to the topic.

B.1. Enter in the following table information related to modern electronics :

Chips of silicon

Integrating electronic circuits

VLSI

Carrying capacity

Fibre optics

B.1. Enter the following terms under the appropriate heading in the table below:

List1.1. 

Main branches of electrical engineering

Uses of control systems

Branches of advanced mathematics

C. LANGUAGE FOCUS: DEFINING PATTERNS

The purpose of the following exercises is to develop language awareness in terms of producing accurate definitions.

            C.1. The following paragraph defines the term: electrical and electronics engineering. Read it and try to identify the appropriate elements of the defining pattern below:

[ Thing to be defined - verb + general class word + wh-word +particular characteristics ]

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING is the largest and most diverse field of engineering that is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals.

            C.2. Identify which of the mistakes listed below are to be found in the following definitions. Try to correct them.

1. This is rather an example than a definition.

2. The word to be defined, or another form of it, is used in the definition itself.

3. The general class is omitted from the definition, making it hereby incomplete.

4. The particular characteristics are omitted from the definition, making it hereby incomplete.

A. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals.

B. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING is the largest and most diverse field of engineering.

C. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING is something like electric machinery engineering.

D. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING is engineering.

            C.3. Choose one of the key terms given at the beginning of this unit. Write its definition without naming the term. Read your definition to you colleague and ask him/her to identify the word that definition refers to. Ask him/her to identify any possible mistakes in your definition.

            C.4. Rephrase the definition above using a reduced relative clause:

(Identify the changes and do the same with your own definition from the previous exercise)

D. TRANSLATION 

The purpose of this exercise is to develop translating skills.

D.1. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Inaintea anilor 1960, circuitele erau alcatuite din dispozitive electronice separate - rezistoare, condensatoare, bobine, tuburi vidate insa tendinta revolutionara a ultimelor decenii consta in integrarea dispozitivelor electronice pe un chip minuscul din siliciu sau alt material semiconductor.

2. Circuitele electronice sunt utilizate la sincronizare si temporizare si deasemenea la corectarea informatiilor digitale.

3. Fibra optica este imuna la orice tip de interferenta, detinand deasemenea o capacitate enorma de transmisie, acestea fiind principalele motive pentru care fibra optica este preferata cablurilor din cupru.

E. SPEAKING

The purpose of these exercises is to develop speaking skills with a focus on electrical and electronics engineering.

E.1. Talk with one of your colleagues and name at least three electronic devices that you are familiar with. Describe them and explain how they are used. You can also choose from the following:

Resistor

Capacitor

Vacuum tube

Inductor

E.2. Describe the most important domains of electrical and electronics engineering. Speak about:

1. The major applications.

2. Name the three most interesting of all and give reasons.

3. Think of any background information you have on those particular areas of electronics and share it with your colleagues.

CAREERS IN ELECTRONICS

 

 

AIM:

 

To recognize the English technical terms related to areas of employment in the field of electronics;

OBJECTIVES:

 

On successfully completing this unit the student should be able to:

-                                 identify correctly the terms defining main areas of employment in the field of electronics;

-                                 recognise the specific terms related to the tasks performed by electronics engineers;

-                                 characterise the various career opportunities in electronics and analyse each in points of advantages, disadvantages and other implications;

-                                 identify the types of devices used in each branch of electronics;

-                                 describe the recent developments in this field and the immediate repercussions on the number of career opportunities;

-                                 assimilate at least 30 terms specific of main areas of employment, and specific activities performed by engineers in the field of electronics;

KEY TERMS:

career opportunities, design, to plan, to manufacture, to install, avionics, service engineer, radio, radar, automatic flight path plotting equipment, local area networks (LANs), maintenance, software support, defence industry, early warning system,  detection system, weapons guidance, industrial electronics, transducer, automation, control panels, leisure electronic items, hi-fi equipment, television sets, compact disc players, video recorders, satellite receivers, circuit boards, assembly line, trouble-shooters, communications networks, microwave towers, exchange, maximum switching capability, maintenance technician, medical equipment, industrial robot, testing and fault-finding equipment, diagnostic tests, service technician, R&D department.

CAREERS IN ELECTRONICS

2.1. INTRODUCTION

We are now in the midst of the technical revolution which started with the introduction of the microchip in the 1970s. More and more electronic goods are being sold, especially computers, radio telephones, and leisure products. At the present time, new applications for electronics are being found. Most domestic appliances now have some form of electronic control. Petrol at the filling station and cash at the bank is dispensed by electronic means.

Electronically-controlled pumps measure out drugs for the chronically ill. Electronic ignition and fuel management become standard on cars.

All of this means that career opportunities in electronics are growing. More engineers are necessary to design, plan, manufacture and install. For today’s college and university graduates in electronics, the future is bright.

2.2. AREAS OF EMPLOYMENT

2.2.1. Avionics

Aircraft electronic equipment has to be maintained to a very high standard with rigorous checks at set intervals. Service engineers are required to maintain on-board equipment such as radio, radar, and automatic flight path plotting equipment. Air traffic control equipment is maintained on the ground.

2.2.2. Computing

This is an area where competition between companies is considerable and technology is moving quickly. With increasing numbers of computers used in the office, the home, and as part of industrial and communications equipment, there is a growing need for engineers to design these as well as service them. On the software side, there is always a demand for programmers to design software for business use and leisure. Almost every large business organization, like banks and insurance companies, runs several local area networks (LANs). These require network managers and maintenance and software support.

2.2.3. Defence

The reduction in political tension in recent years has meant cuts in the defence industry. Nevertheless, many countries are still developing sophisticated defence systems both for home use and for export. These systems require not only engineers to design them, but highly-skilled operators to man them and maintain them. Thus the armed services recruit and train numbers of electronics technicians and engineers. The major fields of defence electronics are: early warning systems, e.g. radar; detection systems; ranging, using radar and computers; weapons guidance, using computers; and communications.

2.2.4. Industrial electronics

Industrial electronics started with transducers which allowed remote monitoring of processes, especially which involved high temperatures or dangerous substances. Further developments allowed processes in a whole range of industries -from food and drink production to garbage recycling- to be fully automated.

The development of robotics has led to widespread application in the car industry in particular. Everything from assembling to spraying the completed car can now be done without human assistance. Tedious and unpleasant jobs have disappeared. Automation has led to savings for the manufacturer but has also contributed to unemployment. Electronics engineers are required to design and service industrial circuits, including control panels.

2.2.5. Leisure products

Society expects a wide range of leisure electronic items. This can be gauged by sales of radio, hi-fi equipment, television sets, compact disc players, video recorders, satellite receivers, etc. engineers and technicians are required not only to design and manufacture these, but also to maintain them.

2.2.6. Telecommunications and broadcasting

People today expect to be able to get in touch with each other at any time and in any place. The communication of speech, text, and other data by cable and radio is a growing field of employment. Cell phones are an area of recent expansion. Engineers are employed to manufacture, plan, install, commission, and maintain telecommunication equipment. National and local radio and television stations employ broadcasting and sound engineers.

2.2.7. Medical equipment

Recent years have seen a sharp increase in equipment for patient care. This ranges from body scanners to electronic stethoscopes. While the operation of this equipment is the responsibility of the medical team, engineers are often required to work with medical experts in the design of such equipment, in the installation of larger equipment, and in maintenance.

2.3. MANUFACTURING

Manufacturing includes making anything from individual components or printed circuit boards to complete pieces of equipment such as televisions. In the case of the latter, it is usual to break down the equipment into modules and manufacture these separately. For instance, television sets are manufactured in this way with each set consisting of up to seven individual modules. When the modules come off the assembly line, they are passed to groups of testers and trouble-shooters to check for faults. The various modules are then assembled to produce the complete unit. The disadvantage of this kind of work is the monotony and the time pressure of assembly line work.

2.4. PLANNING

Firms with large communications networks require planners. For instance, telecommunications network providers need to know where to place exchanges for maximum switching capability, and microwave towers for minimum interference. They also need to know the sizes of cables to handle traffic growth. Rapidly springing up everywhere from a number of different suppliers are the radio mobile, cellular, and paging networks. All these require careful planning and field surveys to prevent mutual interference. Job opportunities will grow in this sector.

2.5. INSTALLATION

There is a wide range of installation work required, for example, installing exchanges, LANs, and medical equipment. Such work involves cabling and may require some knowledge of mechanical engineering if special racks and even entire rooms have to be constructed to accommodate equipment. Installation work usually involves travel which can be overseas depending on the product involved.

2.6. COMMISSIONING

Once equipment is installed, it needs to be commissioned, i.e. put into operation. Problems often emerge at this stage, which have to be ironed out. This work is usually done by engineers with long experience in the type of equipment being commissioned.

2.7. MAINTENANCE

As electronic equipment has become more complex, so maintenance technicians have become more specialized. For instance, technicians who used to service both radio and television may now specialize in either radio and audio equipment or television sets and video recorders. Similarly, technicians now specialize in servicing computers, telecommunications equipment, medical equipment, industrial robots, and so on. Testing and fault-finding equipment has become more sophisticated. Oscilloscopes are commonplace on workbenches, and programmable analysers are available for carrying out a full range of diagnostic tests on particular types of equipment. These save a great deal of time and they can make the work of the service technician less challenging. Service technicians are always in demand.

2.8. SALES

Sales staff too require specialist knowledge- not so much of how the equipment works, but what it is capable of and the differences between similar types of equipment. They also have to know the advantages of their company’s products over those of their rivals. Although selling ability is more important than technical expertise, it is not unusual for service technicians to transfer to sales. Most salespeople work on a commission basis in addition they usually have use of a company car. They can earn high salaries and are crucial to the success of a company. Selling usually involves a great deal of travel and can be stressful.

2.9. TEACHING

Colleges and universities employ substantial numbers of graduates in electronics. Colleges prefer teaching staff that also have experience in industry or business. Universities look for teaching staff with research experience. Salaries in education tend to be lower than in industry. Technicians are also employed in educational institutes in laboratories and workshops to assist with research and to provide maintenance.

2.10. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Large companies run their own R&D departments. Exciting opportunities exist for creative engineers in the design and testing of new products. Such opportunities are limited. Most R&D work is carried out at the company’s headquarters. Many companies are multinationals, so the R&D work may not be done in the country where the product is assembled.

 You may want to go back to the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each one. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, you can use the glossary provided at the end of the textbook).

 


EXERCISES

            A. READING

The purpose of the following exercises is to develop reading strategies and reinforce topic related vocabulary, not to check background knowledge.

A.1. Having read the job descriptions above, discuss each area of employment with your partner using the information provided in the text.

Table 2.1.

Type of employment

Advantages

Disadvantages

Manufacturing

Planning

Installation

Commissioning



Maintenance

Sales

Teaching

Research & Development

            A.2. Name the areas of employment in the field of engineering and describe each in one sentence, making reference to the particular segments of electronics related to each.

            A.3. Fill in the following table with information about the areas of employment given in the text. Some of the spaces may remain blank, as the information is not given.

Table 2.2

Domain

Activities of electronics engineers

Equipment

Development

Applications

 

B. VOCABULARY WORK

The purpose of the following exercises is to promote the acquisition of new lexical items by providing collocations, terms followed by prepositions lexical sets and translations of the terms considered relevant to the topic.

B.1. Match each of the terms in column A with a word in column B:

A                                                         B

design                                     

 manufacture

 to install

 avionics

 radio

 Radar

automatic flight path plotting equipment

maintenance

 software support

 defence industry

 early warning systems

 detection systems

 weapons guidance

 industrial electronics

 transducer

 automation

 control panels

proiectare

fabricare

a instala

echipament de ghidaj automat

aparatura de radiolocatie

suport soft

intretinere

ghidaj al rachetelor

aparatura radar

sisteme de monitorizare

dispozitive electronice industriale

panou de control

traductoare

automatizare

sisteme de detectare rapida

aeronautica

industria de aparare

B.2. Enter the following terms under the appropriate heading in the table below:

List 2.1.

radar, automatic flight path plotting equipment, local area networks (LANs), maintenance, software support, early warning systems,  detection systems, weapons guidance, industrial electronics, transducers, automation, control panels, hi-fi equipment, television sets, compact disc players, video recorders, satellite receivers, circuit boards, trouble-shooters, , microwave towers, exchanges, maximum switching capability, maintenance technician, medical equipment, industrial robots, testing and fault-finding equipment, diagnostic tests, service technician.

Table 2.3.

Electronics for the defence industry

Leisure electronic items

Communications networks

C. LANGUAGE FOCUS: DESCRIBING

The purpose of the following exercises is to develop language awareness in terms of describing a process, procedure, or producing a general description of a device.

            C.1.Choose two of the areas of employment in the text and describe the recent developments in that specific domain.

            C.2.Identify the tenses of the verbs used in the descriptions in the text and explain why those tenses are primarily used when describing.

            D. TRANSLATION 

The purpose of this exercise is to develop translating skills.

D.1. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Diminuarea tensiunilor de ordin politic inregistrata in ultimii ani a insemnat o scadere drastica a investitiilor in industria de aparare.

2. Domeniul acesta inregistreaza o concurenta pronuntata intre companiile producatoare fapt care a condus la dezvoltarea  rapida a tehnologiei specifice.

3. Echipamentul electronic al aeronavelor necesita verificari riguroase la intervale scurte si presupune deasemenea un standard exceptional din punctul de vedere al calitatii.

E. SPEAKING

The purpose of these exercises is to develop speaking skills with a focus on areas of employment in the field of engineering.

E.1. Write a short description of your career plans, using information of your own and from this text. Present it to the class.

ELECTRONICS

 

AIM:

 

To recognize the English technical terms related to the development in  the field of electronics;

OBJECTIVES:

 

On successfully completing this unit the student should be able to:

-                                 identify correctly the terms defining the main domains related to electronics;

-                                 recognise the specific terms related to the basic electronic devices;

-                                 describe the evolution and advances in the field of electronics;

-                                 identify the types of devices used to provide each function;

-                                 describe each revolutionary step in the history of electronics;

-                                 assimilate at least 30 terms specific of electronic devices;

KEY TERMS:

applied physics, electronic circuits, flow of electrons, generation, transmission, reception, and storage of information, audio signals, radio receiver, amplification of weak signals, generation of radio waves, extraction of information, demodulation, modulation, transmitter, superimposition, semiconductor materials, electrical contacts, the transistor, power consumption, reliability, integrated circuit, microcomputer, audio and video equipment, communications satellite, direct-recording methods digitalization of audio signals, amplitude, digital storage, medical electronics, ultrahigh definition television, very-high-speed computer, superconducting circuit,  Josephson junction.

ELECTRONICS

3.1. INTRODUCTION

Electronics, field of engineering and applied physics dealing with the design and application of devices, usually electronic circuits, the operation of which depends on the flow of electrons for the generation, transmission, reception, and storage of information. The information can consist of voice or music (audio signals) in a radio receiver, a picture on a television screen, or numbers and other data in a computer.

Electronic circuits provide different functions to process this information, including amplification of weak signals to a usable level; generation of radio waves; extraction of information, such as the recovery of an audio signal from a radio wave (demodulation); control, such as the superimposition of an audio signal onto radio waves (modulation); and logic operations, such as the electronic processes taking place in computers.

3.2. Historical Background

The introduction of vacuum tubes at the beginning of the 20th century was the starting point of the rapid growth of modern electronics. With vacuum tubes the manipulation of signals became possible, which could not be done with the early telegraph and telephone circuit or with the early transmitters using high-voltage sparks to create radio waves. For example, with vacuum tubes weak radio and audio signals could be amplified, and audio signals, such as music or voice, could be superimposed on radio waves. The development of a large variety of tubes designed for specialized functions made possible the swift progress of radio communication technology before World War II and the development of early computers during and shortly after the war.

The transistor, invented in 1948, has now almost completely replaced the vacuum tube in most of its applications. Incorporating an arrangement of semiconductor materials and electrical contacts, the transistor provides the same functions as the vacuum tube but at reduced cost, weight, and power consumption and with higher reliability. Subsequent advances in semiconductor technology, in part attributable to the intensity of research associated with the space-exploration effort, led to the development of the integrated circuit. Integrated circuits may contain hundreds of thousands of transistors on a small piece of material and allow the construction of complex electronic circuits, such as those in microcomputers, audio and video equipment, and communications satellites.

3.3. Recent Developments

The development of integrated circuits has revolutionized the fields of communications, information handling, and computing. Integrated circuits reduce the size of devices and lower manufacturing and system costs, while at the same time providing high speed and increased reliability. Digital watches, hand-held computers, and electronic games are systems based on microprocessors. Other developments include the digitalization of audio signals, where the frequency and amplitude of an audio signal are coded digitally by appropriate sampling techniques, that is, techniques for measuring the amplitude of the signal at very short intervals. Digitally recorded music shows fidelity that is not possible using direct-recording methods. Digital playback devices of this nature have already entered the home market. Digital storage could also form the basis of home video systems and may significantly alter library storage systems, because much more information can be stored on a disk for replay on a television screen than can be contained in a book.

Medical electronics has progressed from computerized axial tomography, or the use of CAT or CT scanners to systems that can discriminate more and more of the organs of the human body. Devices that can view blood vessels and the respiratory system have been developed as well. Ultrahigh definition television also promises to substitute for many photographic processes, because it eliminates the need for silver.

Today's research to increase the speed and capacity of computers concentrates mainly on the improvement of integrated circuit technology and the development of even faster switching components. Very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits that contain several hundred thousand components on a single chip have been developed. Very-high-speed computers are being developed in which semiconductors may be replaced by superconducting circuits using Josephson junctions ( Josephson Effect) and operating at temperatures near absolute zero.

 You may want to go back to the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each one. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, you can use the glossary provided at the end of the textbook).

 


EXERCISES

            A. READING

The purpose of the following exercises is to develop reading strategies and reinforce topic related vocabulary, not to check background knowledge.

A.2. Re-read paragraph 3.1.and fill in the missing information in the table below. Some cells will remain empty, as the information is not given in the text.

Table 3.1.

Information manipulation

Types of information

Information processing

Electronic devices

A.2. Having read the text, answer the following questions (the specifications in brackets refer to the section in the text where the answer can be found):

1. What was the starting point of the rapid growth of modern electronics? (3.2)

2. By what means could audio signals be superimposed on radio waves? (3.2)

3. What electronic device has almost completely replaced the vacuum tube? (3.2)

4. What has the development of integrated circuits brought about? (3.3)

5. What has recently happened in the field of medical electronics? (3.3)

B. VOCABULARY WORK

The purpose of the following exercises is to promote the acquisition of new lexical items by providing collocations, terms followed by prepositions lexical sets and translations of the terms considered relevant to the topic.

B.1. Match each of the terms in column A with the terms in column B:

A                                                                B

modulation

logic operations

very-high-speed computers

vacuum tubes

demodulation

advanced semiconductor technology

digitalization

transistor

computerized axial tomography

a single chip

electronic processes

superimposition

medical electronics

recovery

reduced cost, weight, power consumption

manipulation of signals

integrated circuits

VLSI

sampling techniques

superconducting circuits

B.2. Fill in the following table with the missing information:

Table 3.2.

Type of electronic device

Function

Application

C. LANGUAGE FOCUS: PRESENT PERFECT VS: PAST SIMPLE

The purpose of the following exercises is to develop language awareness in terms of present perfect vs. past simple.

            C.1. Identify which of the two tenses mentioned above are used in the following sentences.

1. Medical electronics has progressed from computerized axial tomography, or the use of CAT or CT scanners to systems that can discriminate more and more of the organs of the human body.

2. Subsequent advances in semiconductor technology, in part attributable to the intensity of research associated with the space-exploration effort, led to the development of the integrated circuit.

3. The introduction of vacuum tubes at the beginning of the 20th century was the starting point of the rapid growth of modern electronics.

4. The development of integrated circuits has revolutionized the fields of communications, information handling, and computing.

5. The transistor, invented in 1948, has now almost completely replaced the vacuum tube in most of its applications.

            C.2. Write each verb phrase in the under the appropriate heading:

Table 3.3.

PRESENT PERFECT

( aux.vb. HAVE/S + lex.vb. V3 )

PAST SIMPLE

( lex.vb. V2 )

            C.4. Group the following adverbs according to their inherent meaning (moment in the past vs. time span) and write them under the appropriate heading:

List 3.1.

yesterday, recently, two decades ago, for two decades, in the 19th century, lately, ever, never, 10 years ago, since 1987, already, by now, on August 3rd 1995, last year, last September, for a long time.

Table 3.4.

PRESENT PERFECT

PAST SIMPLE

D. TRANSLATION

The purpose of this exercise is to develop translating skills.

1. Stocarea, receptarea, transmisia si generarea de informatie este realizata prin intermediul circuitelor electronice.

2. Circuitele electronice indeplinesc functii diferite precum amplificarea semnalelor slabe, recuperarea semnalelor audio de pe o unda radio sau suprapunerea unui semnal audio pe o unda radio.

3. Progresele ulterioare in tehnologia semiconductoarelor au condus la fabricarea circuitelor integrate, dispozitive ce contin sute de mii de tranzistori.

E. SPEAKING

The purpose of these exercises is to develop speaking skills with a focus on the major steps in the development of electronics and applications of electronics technology.

E.1. Present to your colleagues the major steps in the development of electronics.

E.2. Talk with one of your colleagues and name at least three of the latest developments in this field that you are familiar with. Provide information about the changes they brought about in the field of electronics. Try to remember when each of them took place.

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