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Member initialization

Member initialization Java goes out of its way to guarantee that any variable is properly initialized before it is used. In the case of variables that are defined locally to a method, this guarantee comes in the form of a compile-time error. S
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Blocking: Becoming blocked

Blocking A thread can be in any one of four states: 1.       New: the thread object has been created but it hasn’t been started yet so it cannot run. 2.       Runnable: This m
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public: interface access

public: interface access When you use the public keyword, it means that the member declaration that immediately follows public is available to everyone, in particular to the client programmer who uses the library. Suppose you define a package de
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Standard Java exceptions: The special case of RuntimeException

Standard Java exceptions Java contains a class called Throwable that describes anything that can be thrown as an exception. There are two general types of Throwable objects (“types of” = “inherited from”). Error represents compile-time and syst
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Name hiding

Name hiding Only C++ programmers might be surprised by name hiding, since it works differently in that language. If a Java base class has a method name that’s overloaded several times, redefining that method name in the derived class will not
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The need for RTTI: The Class object


The need for RTTI Consider the now familiar example of a class hierarchy that uses polymorphism. The generic type is the base class Shape, and the specific derived types are Circle, Square, and Triangle:
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The “visitor” pattern


The “visitor” pattern Now consider applying a design pattern with an entirely different goal to the trash-sorting problem. For this pattern, we are no longer concerned with optimizing the addition of new types of Trash to the system. Indeed
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StreamTokenizer: StringTokenizer

StreamTokenizer Although StreamTokenizer is not derived from InputStream or OutputStream, it works only with InputStream objects, so it rightfully belongs in the IO portion of the library. The StreamTokenizer class is used to break any Input
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Array initialization

Array initialization Initializing arrays in C is error-prone and tedious. C++ uses aggregate initialization to make it much safer.[1] Java has no “aggregates” like C++, since everything is an object in Java. It does have arrays, and these are
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Exception matching

Exception matching When an exception is thrown, the exception-handling system looks through the “nearest” handlers in the order they are written. When it finds a match, the exception is considered handled, and no further searching occurs. Ma
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Grouping constants

Grouping constants Because any fields you put into an interface are automatically static and final, the interface is a convenient tool for creating groups of constant values, much as you would with an enum in C or C++. For example: //: M
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Java 1.1 IO streams: Sources and sinks of data

Java 1.1 IO streams At this point you might be scratching your head, wondering if there is another design for IO streams that could require more typing. Could someone have come up with an odder design?” Prepare yourself: Java 1.1 makes some si
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Sorting

Sorting One of the things missing in the Java 1.0 and 1.1 libraries is algorithmic operations, even simple sorting. So it makes sense to create a Vector that sorts itself using the classic Quicksort. A problem with writing generic sorting co
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Overloading on return values

Overloading on return values It is common to wonder “Why only class names and method argument lists? Why not distinguish between methods based on their return values?” For example, these two methods, which have the same name and arguments, are
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if-else

if-else The if-else statement is probably the most basic way to control program flow. The else is optional, so you can use if in two forms: if(Boolean-expression)   statement or if(Boolean-expression)   statement else   statement
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Initializing the base class

Initializing the base class Since there are now two classes involved – the base class and the derived class – instead of just one, it can be a bit confusing to try to imagine the resulting object produced by a derived class. From the outside, i
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return

return The return keyword has two purposes: it specifies what value a method will return (if it doesn’t have a void return value) and it causes that value to be returned immediately. The test( ) method above can be rewritten to take advant
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Introduction to Swing: Buttons, Icons, Menus

Introduction to Swing[1] [SE1] After working your way through this chapter and seeing the huge changes that have occurred within the AWT (although, if you can remember back that far, Sun claimed Java was a “stable” language when it first a
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Returning an array

Returning an array Suppose you’re writing a method and you don’t just want to return one thing, but a whole bunch of things. Languages like C and C++ make this difficult because you can’t just return an array, only a pointer to an array. This i
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Multidimensional arrays

Multidimensional arrays Java allows you to easily create multidimensional arrays: //: MultiDimArray.java // Creating multidimensional arrays. import java.util.*; public class MultiDimArray   public static void main(Str
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