Scrigroup - Documente si articole

Username / Parola inexistente      

Home Documente Upload Resurse Alte limbi doc  

CATEGORII DOCUMENTE





ArhitecturaAutoCasa gradinaConstructiiInstalatiiPomiculturaSilvicultura


Bucharest – Brasov Motorway (autostrada)

Constructii

+ Font mai mare | - Font mai mic




GENERAL DATA

PROJECT TITLE

Bucharest – Brasov Motorway.

LOCATION




The motorway routing crosses the territory of the Municipality of Bucharest (L = 1,15 Km) and the one of the Ilfov county (L = 31 Km), Prahova county (L ~ 111,5 Km) and Brasov county (L ~ 30,5 Km). The motorway's total length is 174 Km.

There are 33 localities that have been identified along the motorway routing, as follows: The Municipality of Bucharest, 6 localities within the Ilfov county, 22 localities within the Prahova county and 4 localities within the Brasov county.

The routing crosses all forms of relief: depression, hill and mountain, starting at heights below 100 m within the Bucharest area and reaching heights of almost 900 m at Predeal.

PROJECT HOLDER

Beneficiary: NATIONAL ADMINISTRATION OF ROAD

General Designer: S.C. SEARCH CORPORATION S.R.L.

DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITY

SCOPE AND NECESSITY

The Bucharest – Brasov motorway will assure the connection between the Municipality of Bucharest, the capital of Romania and Brasov, a city located in the centre of the country and one of the most important cities thereof, with an increased industrial and tourist development level.

It will also serve the rapid and highly secure access to Prahova Valley, which is a very famous and solicited tourist area. It appears that the opening of a fast drive way between Bucharest and Brasov (at present, the distance is covered within almost 2,5 - 3 hours) will attract an even larger number of visitors, especially on weekends and that will thus lead to the additional development of this area.

At present, the access to this area is provided by the national road DN 1, which has the largest traffic flow in the whole country. Although the heavy traffic is not allowed on this road, the traffic conditions are bad and it engenders lots of accidents. The heavy traffic is routed on the national road DN 1A, by crossing a large number of localities. The difficult traffic conditions lead to an increase of the transit time and of the fuel consumption, which imply high economic losses.

On the other hand, the traffic under low fluency conditions, with many stop-accelerate cycles, determines the appearance of large pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. The increased traffic volume also leads to a high noise level within the localities.

The motorway will capture a part of the traffic on the national roads network and the positive effect will be seen by the decrease of the chemical and sound pollution along the above mentions roads (see Chapters 7.2. and 7.5).

For example, along the DN 1 the emissions of polluting substances will decrease by 10% to 86%. The most important decreased values, by 75 – 86% - will be effective especially on the Prahova Valley on the following road sections: Sinaia, Sinaia – Busteni, Busteni – Azuga, Azuga – Predeal, Predeal, Predeal – Sacele and Sacele - Brasov. Along the DN 1A the most important decerased emissions levels (by 80% to 90%) will the following areas: Bucharest – Buftea, Buftea – Catunu, Catunu – Ploiesti Sud, DN 1B – Ploiesti Nord, Ploiesti – Valenii de Munte and Cheia - Sacele.

The noise level will be reduced along the DN 1 by 0,6 – 9 dB(A) (especially within the following road sections: Ciolpani – Ploiesti Sud, Campina, Campina – Comarnic and Comarnic – Sinaia), while for the DN 1A the decrease will be by 0,3 – 8 dB(A) (especially within the road sections Ploiesti Sud – DN 1 and DN 1 – DN 1B).

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

The Bucharest Brasov Motorway runs throughout the Municipality of Bucharest and the Ilfov, Prahova and Brasov counties.

Length

The total length of the motorway routing sums up 174 km.

The lengths according to road sections are as follows:

v   Road section 1 – Bucharest – Ploiesti: Km 0+000 – Km 65+000, L = 65 Km;

v   Road section 2 – Ploiesti – Comarnic: Km 65+000 – Km 110+600, L = 45,6 Km;

v   Road section 3 – Comarnic – Predeal: Km 110+600 – Km 146+800, L = 36,2 Km;

v   Road section 4 – Predeal – Cristian: Km 146+800 – Km 168+600, L = 21,8 Km;

v   Road section 5 – Cristian – Codlea: Km 168+600 – Km 173+300, L= 4,7 Km;

v   Road section 6 – The connection of the motorway to the roads' network, L= 3,7 Km for the new interchange arm and L = 3,7 Km, for the rehabilitation of the DN 73B.

By taking into account the high costs of the works and the large construction time, it was necessary to divide the investment on stages, both in longitudinal and cross section (see Chapter 2.4.). Therefore, the following stages were suggested:

v   Full profile motorway between Bucharest and Ploiesti;

v   First motorway lane between Comarnic and Brasov;

v   Second motorway lane between Comarnic and Brasov;

v   Full profile motorway between Ploiesti and Comarnic.

The standard cross profiles, the art works as well as the designed junctions will be hereinafter presented, according to the specific road sections.

Road section 1 Bucharest – Ploiesti Km 0+000 – Km 65+000

Typical cross sections

On this road section, the motorway platform will be 33,5 m wide between Bucharest and Dumbrava (Km 0 – Km 45) and 26,0 m wide, between Dumbrava and Ploiesti (Km 45 – Km 66). The two traffic ways will be separated by a median separating lane that will be 10 m wide within the first road section and 3 m wide on the second one. The vegetation designed for this median 10 m wide lane has anti-blinding and landscape effects. The 3m wide median lane will be waterproofed and it will be framed by anti-blinding panels. The carriage way will consist of 4 traffic lanes and it will be framed by bordering lanes. On both sides of the carriage way, there are emergency standing lanes as well as road shoulders.

    Typical cross section having 33,5 m wide (Km 0 – Km 7)

    Typical cross section having 33,5 m wide (Km 7 – Km 45)

Typical cross section having 26,0 m wide (Km 45 – Km 65)

Interchanges

On the road section Bucharest – Ploiesti project suggests the execution of 7 interchanges.

Interchange at the crossing of motorway with Iancu Nicolae street

v       Km 1+200 – the crosssing of Petricani road and overpass for the rail way Bucharest – Constanta;

v       Km 4+850 – the crossing with Iancu Nicolae Str.;

v       Km 7+480 – the crossing with the Bucharest By-Pass;

v       Km 24 – the crossing with the connection road between Snagov and Moara Vlasiei;

v       Km 30 - the crossing with DJ 101 B (Gruiu - locality);

v       Km 60 –Tatarani interchange    (Ploiesti Sud);

v       Km 65 – Interchange for the crossing with DN1 (Vest Ploiesti By-Pass).

 

Interchange at the crossing of motorway with Bucharest By-Pass

Interchange at the crossing of motorway with DN 1 at Tatarani (Km 60)

Art works   

v     Bridges

The motorway will over cross the rivers and the valleys on its routing by means of bridges.

On the road section Bucharest - Ploiesti one will build 9 bridges. The most important water flows to be over crossed are: The Pipera Pond, The Pasarea Pond, Mostistea, the Ialomita river, the Prahova river and the Teleajen river.

The project has estimated the construction of passage ways within other communication areas.

v     Railway overpasses: 6 overpasses (Railway Bucharest – Constanta, Belt railway Bucharest, Railway Bucharest – Urziceni, Ghighiu Stop, Ploiesti Vest Shunting station, Ploiesti Vest Train station);

v     Passages for the crossings with other roads: 20 overpasses (the most important crossed roads are: The Bucharest By-Pass, DJ 101, DJ 101E, DN 1 Bucharest – Brasov).

The project has provided the continuity of the crossed roads (national, county, commune passing, exploitation, agricultural roads).

Within the area Bucharest – Ploiesti, due to the discussions with the population that has been affected by the construction of the motorway, it resulted the necessity of building 22 culverts with a 5 m opening, whose sizes were set in order to allow the access of other harness and agricultural tools. These footbridges will assure the access to property areas and they will be located as follows: Km 12+600, Km 13+720, Km 15+550, Km 17+050, Km 17+450, Km 20+630, Km 27+150, Km 27+450, Km 30+350, Km 31+250, Km 33+220, Km 34+050, Km 35+400, Km 36+250, Km 37+800, Km 38+280, Km 39+350, Km 41+950, Km 45+400, Km 46+370, Km 48+770 and Km 57+000.

Road section 2 Ploiesti – Comarnic Km 65+000 – Km 110+600

Typical cross section

On the motorway road section Bucharest - Campina the width of the motorway platform will be 26,00 m (see the typical cross section on the road section Bucharest – Ploiesti). On the road section from Banesti (Campina) to Comarnic, there is a 23,5 m wide road platform.

    Typical cross section having 23,5 m wide

Interchanges

On the road section Ploiesti – Comarnic one has designed 3 interchanges 3 noduri at:

v     Km 70+750 – The crossing with DN 1(Ploiesti Vest Road belt);

v     Km 93+286 – Serves the access to and from Campina;

v     Km 111+600 – The crossing with DN 1 (Comarnic).

Interchange at the crossing of motorway with DN 1 (Ploiesti West By-Pass)

Interchange at Banesti (Km 93+286)

Art works

v     Bridges: On the area between Ploiesti Vest and Campina, the motorway does not cross any water flow, while on the road section between Campina and Comarnic there are 6 bridges, 2 of which are along Prahova. Al the bridges cross the Prahova river, except for one that crosses the Sarului Valley. Actually, he road section Campina – Comarnic runs along the major streambed of the Prahova river;

v     Overpasses for rail ways: n = 5 (the crossed railways are as follows: RWay 302 Ploiesti - Targoviste and RWay 300 Bucharest - Brasov);

v     Passages for the crossings with other roads: n = 12 (the most important crossed roads are as follows: DN 72 Ploiesti – Targoviste, DN 1 Bucharest – Brasov, DJ 129 Ploiesti – Strejnic, DJ 101 I Ploiesti – Strejnicu, DJ 720).

On the road section Campina – Comarnic, 6 existing pedestrian foot-bridges are to be rearranged.

Road section 3 Comarnic – Predeal Km 110+600 – Km 146+800

Typical cross section

On this road section, the motorway platform will be 23,50 m wide.

Typical cross section having 23,5 m wide

Interchanges

One has designed 4 interchanges on this road section:

v     Km 111+900 (Comarnic) – the crossing with DN 1;

v     Km 126+000 (Sinaia) – the crossing with DN 1;

v     Km 131+500 (Busteni) – the crossing with DN 1;

v     Km 146+509 (Predeal) the crossing with DN 73A.

Interchange at the crossing of motorway with DN 73A (Km 146+700)

Art works

v     Bridges

On this road section, the motorway crosses the encountered water flows by means of 22 bridges. The most important water flows that the motorway crosses are s follows: the Prahova river, Valea Seciului, Valea Magarului, Valea Larga, Valea Cainelui, Valea Rea, Valea Grecului;

v     Viaducts: one has designed 3 viaducts over the valleys it crosses;

v     Rail way overpasses: one has designed 7 overpasses for the railway 300 Bucharest – Brasov;

v     Passages for the crossings with other roads: on this road section, one has designed 4 overpasses for the crossings with DN1.

Road section 4 Predeal – Cristian Km 146+800 – Km 168+600

Typical cross section

Between Predeal and Rasnov, a cross profile with a 23,50 m wide platform is supposed to come into application. Between Rasnov and Cristian (up to Codlea, actually) a 26,00 m wide platform will be executed.

    Typical cross section having 26,0 m wide

Interchanges

v     Km 162+145 – at Rasnov, for the crossing with the DN 73.

Interchange at the crossing of motorway with DN 73(Rasnov) - Km 162+145

Art works

v     Bridges

On the road section Predeal – Cristian one has designed 5 bridges. Along the Valea Rasnoavei the routing crosses by means of bridges the river Raul Mare as well as other valleys, among which: Valea Golomos, Valea Merelor, Valea Drihiul.

v     Viaducts: on this road section, one has designed 11 viaducts, since the land provides an uneven configuration;

v     Railway overpasses: the motorway crosses the railway Brasov - Zarnesti by means of an overpass;

v     Passages for the crossings with other roads: n = 9 (the most important roads that it crosses are, as follows: DN 73ALSTOM- 5 times, and DN 73 respectively.

Road section 5 Cristian - Codlea Km 168+600 – Km 173+300

Typical cross section

On the road section Rasnov – Codlea the motorway platform is 26,00 m wide.

Typical cross section having 26,0 m wide

Interchanges

v     On the road section Cristian – Codlea one has designed a interchange for the crossing with the DN 1 – Km 173+800.

Interchange at the crossing of motorway with DN 1(Codlea) - Km 173+800

Art works

v     Bridges: on this road section, the motorway will cross the Barsa river by means of a bridge;

v     Overpasses for the crossings with other roads: one has designed 3 overpasses for the motorway.

Road section 6 The motorway's connection to the road network

Typical cross section

This road section will dispose of a 13,00 m wide platform, with two 3,50 m wide traffic lanes provided with consolidated road shoulders ( 2,50 m wide) as well as earth made road shoulders.

Typical cross section having 13,0 m wide

Interchanges: on this road section has not designed any interchange.

Art works:

v     Bridges: one has designed a bridge over the brook of Ghimbasel.

We will set forth hereinafter the common works pendant to all the road sections of the Bucharest – Brasov motorway.

The road system

As far as the road system is concerned, more alternatives have been taken into account. The most advantageous alternative from the technical-economic point of view seems to be a semi-positive reinforced structure (reinforcement carried out after 2025) as well as a positive structure:

v     The semi-positive alternative:

5 cm asphalt concrete, within the wear layer;

5 cm asphalt concrete, within the base course;

7 cm hydrocarbon pavement mixture for the primary layer;

30 cm stabilized ballast;

30 cm ballast;

shaping layer.

v     The positive alternative:

23 cm cement concrete;

20 cm stabilized ballast;

30 cm ballast;

shaping layer.

The water drainage system


Along the entire motorway routing, one has designed works that will provide the drainage of the storm waters that wash the road platform, such as: ditches and gutters, as well as culverts that are discharged into emissaries or on the surrounding lands.

Paved ditch Paved gutter

Fencing

On the edge of the road reservation, on both sides, except for the bridge and overpasses provided areas, one is suppose to provide wire fencing. The height of the fences will be ranged between 1,40 m and 2,60 m, according to the animals that are specific to the respective area, as follows:

v     within the areas that are not afforested: - H = 1,40 m;

v     within the afforested areas: - Bucharest – Posada: H = 1,80 m;

- Posada – Codlea: H = 2,60 m.

Signalling and marking

One has designed a signalling and marking system in order to provide direction and warning information to the traffic users. In compliance with both Romanian and international standards. The motorway users will be as well informed on the inadequate meteorological conditions (fog, glazed frost or about the traffic disturbances by means of panels provided with dynamic display.

Consolidation works

Along the Bucharest – Brasov motorway routing, one has designed the following types of consolidation works:

v   Section Bucharest - Ploiesti

Excavation drains;

Embankment abutment walls;

Abutment walls out of reinforced earth;

Parapet foundations.

v   Section Ploiesti – Comarnic

Ploiesti – Banesti (Campina):

Protection works for the embankment's slope, where H>3,0 m;

Ballast anti-capillary layer, h=50 cm for the embankment and where H>3,50 m;

Embankment reinforcement works where H =9 – 12 m;

Earth made abutment walls for embankments within the railway area;

Concrete deep parapet foundations within the railway area.

v   Section Campina – Comarnic:

Reinforced earth abutment walls for embankments;

Concrete abutment walls for embankments;

Gabions designed for the debris flows' arrangement.

v   Section Comarnic - Predeal

Reinforced earth abutment walls for embankments;

Concrete abutment walls for embankments;

Gabions designed for the debris flows' arrangement.

v   Section Predeal – Cristian

Anchored sieves as well as gunite covered sieves for rock protection;

Anchored plates for the slopes' protection;

Reinforced earth abutment walls for embankments;

Concrete abutment walls for embankments;

Water drains;

Gabions designed for the debris flows' arrangement.

v   Section Cristian – Codlea

On this road section one has not designed any consolidation works.

Hydrotechnical works

Significant hydro-technical works have been designed for the road section between Campina and Predeal, especially on the road section Campina – Comarnic:

v   Section Campina – Comarnic

One has designed the following work types for the protection of the motorway's watered slope as follows:

Rough stone riprap on the concrete girder;

Jointed riprap out of prefabricated slabs on the concrete girder;

Masonry riprap out of rough stone provided with rock filling prism at the slope's foot;

Jointed riprap out of prefabricated slabs - the slabs are jointed and prefabricated out of concrete, and then filled with vegetable earth;

Gabions protection;

Elevation provided abutment wall with concrete foundation;

Bottom sill out of gabions;

Concrete colmation bottom;

Water bed enclosure fence/dike;

Water bed correction;

Cast-in-place concrete riprap.

v   Section Campina – Predeal

One has designed protection works for the slopes affected by the water induced degrading:

Slope protection by means of prefabricated slabs;

Slope protection by means of jointed stone ripraps;

Slope protection by means of gabions.

Environment protection works

One has also designed works aiming at the environment's protection that are to be set forth in detail within Chapter 7:

v          Water quality protection works: settlement tanks, oil interceptor tanks, dispersion tanks, purifying devices for the service supply areas, as well as for the supply areas, maintenance centers and coordination centers;

v     Noise protection works: noise damping pannels;

v          Fauna protection works: fencings and culverts designed for wild animals 's motorway crossing.

Coordination hubs, maintenance centers, service supply areas, parking areas

v          Maintenance and coordination hubs – CIC

A maintenance and coordination hub is designed for the interchange in Snagov (Km 24).

v          Maintenance hubs (districts) - 3 hubs: Km 59 (where the motorway crosses the Ploiesti Eastern Belt), Km 92+950 (Banesti) and Km 162+145 (within the area of the interchange Rasnov).

v          Service supply area, S3 type ( they consist of: parking areas, small tables and chairs, WC, fuel supply station, motel and restaurant) – 3 S3 type areas at Km 20, Km 87+550, Km 160+000.

v          Service supply areas, S1 type (they include: parking areas, small tables and chairs, WC, bar and fuel supply station) – 3 S1 type areas at Km 35, Km 56 si Km 116+175.

v          Short term parking areas (they include: parking areas, small tables and chairs and WC) – 10 short term parking areas at Km 11+500, Km 28+400, Km 42+550, Km 50+400, Km 67+100, Km 78+100, Km 101+700, Km 134+325, Km 148+300, Km 169+550.

LOCATION - DETAILS

The motorway routing crosses the territory of the Municipality of Bucharest on a 1,150 Km long distance, and then it covers the Ilfov, Prahova and Brasov counties. The motorway routing will cross all the relief forms, starting with the plain area specific to the Ilfov county and to a part of the Prahova county and ending by hill and then mountain areas. The solutions suggested by the project depend on the area that the motorway crosses and on its characteristics, that is why the project's description has been carried out according to characteristic road sections.

ROAD SECTION 1 BUCHAREST – PLOIESTI (KM 0+000 – KM 65+000)

On the road section Bucharest – Ploiesti, the motorway routing crosses the territory of the Municipality of Bucharest on a 1,150 Km long distance, and then it covers the Ilfov and Prahova counties. It is noticeable that the motorway routing passes only a plain area on this road section.

The starting area belongs to the Vlasiei Plain. The land is almost flat, with small altitudes, below 100 m. the lands that are to be engaged by the motorway are mainly agricultural lands.

The routing starts from Bucharest, from Petricani Street. On Km 1+200 the motorway crosses the railway routing Bucharest – Constanta by means of an overpass, then from here it enters the territory of the Ilfov county.

On Km 2+320 the motorway crosses the Pipera Pond by means of an bridge, then it unfolds along the eastern side of Pipera, almost 500 χ 600 m away from it.

On Km 7+480 the motorway crosses the railway routing and the Bucharest By-Passa by means of an overpass. Beyond this crossing, one has designed a interchange to provide the connection of the road belt of the motorway.

Further on, the routing unfolds within an agricultural area, and it overlaps an already existing exploitation road called “Drumu Mare”. The motorway passes by at almost 1,25 Km away from the locality of Tunari and almost 2,0 Km away from the locality of Sefanestii de Sus respectively. on Km 9+050 the routing crosses the Pasarea Pond by means of a bridge, then it unfolds only on agricultural lands, having on its right side the forests Runcu and Tiganca (at almost 2,5 Km far from them). Within this area, the crossing of the Mostistea Valley is assured by means of a bridge (Km 15+060).

More routing alternatives have been studied for the area of the Tunari – Stefanesti – Moara Vlasiei – Snagov localities. The chosen solution tried to avoid, as much as possible, the lots' parting, that is why the routing unfolds along the properties' boundary and on the village common.

On Km 18+300 the motorway crosses the railway routing Bucharest – Urziceni by means of an overpass. The routing has been designed so that the overpass's obliqueness rating be as small as possible.

After it crosses the Cociovalistea brook by means of a bridge at Km 19+850, the routing crosses agricultural lands up to the vicinity of Km 22+200 where it crosses a part of the Surlari forest. The next designed bridge will be located at Km 22+950, at the boundary of the Surlari forest, where one crosses the Vlasiei Valley. On Km 24+000 one has designed a interchange that will provide the access to the motorway for the commune's road between the Vlasiei Mill and Snagov. Between Km 24+700 and Km 26+100 the motorway unfolds along the western boundary of the Vlasia forest. Further on, until it gets to Gruiu, the routing crosses only agricultural lands. The routing follows an exploitation road up to the crossing with the county road DJ 101 B (Gruiu – Lipia). This alternative has been chosen in order to let the motorway building manoeuvres affect only the extremities of the properties. A rod junction is also designed on Km 30.

On Km 31+040 the Gruiu brook is crossed by means of a bridge, almost 1 Km far from it and the Ialomita river (Km 32+100). The river represents the boundary between the Ilfov and Prahova counties.

Further on, the relief consists of plains, with altitudes of almost 80 - 85 m. after it crosses th Ialomita river, the motorway runs along the eastern part of the localities of Bira, Lacu Turcului, Olari and Independenta (at least 700 m away from them), and it also crosses a series of commune roads.

On Km 41+620 the routing crosses the Prahova river. Then comes a forest covered area alternating with agricultural lands. The motorway routing passes the Chitoreanca forest (between Km 43 and Km 44), and then the Calugareasca forest (Km 44+700 – Km 45+800).

The road section km 0+000 – 45+000 in the area of the locality of Dumbrava is common to the Bucharest – Brasov motorway and Bucharest – Albita motorway.

As for the area of the city of Ploiesti, one has chosen the alternative of making a roundabout on the south-west, by detachment from the Bucharest – Albita motorway, on Km 45. The routing runs almost in parallel with the railway routing of Bucharest – Brasov, 750 m to 2,25 Km far away.

Within the roundabout area from Ploiesti, the land's elevation increases step by step from almost 100 m in the vicinity of the locality of Zanoaga until it reaches 175 m near Strejnicu.

At the beginning, the routing runs along agricultural fields, almost 750 m far from Dumbrava. Between Km 48+200 and Km 48+400 the motorway passes by the northern end of the Dumbrava forest (without crossing it) and then over the agricultural lands located within the southern part of Zanoaga. On Km 50+100 the routing crosses the Teleajen river by means of a bridge. On a distance of almost 0,7 Km, the routing crosses the Moara Domneasca forest, and further on it passes over the agricultural lands that belong to the commune of Rafov, almost 100 m away from the Buchilasi village. Within the area of Km 53+700 and Km 54+000 the motorway crosses the Rafoveanca forest, then it crosses again agricultural lands. Within the area of Km 55 – Km 58 the motorway passes by the south-western part of the Raiosu forest, almost 200 m up to 750 m far from it.

Between Km 60 and 64 the motorway will consist of a chain of art works: overpass for the Ghighiu Halt, a viaduct, an overpass for DN 1 Barcanesti, a viaduct, an overpass for two railways, a viaduct, an overpass for the Ploiesti Vest Shunting station. All these art works sum up into one 4,3 km long overpass focused work. Within this area, the motorway passes by in the vicinity of the Barcanesti green houses and of the Tatarani locality.

One has also designed interchanges for Tatarani (southern area of Ploiesti) as well as for the crossing with the DN 1 (western area of Ploiesti).

This road section ends in the southern area of Ploiesti on Km 65, in the vicinity of the Ploiesti Vest neighbourhood (which is located almost 250 m far from the motorway).

ROAD SECTION 2 PLOIESTI – COMARNIC (KM 65 – KM 110+600)

On this road section, the motorway routing has a general north-west orientation and it is parallel and as close as possible from the railroad Bucharest – Brasov, in order to avoid the parting of the agricultural lands.

At the beginning, the routing unfolds almost 250 m far from the Ploiesti Vest neighbourhood, then it runs paralelly to the DN 1. It then passes almost 250 m far from the Aeroclub in the vicinity of the Strejnicu locality and makes a roundabout on the east side of the military practice grounds. The distance between the motorway and the Strejnicu locality is of almost 700 m. Then the motorway crosses the railroad of Ploiesti – Targoviste (Km 68+920) and DN 72 (Km 70+300). On Km 70+750 one has suggested the execution of a interchange.

Further on, the routing unfolds over agricultural fields, being parallel to the railroad Bucharest – Brasov. Then, the motorway passes by the Buda village, almost 400 m far. On an almost 2 km long distance, the motorway neighbours the Buda forest, almost a few tens of meters up to one kilometre far from it.

The DN 1 is now located on the right side of the motorway (almost 200 m up to 1 Km far). From Baicoi, the routing runs closer and closer to the Prahova water bed, located on the left side of the railroad and of the motorway. The land reaches heights of 300 m, while the landscape is mainly man-made, consisting of cereal lots and orchards. Between Baicoi and Cocorastii Caplii the motorway routing crosses a series of local roads. In order to assure the continuity of the existing activities, there will be a series of overpasses where the motorway meets the following local roads: DC 113 (Km 85+633), DJ 720 (Km 86+343) and DC 111 (Km 88+138).

On Km 83+446 as well, within the area of IAS Baicoi, one has suggested the crossing of the railroad and of the motorway by means of an overpass, in order to assure the access of the inhabitants from Baicoi to the agricultural lands. Within the area of the Floresti locality, the routing has been veered off, in order to keep it away from the railroad and not to affect the rail station and the other neighbouring buildings. From Baicoi to Banesti, the motorway routing, the DN1 and the railroad routing unfold on an area that gets narrower and narrower in the vicinity of the Prahova river. The land's altitude is of almost 400 m.

Starting with the locality of Banesti, the motorway routing runs along the Prahova Valley, where the road follows the major streambed of the Prahova river, due to the numerous industrial objectives constructed areas and to the land that gets bumpier and bumpier. Between Banesti and Comarnic the motorway routing crosses lands that belong to the localities of Campina, Poiana Campina, Breaza, Cornu and Comarnic. On the territory of the commune of Banesti, before entering Campina (Km 93+286), one has designed a interchange in order to aasure the access to and from the industrial area of Campina.Within the area of the locality of Banesti, the motorway routing has been designed so that it does not affect the designed environment friendly garbage damp. The access to this damp will be as well provided.

Within the exit area of Banesti the motorway routing meets the junction of the Prahova and Doftana rivers, that it crosses on the area between Km 93+980 – Km 94+640. From the moment it meets the Doftana river, the Prahova streambed adjusts to the sub-Carpathian profile, provided with high slopes and coarse alluviums, specific to the ballast oriented exploitation activities. The banks are though caved and the vegetation is not well represented thereof, which implies that one should initiate bank protection activities. This situation is even more obvious towards Breaza.

Within the area Campina – Poiana Campina the routing unfolds between the Prahova river and the railroad Bucharest – Brasov, by following the river's major streambed. The routing meets numerous industrial centers as well as installation networks. In order to be able to meet the requirements of the City Hall from Poiana Campina related to the protection of those industrial centers. The designer subsequently suggested the building of a 881 m long bridge over the Prahova river streambed (Km 96+585 – Km 97+466).

In the area of Poiana Campina, the river's streambed gets narrower, and it shows an old bank reinforcement which is not degraded in front of the S.C. PETROUTILAJ S.A. and S.C. CIREX S.R.L industrial centers. Between the localities of Cornu and the routing runs in parallel with the DN1, by following the watercourse of the Prahova river. Between Km 104+590 – Km 105+695 the motorway routing crosses the railroad Ploiesti – Brasov by means of a bridge and of an overpass. Further on, the motorway passes by a sanitary protection area (underground water catchment) that belongs to Breaza, but it does not affect it. Between the localities of Nistoresti and Breaza de Sus, between Km 108+884 – Km 109+540, the motorway routing crosses again the railroad Bucharest Brasov as well as the Prahova river. After having crossed the Prahova river, the routing follows the passage way of the national road DN 1, the Prahova river and the railroad, being parallel to these ones until it reaches the southern boundary of Comarnic. On Km 111+600 one has designed a interchange for DN 1, located on the former location of a site structure. After almost 1 km, the routing will cross again the railroad by means of an overpass and the Prahova river by means of a bridge.

The continuity of the local roads is provided by the arrangement of overpasses located within the area of Km 112, 113 and 114. Along the routing between Campina and Comarnic, there are inhabited areas whose number continuously increases; that is why the project suggests the reconditioning of the pedestrian access passage ways between these areas and the existing objectives along the valleys. On this road section one has identified 6 pedestrian footbridges that are to be crossed by the motorway routing.

THE ROAD SECTION COMARNIC – PREDEAL (KM 110+600 – KM 146+800)

The motorway routing unfolds along the Prahova Valley, in parallel with the railroad Bucharest – Brasov. On this road section the motorway crosses 5 times the railway by means of overpasses (Km 118+760, Km 120+139, Km 124+121, Km 130+648, Km 133+680 and Km 138+076).

Between Comarnic and Predeal one has designed 4 interchanges, one for each of the localities of Comarnic, Sinaia, Poiana Tapului and Predeal.

Due to the many windings of the Prahova river, the routing will run along one river bank or another, by means of bridges. On this road section it is also obvious that there is a large number of valleys that the motorway crosses by bridges: the Mesteacanului Valley, the Moldoveanca Valley, the Seciului Valley, the Magarului Valley, The Dracului Valley, The Larga valley etc.

The total number of bridges on this road section is 22.

Further on along the routing, as the altitude vales increase, the agricultural areas are replaced by forests. This is the case of the area bordered by the Seciului Valley and the Larga Valleyas as well as the forest covered area belonging to the administration department of the Sinaia Forestry. The most frequent relief form is the flank, with different slopes. The forest play mainly a protection role: hydrological role - it evens and consolidates the banks of the Prahova river and an anti-erosion role that protects the soil against erosions and earth sliding. In the area of Sinaia the routing unfolds parallelly to the DN 1, the railroad Bucharest – Brasov and the Prahova river. The routing runs along the right side of the DN 1, outside the locality. On the motorway's right side, at the bottom of the afforested flank, there are houses, or houses that are being built, that the routing avoids. The micro-power unit as well as the storage lake on the Prahova river will not be affected. Within the entrance area of Sinaia (at MEFIN) one has designed the execution of a interchange (at Km 126).

On the area between Valea Cainelui and Valea Rea the motorway routing will affect the forest covered surfaces under the administration of the Sinaia Forestry. At the exit from the afforested area, the routing runs parallel to the railroad Bucharest – Brasov that it crosses by means of an overpass in the area of the Cumpatu neighbourhood (Km 130+648). The Cumpatu neighbourhood develops on the right side of the motorway and it has been representing a highly developed area within the last years. In order to run by bordering the extremities of the constructed area, and in order to avoid as much as possible the built houses, the motorway routing goes down the flank and then it unfolds between the railroad and the Prahova river. Within the area of the city of Sinaia, the motorway will cross by means of bridges the Prahova river, Valea Cainelui, Valea Rea as well as other smaller tributary streams of the Prahova river. Further on, in the area of the localities of Poiana Tapului and Busteni, the routing unfolds on the right side of the railroad Bucharest – Brasov, that it crosses at the exit from din Busteni (Km 138+076).

In the area of Poiana Tapului the routing unfolds between the Prahova river and the flank, more precisely, in the vicinity of the Zamora neighbourhood.

After having passed the Zamora neighbourhood, the motorway gets to the area of the city of Busteni, a locality that has been developed on the left side of the routing (towards Brasov).

In order to assure the continuity of the urban activities, the areas where the motorway crosses the existing roads (in Poiana Tapului and Busteni) will be provided with overpasses.

On the road section Poiana Tapului – Busteni one has designed bridges over the Prahova river and its tributary streams.

On both sides of the localities of Poiana Tapului and Busteni there are afforested areas to be developed, the main species being the ones that are characteristic to the entire area, that is the beech and the pine tree.

In the area of the locality of Azuga the routing unfolds between the flank and the railroad Bucharest – Brasov. Azuga is being developed on the right side of the motorway, beyond the railroad.

The motorway crosses the extremities of some forests located on the left side of the routing. They represent the state's property and they are managed by the Azuga Forestry department.

THE ROAD SECTION PREDEAL – CRISTIAN (KM 146+800 – KM 168+600)

This road section starts at the entrance in the city of Predeal.

From here, the routing joins Valea Rasnoavei, along the national road DN 73A. the crossed area is characterized by relatively smooth peaks, covered by lawns and forests of both pine trees and deciduous trees. The area also provides tourist areas.

The routing has been designed so that it does not affect the objectives set forth by the representatives of the local authorities (the City Hall of Predeal):

The Heroes Monument,

The ski slope in the area of Paraul Rece,

The extension of the water supply network.

The routing unfolds at small distances far from the DN 73A, that it crosses in an area beyond the sanatorium on the right side, in the area of Km 148. Starting with km 150 the routing runs away from the DN 73A, and it makes a roundabout at almost 1,5 km far from Paraul Rece resort, by avoiding the existing ski slopes.

The very bumpy road is characteristic to the area, which implies that there is the need for special arrangements along the motorway, such as viaducts. For this purpose, on the road section Predeal – Cristian one has designed 11 viaducts and 5 bridges, most of them on the road section that goes up to Rasnov. On Valea Rasnoavei the motorway routing crosses by bridges the river Raul Mare and many other valleys, among which: Valea Plasider, Valea Golomos, Valea Hartoaia, Valea Merelor, Valea Drihiul, Valea Cibabal. Starting from the motorway routing starts to come closer to the national road DN 73A that it crosses in the vicinity of the Cheia chalet (the area of Km 157), on a relatively flat area, at altitudes of 600 – 700 m.

Further on, the natural landscape from the vicinity of the Cheia chalet, consisting of lawns near the road and forests on the smoothly sloped peaks, is replaced by the man-made landscape, consisting of various cereal plantations, beat and potatoes; the forests can be found only on the side hill formations.

The motorway rounds about the city of Rasnov in its western side. In order to assure the access to and from the city of Rasnov, one has designed the execution of a interchange in the area of the crossing with the DN 73 (Km 162+145). Still within the town's area, the routing crosses the railroad Brasov – Zarnesti (Km 163+800) by an overpass. Starting from Km 165 the motorway crosses an agricultural area within Campul Mare din Sus and Campul de Jos. The continuity of the local roads is provided by the arrangement of overpasses.

THE ROAD SECTION CRISTIAN – CODLEA (KM 168+600 – KM 173+300)

On this road section the motorway crosses a hilly area, covered by agricultural parcels. In order to assure the access of the owners to the agricultural fields, one has designed 3 overpasses for the motorway. In the area of Km 172 the motorway is to cross by means of a bridge the Barsa river.

Upon the end of this road section, km 173+800, the motorway Bucharest – Brasov is connected to the national road DN 1, where one has designed a interchange. The city of Codlea is located on the left side of the motorway, almost 1,5 Km far from it.

THE CONNECTION OF THE MOTORWAY TO THE ROAD NETWORK

The first stage suggested the connection of the motorway Bucharest – Brasov to the national road network within the area. It was suggested to detach a road belt, starting from the commune of Cristian (where the motorway crosses DJ 112B), that will provide the connection to DN 73B and DN 73. DN 73B is to be rehabilitated from the crossing with the road belt up to the crossing with the DN 1 (Ghimbav).

MOTORWAY COMPLETION AND OPERATION

The main problem arising from the execution of a motorway is represented by the high cost thereof and by the extended execution time. From the data of the study, it is obvious that the investment for the motorway Bucharest – Brasov goes up to 1.4 billion dollars. If we take into account an annual construction rate of 75 million dollars, which is the rate that corresponds to the rhythm in which the investments in Romania for the road traffic field, within the last years, unfolded, then the entire investment is to be finalized in almost 20 years. Within the framework of the above mentioned study, one has analyzed both the achievement of the entire investment and its staging as for the complete investment, one has suggested a calendar based staging for the investment, so that the commissioning of the different road sections be carried out at the right time (table no. 2.4 –1).

Table no. 2.4 –1 The investment's calendar based staging

Road section

Amount

(mil.$)

No. of execution years

Period

Beginn year

Ending year

Bucharest-Ploiesti

4

Ploiesti-Campina

3

Campina-Comarnic

3

Comarnic-Predeal

7

Predeal-Rasnov

3

Rasnov-Codlea

1

The internal rate with respect to the economic benefits of this hypothesis is 14.7%.

In order to increase the project's profit rate, this investment should be carried out on stages, both longitudinally and crosswise. The study also includes the hypothesis of the investment's staging. (table no. 2.4 – 2).

Table no. 2.4 – 2 The hypothesis of the investment's staging

Road section

Amount

(mil.$)

No. years of execution

Period

Beginning year

Ending year

Bucharest-Ploiesti

(complete profile)

4

Comarnic-Predeal

(first lane)

5

Predeal-Rasnov

(first lane)

2

The rest of the investment will be achieved after 2025. It seems that the second construction stage costs 864 mil.$. In this case, the total investment goes up to almost 1,6 billion $, by 15% more than if the entire investment was achieved as a complete profile. The internal profitability rate of this alternative is 19%.

By staging the investment, the profitability increases by 29%, since the total non updated investment cost is increased by only 15%.

Therefore, in order to increase the profitability of the investment and to make attractive from the financial point of view, it is recommended to proceed to its staging.

TRAFFIC DATA

THE BUCHAREST – BRASOV MOTORWAY

The traffic estimations depend on a number of variables that are to set forth in detail within other documents drawn up for the purpose of this project. For example, the capturing of the traffic on the existing roads depends on the advantages provided by the usage of the tax motorway as compared to the national roads from the motorway network. The estimation has been carried out based on the results of the traffic census on 2000. From the traffic's point of view, the motorway has been divided into 13 characteristic road sections.

The ratings pertaining to the chemical air pollution and for the sound pollution correspond to the traffic estimations for 2025.

Table no. 2.5.1. – 1 – Traffic estimations on the motorway, year 2025

Road section

Cars

2-spindle trucks

3-spindle trucks

5-spindle trucks

Buses

Total

Bucharest - Snagov

Snagov – Ploiesti Sud

Ploiesti Sud – DN 1

Centura Ploiesti

Ploiesti - Campina

Campina - Comarnic

Comarnic - Sinaia

Sinaia - Busteni

Busteni – Azuga -Predeal

Predeal - Rasnov

Rasnov - Codlea

With respect to the traffic structure, the cars have been considered as pendant to the light traffic, while the trucks and buses have been ranged as heavy traffic.

Table no. 2.5.1. – 2 – Traffic structure on the motorway, year 2025

Road section

Light traffic

Heavy traffic

Vehicle no.

Vehicle no.

Bucharest-Snagov

47724

94.52

2765

5.48

Snagov-Ploiesti Sud

49833

94.56

2866

5.44

Ploiesti Sud – DN 1

44639

96.08

1820

3.92

Centura Ploiesti

44635

96.08

1820

3.92

Ploiesti-Campina

39252

90.95

3907

9.05

Campina-Comarnic

50033

91.09

4897

8.91

Comarnic-Sinaia

49274

90.91

4928

9.09

Sinaia-Busteni

40359

89.49

4741

10.51

Busteni-Azuga-Predeal

31559

89.53

3692

10.47

Predeal-Rasnov

24611

86.89

3714

13.11

THE NATIONAL ROADS DN1 AND DN1A

It has been considered right to set forth the traffic estimations on the national roads that assure the connection at present between Bucharest and Brasov, in order to see which the traffic volumes captured by the motorway is. The decrease of the traffic volumes on these roads will lead to the decrease of the chemical and sound pollution.

The roads that have been taken into account were: DN 1 and DN 1A. The next chapters will present the ratings for the pollutants' emissions and for the noise level, for both hypothesis: the alternative of the non construction of the motorway and the alternative when the motorway is executed.

Table no. 2.5.2. – 1 – Traffic estimations on the DN 1, year 2025

Road section

Total traffic –

Less the motorway (VF/day)

Total traffic –

Motorway incl.

(VF / day)

% decrease

Bucharest – Snagov

80936

44455

45.07

Snagov - Ciolpani

82531

44455

46.14

Ciolpani – Ploiesti Sud

67895

29819

56.08

Ploiesti Sud – DN 1A

29100

4717

83.79

DN 1A – DN 72

44180

8248

81.33



DN 72 – Ploiesti Nord

46835

16477

64.82

Ploiesti - Campina

58012

30088

48.13

Campina

53452

13762

74.25

Campina - Comarnic

43692

3999

90.85

Comarnic

43692

4809

88.99

Comarnic - Sinaia

41429

2464

94.05

Sinaia

70542

41508

41.16

Sinaia - Busteni

55805

26755

52.06

Busteni

55805

36605

34.41

Busteni - Azuga

47894

28449

40.60

Azuga - Predeal

48036

28246

41.20

Predeal

44106

34474

21.84

Predeal - Sacele

36481

26664

26.91

Sacele - Brasov

55272

37436

32.27

Brasov - Codlea

43163

73385

-

As it is easily noticeable, the traffic on DN 1 will decrease by 20% up to 90%, except for the road section Brasov – Codlea, where the traffic volumes will increase by almost 70%. The road sections where the traffic volumes will be significantly decreased are Ploiesti Sud – DN 72 and Campina – Sinaia.   

Table no. 2.5.2. – 2 – Traffic estimation on DN 1A, year 2025

Road section

Total traffic - less motorway(VF/day)

Total traffic - motorway incl.

(VF / zi)

% decrease

Bucharest - Buftea

39963

26290

34.21

Buftea – Catunu

28094

16926

39.75

Catunu - Ploiesti

21672

10504

51.53

Ploiesti Sud – DN 1

29100

4717

83.79

DN 1 – DN 1B

7365

284

96.14

DN 1B – Ploiesti Nord

24139

19994

17.17

Ploiesti - Valenii de Munte

33959

26093

23.16

Valenii de Munte - Cheia

14524

6156

57.62

Cheia - Sacele

24470

16102

34.20

A high traffic percentage (app. 90%) will be captured from the road section Centura Ploiesti.

ENVIRONMENT LOCATION

GEOLOGY

Morphological characteristics

The motorway routing crosses different relief forms, from plains to mountains. Within its first section, the motorway passes by the Mostistei Plain, which is characterized by a general flat aspect with heights of 50 – 70 m. Further on it crosses the terraces and meadows of the Ialomita and Prahova rivers (the water flows of these rivers form large meanders).

A characteristic of the morphological contact area between the Sub- Carpathians and the plain is the Pintenul Magurii, which represents a higher relief form, attached to the Sub-Carpathians and shaping its way to the plain, by gradually decreasing its relative altitude. The passing from the plain area to the mountain area is done by means of the sub-Carpathian hills, characterized by formations dsiplayed into longitudinal ranges, equivalent to anticlines, and which are separated by subsidence due to the depressions' reshaping. From the structural point of view, the Sub-Carpathians belong both to the external units for the flysch of the Paleogene and cretaceous system, and to the inner side of the Carpathian pit , characterized by diapiric folds.

The Bucegi Massif dominates the mountain area, by strong masses of Jurassic limestone in karstic shapes, conglomerates, with bumpy tabular relief forms that sets forth numerous cross faults.

From Rasnov, the motorway crosses a subsidence based area called the quaternary golf of Rasnovului, where the altitude ranges from 900 m up to 750 m.

Geological characteristics

From the geological point of view, the motorway routing Bucharest – Brasov crosses a series of territories with different characteristics, as follows:

v   On the road section Bucharest – Ploiesti there are mainly deposits of sands and gravel, loams, whose thickness values range from 5 to 20 m. on limited surfaces, there are also loess deposits. The age of those deposits has been rated as Pleistocene - Holocene.

v   On the road section Ploiesti - Comarnic, there is a folds and faults full area, characterized by:

New deposits (top deposits) consisting of sands and gravels belonging to Pleistocene, especially within the area of the localities of Campina, Cornu, Breaza.

Deposits belonging to Paleogene - Neogene (older ones) consisting of clays, marls, disodile brecii, loamy schists, gritstones, flysch.

Cretacious deposits (even older ones) – at Comarnic – marls, clays, conglomerates.

v   On the road section Comarnic – Predeal there are: marls, marl-limestone formations, schists, calcarous gritstones with conglomerates and calacrenites (Sinaia layers) belonging to Neocomian-Baremian-Aptian.

v   The road section Predeal – Cristian is characterized by: schist-grit stone like flysch, marls, conglomerates belonging to Jurassic - Cretacic.

v   On the road section Cristian - Codlea there are deposits of sands, gravels, loess deposits, considered as belonging to Holocene.

SOIL

Along the motorway routing there is a wide range of soils, according to the soil types, relief forms, weather conditions and vegetation. Its routing from the plain area of the Municipality of Bucharest, to the hilly area of Comarnic – Banesti, and mountain areas of Banesti – Predeal and then back to the hilly area of Predeal – Rasnov, meets a wide variety of soils.

Fig. 3.2. – Soil types

The plain area of Bucharest - Banesti

The main relief form within this area is represented by plains, characterized by horizontal and semi-horizontal surfaces, with gradient values below 1%. The land is made out of numerous micro-subsidence, cavities, and dried up closed valleys.

Within this territory one may distinguish the following geo-morphological units: the plain and meadows of the Prahova and Ialomita rivers.

The soils that can be found within this area have been formed and have evolved under the comlpex influence of the environment related factors (relief, weather conditions, vegetation etc).

Therefore, within the plain area, the typical and levigated black earths/ chernozems are the ones that have evolved, accompanied by the forest brown red soils, and brown eumezobasic soils.

Within the river meadows and terraces there are residual protosoils soils that have evolved on the water deposits. They resulted under the influence of the running waters, due to their erosion, transportation and deposition processes.

As compared to the erratic soils formed on the newly flood surfaces or detached from the flooded areas, the residual protosoils soils appeared and evolved on frequently flooded areas.

One has identified the following soil types:

Typical chernozems/ black earths,

Rendzinic chernozems/ black earths,

Chernozems/ black earths, with reduced iron oxides concentrations,

Cambic chernozems/ black earths,

Brown eumezobasic soils, with reduced iron oxides concentrations,

Gleic soils,

Typical erratic soils,

Erratic soils, with reduced iron oxides concentrations.

From the covered surface point of view, the chernozems seem to be the most spread soils (63% of the surface), ten the erratic soils (16%), and the brown eumezobasic soils (5%).

The surfaces that are better drained are dominated by brown red podsol soils and forest brown red soils. The areas that benefit of a poorer drainage are marked by the wet brown red phreatic soils associated to clay-erratic black earths.

The brown red soils engender good results within the cereal plantations, industrial plants cultures (tobacco, sugar beet, sunflower etc) and they also enhance the cultures of the orchards and vine. The erratic soils of the river meadows favour the vegetable crops.

The main issues due to the environment conditions from the plain area (the cavities’ area) refer especially to the saturation and sloughing phenomena.

The hilly area of Banesti – Comarnic

From the structural point of view, this area is characterized by alluvia, gravels, rubble stones that support loamy soils (clays, dusty clays, loamy powders, loams).

The hilly area is mainly characterized by the following soil types, grouped according to morphological criteria, as follows:

Cambic rendzinic chernozem

Typical Rendzin

Cambic Rendzin

Lithic Rendzin

Typical brown red soil

Typical brown eumezobasic soil

Eumezobasic molic brown soil

Eumezobasic rendzinic brown soil

Typical erratic soil

Molic erratic soil

Erratic soil, with reduced iron oxides concentrations

Typical erratic Protosol.

From the geological point of view, the Prahova meadow partially consists of marshes, with recently deposited layers that are rather not consolidated. The terrace that rises by almost 15 m above the river meadow represents the best surface for the construction location. Such an example is represented by the commune of Floresti. The structure of this terrace generally consists of gravels, rubble stone, sands that sometimes come to the surface (approx. 0,50 m deep) or are covered by thin clay or humus layers.

Usually, the lands are stable both within the terrace area and on the flank area, even if they show different gradient values. There are though areas with unstable active processes (earth sliding, residues) as well as areas with an increased sliding coefficient. The salt massif that comes up to the surface determined the appearance within the area of Campina (located in the southern extremity of the commune of Cornu) of some lakes, due to the dissolving phenomenon. The southern part of the commune of Cornu is affected by this underground salt massif, that reached the stage of the basic rock corrosion (upon the upper levels of the Cornu – Campina plateau). There are three underground soil types, as follows:

Clay and coffee-like dusty clays, that cover the gravel and rubble stone layer of the terrace and the primary rock layers on the slopes from the flanks' foot. Sometimes, the loamy soils are replaced by finely ground sands or gravel, but to a small extent.

Gravel and rubble stone with varied thickness values. The layer appears on the entire surface of the terraces from Cornu;

The basic rock consisting of marl like clays and clay schists, and of marls and salt in its southern part.

Soil and underground resources

The soil and underground resources consist of oilfields and natural gas deposits (in Baicoi). On the territory of the commune Poiana Campina the soil shows significant mineral resources, such as: mineral aggregates in the gravel ground of the Prahova river and the oil from the oilfields in Pietrisu. In Campina there are oilfields as well.

The mountain area of Comarnic – Rasnov

Within the mountain areas, between Comarnic and Predeal, the alpine and sub-alpine lawn are the ones to prevail, as well as the acid brown soil sand podsols. On the lower terrace of the Prahova river, the lands stratification consists of vegetable soils, whose thickness values vary from 0,30 to 0,60 m, under which one may find a gravel- rubble stone layer.

In some areas, between the two above mentioned layers there is a dusty solid clays, down to 1,50 m deep. On the upper terrace, the stratification varies as follows:

Within the Posada area, on the terrace lots from the left bank of the Prahova river, there is a surface thin vegetable soil layer (0,20 – 0,40 m) under which one may find a layer consisting of sedimentary materials, such as detritus with clay binding agents.

At Ghiosesti there are two sub-areas: the northern one where under the vegetable layer there is the same sedimentary material based layer, made out of gravels and detritus and the southern sub-area where the gravels and detritus have been replaced by a strongly contractile clay layer.

In the area Poiana Campina - Comarnic, one may also distinguish between two sub-areas: a northern area where under the vegetable layer there is a complex formation of powder sands and clays located over the detritus layer, and the southern sub-area where, as in Ghiosesti area, there is a strongly contractile clay layer.

Since the flanks are characterized by steep slopes, cut by the waves in a „V” profile, and where the erosion plays an important role, one should take into account the torrents. Therefore, it is necessary to put into operation measures that prevent erosion, such as: stabilizing the depth of all the valleys and glens, especially of those that cross the Zamora flank. The coffee-like brown vegetable soil has thickness values that vary from 0,30 to 1,90 m. under the vegetable soil layer or under the refilling layer there is a cohesive layer resulted from the basic rock layer altering.

The hilly area of Rasnov - Codlea

From Rasnov to Codlea there are the following soil types:

Alpine brown silvestre soils,

Forest brown soils, within Brasov area,

Forest brown podsols of different degrees, and podsols.

Soil quality

In order to determine the soil's quality, one has drawn 7 samples of agricultural soil from the following areas:

v   The Municipality of Bucharest – Pipera,

v   The locality Tunari, approx. Km 1,

v   Ploiesti Vest neighbourhood, approx, km 66,

v   Oil derricks in the vicinity of Baicoi, approx. Km 84,

v   The city of Busteni, approx. Km 135,

v   The locality Cristian, approx. Km 168.

And two samples of forest soil:

v   The Calugareasca forest, approx. Km 46,

v   The city of Predeal, approx. Km 148.

The results of the chemical analysis carried out by the specialty labs of ICIM Bucharest are set forth within Annex no. Ia - analysis reports no.1 – 9.

Slightly increased values for the concentrations of the oily products have been detected in the samples of agricultural soil from Ploiesti; they exceed the normal ratings but they are though below the alert limit (Annex no. Ia - analysis reports nr. 2 and 3).

The analyzed parameters comply with the limits provided by the Order 756/1997 – related to the approval of the Regulations with respect to evaluation of the environment pollution level.

WATER

Surface waters

The motorway routing passes over the hydrographic dams of the following rivers :Pasarea, Mostistea, Cociovalistea, Snagov, Ialomita, Prahova, Teleajen and Ghimbasel.

The average flow rate depends both on the weather conditions and on the lithology and slope related conditions as well as on the extent of the vegetation covering level. The values differ significantly one from another along the motorway routing. The differences between the rainfall levels leads to the appearance of significant fluctuations within the average flow rates. Therefore, the highest flow rate is registered during spring time (40 – 60%) – especially in April, the melting of the snow adds to the abundant rainfall level. The lowest flow rate is registered in autumn, especially in September – October (10 – 20%) and during the winter in February, when the rainfall level is low and when the rivers freeze. The supply of the hydrographic network varies, but the supply due to the rainfalls still prevails. The motorway routing crosses or passes near a large number of water flows; among these, the most important are as follows:

v   Road section Bucharest – Ploiesti: the Pipera pond, the Pasarea brook, the Mostistea pond, the Cociovalistea brook, the Vlasiei Valley, the Gruiu brook, the Ialomita river, the Ialomicioarei Valley, the Prahova river, the Teleajen river.

v   Road section Ploiesti – Comarnic: The Prahova river;

v   Road section Comarnic – Predeal: the Prahova river, the Cainelui valley, Valea Rea, the Prahova river together with five of its tributary streams, the Grecului valley, the Stanei valley;

v   Road section Predeal – Cristian: Raul Mare, the Plasider valley, the Golomos valley, the Hartoaia valley, the Merelor valley, the Drihiul valley, the Cibabal valley;

v   Road section Cristian – Codlea - the Barsa river.

The main characteristics of the most important water flows on the routing are as follows :

v     The Ialomita river flows on the territory of the Ilfov county on a 110 Km long distance. Downstream its confluence with Prahova, at Cosereni, the multi-annual average flow rate of the Ialomita river is approx. 23 m3/s. The maximum flow rates on the hydrometric unit from Cosereni are 1280 m3/s and they may exceed this limit by 1% and 600 m3/s with a probability of 10%. The minimum flow rates are registered in August – September and December – February.

On its left side, the most important affluent of the Ialomita river is the Prahova river. On the right side, the tributary streams are less important from the morpho-metrical point of view. All these affluents have been though turned into lagoons, within the confluence area, as follows: the Snagov valley, with the lake bearing the same name, the Vlasia and Cociovalistea valleys. Beyond the confluence of the Vlasia and Cociovalistea valleys, there is the Caldarusani lake. A large number of ponds have been realized on most of the Ialomita ‘s affluents within this area.

The river lagoons form a well represented group in the Ialomitei river dam. The Snagov lake represents the most important pleasure made-up lake. Its surface measures 5,75 Km2, it is 13 Km long and at 9 m deep, at the most. The lake has an elongated, winding shape, providing a lots of gulfs. There is an isle downstream on which is located the Snagov monastery, that has been declared a historical monument. The lakesides are bordered by a beech forest, part of it being considered as scientific forest reserve. The motorway routing will not affect this area. The park, together with the lake form an important pleasure area. The Snagov lake is frequented by a large number of tourists due to its beauty and to the existent facilities: sports grounds, chalets, hotels. From the biological point of view, the water quality joins the mesotrophic category, while from the chemical category it may be ranged within the 2nd quality class (according to “The environment in Romania – statistic data collection” – ed. 2001, The National Statistics Institute).

The ponds form a well defined group that includes all the small valleys pendant to the Ialomita dam. Among these valleys, the most important is the Mostistea valley, together with the Snagov valley, the Cociovalistea valley and the Pasarea valley.

vThe Prahova river is the main collector of the rivers within the Prahova county. Its total length is 180 Km (6 Km within the Brasov county). The Prahova river springs on the territory of the Brasov county. Beyond its confluence with the Azuga and the Cerbului brook, the Prahova river joins the Sinaia subsidence. The multi-annual average flow rate on the Sinaia hydro-metric unit is 4,95 m3/s, according to the Monograph called “The country’s counties - the Prahova county”. Beyond its confluence with the Izvoru Dorului, the Prahova river enters a canyon area and then, in the vicinity of Posada, it enters the sub-Carpathian region. At Campina, the multi-annual average flow rate reaches almost 7,5 m3/s. Downstream the Municipality of Campina, the Prahova river gets Doftana as tributary stream, which leads to an increase of the flow rate by another 5 m3/s. At Campia Ploiestilor, the Prahova river receives one of its most important affluent, that is the Teleajen river, and further on it flows to the east, leaves the territory of the Prahova county and flows into the Ialomita river, on the territory of the Ilfov county.

vThe Teleajen river together with the Prahova river represents one of the main water drainage axles, since they both flow along the Prahova county, from the mountain area to the plain areas.

v     The Ghimbasel river within the Brasov county is 9,8 km long and it has an annual average flow rate of 1,74 m3/s. it is characterized by torrents, which led to the even arrangement of both banks, starting from the crossing with the commune road 103C.

Near Sanpetru, the Timis and Ghimbasel river join, then collect the waters of the Barsa river and further on, they flow into the Olt river in the vicinity of Feldioara. The main hydrographic stream that crosses the Brasov depression, on 120 km, is the Olt river, while the other rivers represent its tributary streams.

vThe Barsa river within the Brasov county has a total length of 68,4 km and an annual average flow rate of 2,90 m3/s. the hydrographic network of the Brasov county plays an important role for the county’s economy and for the supply with drinkable and industrial water. The water supply within the Brasov county is mainly provided by the rivers on the northern flank of the Barsei, Bucegi and Ciucas mountains, among which one may range Ghimbasel as well.

Surface water quality

The quality of the surface waters has been rated according to the measurements carried out by ICIM Bucharest over a series of characteristic areas along the motorway routing. The data provided by ICIM Bucharest have been taken from the Environment Protection Inspectorate in Ploiesti based on their own network designed for the water quality evaluation. Therefore, it seems that in the area of the motorway routing there are a few water streams that have been affected by rather increased pollution factors. That is why it is necessary to take special steps in order to decrease the impact of the pollutants due to the motorway activity.

For this purpose, with respect to the Prahova river one may mention as follows:

v   There is a progressive pollution along the water stream, due to the residues from the riverside localities and industries. The contribution of the tributary streams is not significant, since their quality is close to the one of the mainstream.

v   The organic loading of th water (CCO – Mn and CBO5) shows increases along the upper river stream. A significant increase has been noticed within the road section Tinosu, beyond the contribution of the residual waters from the Municipality of Ploiesti,

v   The concentration of the ammonium salts is relatively constant within the lower river stream, but it increases within the road section Tinosu. The main reason is the contribution of the residual town waters of the Municipality of Ploiesti, since the purifying station is under-dimensioned,

v   High concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, chrome, iron) have been noticed within the road section Tinosu, due to the residues from the neighbouring companies,

v   High concentrations of pesticides (organic, chlorination) have been noticed within the control road sections of Comarnic and Tinosu.

With respect to the reports of the National Company – “Apele Romane” – The Prahova’s Water Management System the following remarks may be formulated:

v   On the section springs – the Doftana confluence, the water quality complies with the maximum allowed limits of the concentrations of the 1st quality class;

v   On the section the Doftana confluence – evacuations of S.N.P. Petrom, Petrobrazi S.A. Subsidiary, the water quality complies with the maximum allowed concentration limits pendant to the 2nd quality class;

v   On the section : evacuations of S.N.P. Petrom, Petrobrazi S.A. Subsidiary – river mouth, the maximum allowed limits ofr the 3rd quality class are exceeded.

Within the Prahova county there are 16 purifying plants that overtake the domestic and industrial residual water from the population and from a part of the economic agents in the neighbourhood of the localities they supply..

Not all the localities provided with water drainage systems, that do not supply other companies, have purifying plants. Among these, one may range: Azuga, Busteni, Poiana Tapului, Comarnic. The localities’ water drainage systems also receive the residual waters resulted form the sanitary units that do not benefit from their own purifying plants.

Most of the existing purifying plants are under-dimensioned as compared to the number of inhabitants and economic agents. For example, there is the purifying station of the Municipality of Ploiesti that treats the residual waters for a number of almost 180.000 inhabitants and 20 economic agents.

The Ghimbasel brook, upstream the reference section of Rasnov complies for most of its parameters with the 1st quality class, except for the total ionic iron whose average concentration of 0,42 mg/l corresponds to the 2nd quality category. The iron content is due to the natural existing foundation. As compared to 2000, in 2001 there were decreases of the average values for: CBO5, CCO–Mn, CCO-Cr and a slight increase of the average content of dissolved oxygen.

The Barsa brook for the reference section upstream Zarnesti complies with all the quality parameters specific to the 1st quality class. The clearing degree is 79%.

The Barsa river downstream S.C. Celohart S.A. Zarnesti is altered from the point of view of the oxygen indicators. From the point of view of the indicators concerning the mineral concentration, the section corresponds to the 1st quality category, while the toxic indicators comply with 2nd quality class. The quality status of the Barsa river downstream S.C. Celohart SA Zarnesti is determined by the evacuations of not-purified or poorly purified residual waters from the above mentioned company.

In order to determine the quality of the surface waters within the motorway routing, the specialized labs pendant to the Research and Environmental Engineering Institute have analyzed water samples from the following areas:

the Ialomita river, in the northern side of Gruiu, approx. Km 32,

the Teleajen river, in the area of the locality of Rafov, approx. Km 52,

the Prahova river, in the area of the locality of Sinaia, approx. Km 128.

The results of the chemical analysis are set forth in Annex Ib – analysis reports no. 1, 4 & 6.

Within the above mentioned sections, the concentrations of the indicators comply with the values approved by STAS 4706/1988 as follows:

first category for the Prahova river,

second category for the Ialomita river,

third category for the Teleajen river, except for the total phosphorous level that exceed the limit of 0,1 mg/dm3.

Underground water

The ground water layers represent one of the significant underground resources, especially in the plain areas. The depth, the flow rate and the physical-chemical qualities depend on the crossed areas, on the weather conditions as well as on seasons.

The plain area of Bucharest – Banesti

The depth, the flow rate and the physical-chemical qualities depend on the crossed areas, on the weather conditions as well as on seasons.

Within the plain area of Bucharest – Ploiesti, the underground water layers residing in: the Fratesti layer (sands and gravels), the Mostistea sands as well as the average grained sands in the area of the Snagov Plain as well as alluvia consisting of coarsely grained elements that form the erratic lagoons. The depth of the underground water layers varies from 10 - 20 m in the areas neighbouring Bucharest to 2 – 3 m in the meadows of the main rivers, the Ialomita and Prahova rivers and above > 10 m in the areas of the city of Ploiesti. In the spaces between the water streams, the depth of the underground water layers varies according to the thickness of the loess deposits from above. Usually, this depth varies between 5 – 20 m. around the natural lakes and within the areas located on the right bank of the Ialomitei river, the depth may reach values below 5 m. The most frequent hydro-chemical type is the one treated by means of bicarbonate, with mineralization ranging from 300 to 1500 mg/l. The Fratesti layer collect the richest underground water layers with enhanced drinkable qualities. According to the geo-technical study drawn up by the company GEOCONSTRUCT DESIGN – SRL, there are two acquiferous layers within the area:

v   a shallow one - 6,20 m deep in Snagov and 11,70 m deep in Tancabesti, with not-drinkable water, environmental friendly;

v   average depth layer identified by drillings at 35 – 100 m deep, residing in the sand and gravel strata and whose water complies with the normal drinkable limits and is environmental friendly.

The hilly area of Banesti – Comarnic

Within this hilly area, one has noticed more water strata, residing in the sands and rubble stones of the waste outfall fan of the Prahova river. The depth of these acquiferous layers’ location depends on the stratification.

In the outfall fan of the Prahova river, the acquiferous layers do not form continuous water-bearing formations, but water lenses separated by thon and narrow horizons.

Within the river meadows, the underground water is located 1 – 5 m deep, with different fluctuations of these levels. On the terrace, the level of the underground water layer is located almost 20 m deep. Underground waters as continuous environment are widely represented in the underground areas of the administrative territory Magureni, where there are saturated permeable inter-structures (rubble stone, gravels) from the Candesti layer in the area. The underground waters are drinkable and they supply the commune (as well as other neighbouring localities). The underground waters are drinkable and they supply the commune (and other neighbouring localities) by several deep drillings in the river meadow of the Provitei river. Near the commune of Banesti, the underground well water varies between 3 – 8 m in the area of the upper terrace, and it can reach 10 -20 m or even 40 m in some other areas.

Near the commune of Poiana Campina, the underground waters appear only in the lower terrace where the village of Bobolia is located and in the area of the erratic depression. Generally, from the biological point of view, these waters are not drinkable.

Further up, towards Campina, the underground water from the erratic layer is located at 4 - 6 m deep. The coming up to the terrace surface are very frequent phenomena, and they lead to the appearance of springs whose waters flow down the flanks and cause detachments and sliding. These phenomena are more frequent on the western flank of the terrace. In order to protect the flanks, the Forestry of Campina has taken measures for the fixing of the land by means of resinous cultures, dikes, land arrangement and stabilization works.

The phreatic waters saturate the erratic horizon from the Breaza terrace, but only for limited thickness values, above the basic rock which is less permeable. When there are abundant rain falls, the phreatic waters flood the peak of the terrace front and causes land slidings. On the territory of the city of Breaza there are mineral waters, with healing properties, being able to cure the diseases of the digestive system – the sulpfhur spring from the bottom of the Gurga – Cocova hill and the one in Breaza de Jos, as well as there are chemical waters that provide these factors with the qualities of the mineral waters thus making them useful to the balneal treatments.

In general, the lands from both the terrace area and from the flank areas are stable, although they have different gradients. There are though areas affected by instability (sliding, breaking ups) as well as areas with an increased sliding coefficient. These active phenomena are seen within the terrace cornice and on some of the flanks. When there are abundant rainfalls or when the snow is melting, a part of the glens across the territory cause floods and erosions.

On the boundary hill-mountain, the underground waters are represented by infiltrations at different depth values. Thus, on the territory of the commune of Cornu (inside the existing wells), one can rate 1 – 2 m deep levels, or even 30 m deep level (in Cornu de Sus). The underground waters vary their level according to the rain fall quantities and to the morphological structure of the land. When there are prolonged drought periods, the wells from the village of Ghiosesti are completely dried, while in the village of Poiana the level of the underground water decreases significantly.

The mountain area of Comarnic – Rasnov

The aquiferous layer is located within the gravel horizons of the different terraces. The one within the 5 – 10 m terrace gravel is partially mineralized, and hat is a characteristic that has been set forth for many of the natural springs from the northern part of the territory.

The depth of the underground water is 1 -1,5 alluvial plain and 5 – 10 m within the terrace area. The underground water layers varies in level and flow rate according to the rain fall quantities. Within the flank area, the underground water is represented by infiltrations at different levels, but generally, the underground level increases from East to West. Near Busteni, there is an deep aquifer complex consisting of regular waters or mineral water with a generally reduced flow rate, influenced by the atmospheric factors. In the area of Busteni there are not many mineral springs with healing properties and their importance is reduced. According to the studies carried out by the Balneal- Physiotherapy Institute from Bucharest, the sources of mineral waters from Busteni are characterized by a low mineralization level and by a reduced flow rate, rated as 340 – 800 l/24 hours, for a stabilized running. Generally they are chlorine, sulphur, sodium, calcium, or bicarbonate waters. The spring from Valea Fetii is an important one, although it still has a reduced flow rate of 0,01 – 0,02 l/s, which means that it is not advantageous to try and catch its waters.

Near Azuga, the level of the phreatic waters varies according to the stratification from the respective area and it is located at 0,5 m up to 2,2 m deep. As the altitude values increase, towards the mountain area, the underground water is located at higher depths. When there are abundant rain falls, the water level can reach 1,2 – 1,3 m of depth

The hilly area of Rasnov - Codlea

The underground water layers are located at high depths that exceed 15 m, due to the gravel and sand deposits. The existence of these deposits facilitates the slight deep drainage of the rainfall waters.

There are the following phreatic water sources in the area:

v   a phreatic water nappe located at the contact between the permeable deposits of the debris cone (Vulcaniat – Barsa) with the impermeable deposited marl clays, at an average depth of 15,0 m.

v   a phreatic water nappe in the area of the Magura Massif, at the contact of the permeable limestone strata with the conglomerate deposits.

On the slopes in the immediate vicinity of the depression and of the adobe terrace, the typical waters are the infiltration waters that come close to the surface when there are abundant rainfalls.

The quality of the underground waters

The evaluation of the underground water quality has been realised based on the measurements of ICIM Bucharest within the spots that have been considered characteristic along the motorway routing. A series of data provided by ICIM Bucharest have been taken from the Environment Protection Inspectorate from Ploiesti, based on their own supervising network for the water quality evaluation.

According to the data provided by ICIM Bucharest, within the Prahova county, the underground waters are polluted with oil products ; the affected areas are those from the premises of the refineries and from the vicinity thereof, downstream the phreatic water nappe. The most polluted area from the underground waters point of view, along the motorway routing – road section Bucharest - Ploiesti, is the area of the Municicpality of Ploiesti. This type of pollution is due to the prolonged functioning of the refinery installations and of the oil products transportation activities. As a result of the different studies and of the monitoring carried out by the commercial companies that deal with this activity field, the contaminated surfaces have been evaluated (see the enclosed maps of the areas of Ploiesti and Campina).

Another contamination source is represented by the accidental pollution. Thus, in 2000 one has registered an increased number of faults for the conveying conduits for the raw or processed oil , which led to the pollution of the neighbouring soils.

Within the Brasov county, the critical area from the phreatic water quality point of view is the Codlea area – due to the discharges from S.C. Colorom SA Codlea. From the point of view of the accidental pollution, in the Brasov county – in the area of Zarnesti there have been 3 accidental pollutions: one pollution due to acid waters and two pollutions due to the residue oils. The cause of all the accidental pollution was S.C. Celohart S.A. Zarnesti. The water flora and fauna on the Barsa brook as well as the hydro-mechanical utilities on the water stream have been affected by pollution.

In order to determine the quality of the underground waters, along the motorway routing , one has analyzed underground water samples from the following areas:

the locality of Caciulati – well, H = 20 m, located at the extremity from Moara Vlasiei, approx. Km 20;

the area of the Calugareasca forest – well, H = 2 m, approx. Km 46;

the Ploiesti Vest neighbourhood, 5, Fluturilor Str., – shaft, H = 14 m, approx. km 66;

the locality of Rasnov, 9, Florilor Str., – well, H = 4 m, approx. Km 164.

From the measurements realised at the Lab of the Research and Environment Engineering Institute from Bucharest, one has set forth that the indicators for the underground water quality comply with the limits of STAS 1342 / 1991 – “Quality conditions for drinkable water”. The results of these analysis are shown within Annex no. Ib - analysis reports no. 2, 3, 5, 7.

CLIMATE AND AIR QUALITY

Characteristics

From the climate point of view the sector passes through territories characterized by different general features, depending on the altitude reached. The climate characteristics cover the entire variability realm, including areas of microclimate of special touristic and balneoy and climatic value (such as the zone of Valea Prahovei). The specific relief for the motorway sector is:

v     plain in the zone of Bucharest – Banesti (altitude between 85 – 320 m),

v     hill in the zone Banesti – Comarnic (altitude between 320 – 560 m),

v     mountain in the zone Comarnic – Rasnov (altitude between 650 – 900 m),

v     hill between Rasnov and Codlea (altitude between 850 – 550 m).

The data concerning the climate are synthesized for the 4 types of zones mentioned above:

The plain zone Bucharest – Banesti

The motorway sector crosses passes through the territory of the Ilfov County and part of the Prahova County on the plain region, the climate elements being specific for the Campia Romana, which has a transition climate. Summers are characterized by clear sky, dry and hot weather, while temperatures fall to -100…-200C in winter and the snow layer is unstable and discontinuous. The air temperature regime reflects the characteristics of the continental climate by both annual amplitudes of monthly average temperatures, generally varying between 23 and 250C, and especially by annual amplitudes of absolute values. From morphological and hypsometric perspective, there are no big differences, however, we noticed higher thermal values in the south by comparison to the north. For he zone crossed by the motorway in Ilfov County, station Bucharest – Baneasa is considered as representative.

Station

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

Annual

Bucharest

The motorway sector crosses the Ploiestilor Plain between the localities of Ploiesti and Campina and then enters a zone of intermountain and sub-Carpathian depressions.

Climate characteristics

Values

Isotherm January

-50… -30C / except for the zone of Ploiesti -30…00C

Isotherm July

200 – 230C

Annual Isotherm / number of days without frost

100 – 110C / 200 – 210 days

Average frequency of tropical days

approx. 30 days / in the zone of Ploiesti 30 – 40 days

Average frequency of winter days

30 – 40 days / in the zone of Ploiesti 20 – 30 days

First / last day of frost

after 21 October / after 1 May

Average annual thermal amplitude

> 240C

Regime of dominant winds

E, NE, SE, N

Average annual rain water volume

approx. 600 mm

Absolute minimum rainfalls

approx. 400 mm

Absolute maximum rainfalls

800 – 900 mm

Rainfalls in February (driest month)

30 mm

Rainfalls in June (richest in rainfalls)

80 – 90 mm

Average annual thickness of the snow layer

> 60 cm

Number of days when the soil is covered with snow

> 50 days

The hill zone Banesti – Comarnic

The zone in-between localities of Campina and Comarnic corresponds to intermountain depression. Deep and narrow valleys separate massifs and mountaintops in the department of Prahova. Some of them are larger, and form small depressions or erosion basins. Due to the different features of the two sectors Banesti – Campina and Campina – Comarnic, we shall analyze them separately.

Climate characteristics

Values

Isotherm January

-50… -30C / except for the zone of Ploiesti -30…00C

Isotherm July

zone Banesti – Campina 200 – 230C

zone Campina – Comarnic 160 – 200C

Annual Isotherm / number of days without frost

100 - 110 / 200 – 210 days

Average frequency of tropical days

zone Banesti – Campina 40 days

zone Campina – Comarnic 30 days

Average frequency of winter days

zone Banesti – Campina 20 - 30 days

zone Campina – Comarnic 40 days

First / last day of frost

zone Banesti – Campina after 21 Oct. / 11 Apr. – 1 May

zone Banesti – Comarnic 1 – 21 Oct. / 11 Apr. – 1 May

Average annual thermal amplitude

> 240C

Regime of dominant winds

V, NV, SV

Average annual rain water volume

zone Banesti – Campina 600 – 700 mm

zone Campina – Comarnic approx. 800 mm

Absolute minimum rainfalls

zone Banesti – Campina 400 – 500 mm

zone Campina – Comarnic approx. 500 mm

Absolute maximum rainfalls

800 – 900 mm

Rainfalls in February (driest month)

approx. 30 mm

Rainfalls in June (richest in rainfalls)

zone Banesti – Campina 90 mm

zone Campina – Comarnic approx. 110 mm

Average annual thickness of the snow layer

> 60 cm

Number of days when the soil is covered with snow

zone Banesti – Campina >50 days

zone Campina – Comarnic 50 – 70 days

Mountain zones Comarnic – Rasnov

The sector crosses a mountain zone, in-between the localities of Comarnic and Rasnov. From Sinaia to Busteni it enters a zone of intermountain and sub-Carpathian depressions, and from Busteni till it gets out of the Prahova County, the sector crosses once again low altitude mountain zones. The entry in the Brasov County represents in fact the entry to the depression zone called the Barsa Depression. Climatically, the depression zone has a certain profile, for which reason, it will be presented separately.

Climate characteristics

Values

Isotherm January

-50; -30C

Isotherm July

160 – 200C up to the zone of Sinaia and in the zone of Rasnov

80 – 160C in rest / 140 days

Annual Isotherm / number of days without frost

60 – 100C up to the zone of Sinaia and in the zone of Rasnov

00 –60C in the rest

Average frequency of tropical days

10 – 20 days

Average frequency of winter days

approx. 50 days

First / last day of frost

before 1 Oct. / after 1 May

Average annual thermal amplitude

190 – 210C

Regime of dominant winds

S, SV seldom E

Average annual rain water volume

1000 – 1200 mm

Absolute minimum rainfalls

500 – 600 mm

Absolute maximum rainfalls

900 – 1000 mm

Rainfalls in February (driest month)

40 – 50 mm

Rainfalls in June (richest in rainfalls)

approx. 140 mm

Average annual thickness of the snow layer

> 90 cm

Number of days when the soil is covered with snow

70 – 100 days

The Barsa Depression, known also as “the Barsa Land”, belongs to the Brasov Depression. The characteristic feature for the depression zone resides in thermal inversion, which is a specific phenomenon as frequency and intensity in the cold months, when it produces continuously for 20 – 25 days. During such long periods of thermal inversion, the air temperature may fall with 15 – 200C.

Another characteristic phenomenon for the depression zones is the fog, occurring especially in spring and autumn.

A classic example of depression zone is the city of Brasov, featuring the following characteristics:

Air temperature

Brasov

Average annual temperature

10,50C

Average temperature of the coldest month

-4,00C

Absolute maximum temperature

37,00C

Absolute minimum temperature

-25,10C

Average number of frost days per year

90 days

Average annual thickness of the snow layer on the ground is of approx. 60 cm, the number of days when the soil is covered with snow is comprised within the interval 70 – 100 days.

Due to the geographic position of the Brasov Depression, within the area of interference of continental climate influences from the East and from the West, of oceanic origin, as well as the relief configuration, rainfalls are conferred a series of specific features. The annual rainfall volume registered in the Brasov Depression, is of 550 – 600 mm (500 mm in the city Brasov). Human factors, by their particularities, lead to increased quantities of rain in some regions, compared to the average amount of the whole region. Thus, Brasov for example, the large amount of specific pollutants released into the atmosphere by the industrial units, creates condensation nuclei that generate frequent rainfalls (over 70 mm more than in the neighbouring regions).

According to the existing data, precipitations in February, which is considered as the driest month, reaches values of approx. 30 mm, while the month of June, considered as the rainiest, exceeds values of 120 mm.

Monthly distribution of average annual precipitations is indicated in the table no. 3.4-1.

Table 4.4.-1 – Monthly distribution of average annual precipitations –Brasov Station – airport

Monthly values ( mm / month )

Annual values

(mm / year)

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

The study upon annual distribution of precipitation quantities shows a maximum evolution in the summer, in the month of June and a minimum one in winter, in the month of February.

Hill regions Rasnov – Codlea

From Rasnov to Codlea altitudes gradually decrease from 850 to 550 m, and the mountain landscape is replaced by hills. Lawns and woods are replaced by agricultural lands. The specific climate characteristics for the sector between Rasnov and Codlea are synthetically presented in the following table:

Climate characteristics

Values



Isotherm January

- 50 … -30C

Isotherm July

160 – 200C

Annual Isotherm / number of days without frost

60 – 100C / 180 days

Average frequency of tropical days

20 days

Average frequency of winter days

approx. 40 days

First / last day of frost

1 – 21 Oct. / 11 Apr. – 1 May

Average annual thermal amplitude

210 – 250C

Regime of dominant winds

V, NV, SV

Average annual rain water volume

700 – 800 mm

Absolute minimum rainfalls

approx. 500 mm

Absolute maximum rainfalls

> 900 mm

Rainfalls in February (driest month)

30 mm

Rainfalls in June (richest in rainfalls)

approx. 110 mm

Average annual thickness of the snow layer

> 60 cm

Number of days when the soil is covered with snow

50 - 70 days

Air Quality

The Bucharest – Brasov motorway crosses regions characterized by an existing pollution background. It is the case of industrial towns where, besides pollution generated by fix sources, there is also pollution caused by road traffic, respectively mobile sources.

Such an example is the city of Bucharest, which is the starting point of the motorway. The air pollution in this area displays specific features due to multiple sources, of various peaks and irregular distribution, throughout the entire town. The phenomenon of pollutant dispersion into the atmosphere largely depends upon weather conditions, the most unfavourable being the calm weather.

In the zone of Bucharest, road traffic represents the main source of releases of CO (approx. 60%) and NOx (approx. 62%), which has a maximum impact during calm weather periods.

Generally, there are no industrial sources of chemical air pollution along the motorway sector, except for the zones near Ploiesti, featuring oil distilleries.

According to I.C.I.M. Bucharest in the department of Prahova, along the motorway sector, a zone characterized by high pollution degree is the city of (table no. 3.4 – 3).

Table no. 3.4 – 3 Air quality in the zone of Ploiesti

Pollutant

C.M.A.

(mg/m3)

Maximum measured concentration

Month registering the maximum measured concentration

NH3

May

NO2

September

SO2

January

Fenol

December

H2S

February

SO4-2 + ae. H2SO4

January

Powders in suspension

August

CO

June, July

On the passageway of Valea Prahovei, the main pollution source is the traffic generated by DN 1. In this respect, the construction of the Bucharest – Brasov motorway will have a positive effect by undertaking some of the traffic presently running though this zone.

In Brasov County, along the route of Bucharest – Brasov motorway, there are no fix sources of air pollution.

To determine the air quality in the zone of Bucharest – Brasov motorway, we have analyzed 6 air samples in the following zones:

v     Bucharest – zone of Pipera,

v     Locality of Tunari, Km 8 zone,

v     Locality of Caciulati, at the edge towards Moara Vlasiei, Km 20 zone,

v     Ploiesti Vest, Km 67 zone,

v     Locality of Busteni, km 137 zone,

v     Locality of Predeal, km 148 zone.

We have also assessed (by measurements) the air quality along national roads DN 1 and DN 1A, which will also be relieved of part of the traffic due to the new motorway:

v     Locality of Baicoi – DN 1,

v     Locality of Busteni – DN 1,

v     Locality of Mogosoaia – DN 1A,

v     Locality of Crevedia – DN 1A.

The results of the air chemical analyses are shown in Annex no. Ic1 – analysis bulletin no. 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 and Annex no. Ic2 – analysis bulletins no. 1, 2, 3 and 5.

Analysis bulletins indicate values for the analyzed parameters that fit the maximum acceptable concentrations provided by STAS 12574/1987 for both the Bucharest – Brasov motorway and also the national road DN 1.

Water Rain quality

Precipitations are agents bringing the air pollutants down on the soil, and their quality plays an essential role. Rainwater can change its natural properties due to the dissolution process of some pollutants, which phenomenon can occur at high altitudes and/or at significant distances from the place pollutants were released.

Therefore, acid rains are a phenomenon, which must be given serious thought, especially in densely populated regions, where they contribute to the general pollution effect.

In these regions, rain-incorporated sulphates are mostly a consequence of human activities and particularly of fossil fuel burning, which fact gives off sulphuric gasses that turn into sulphate by oxidation. Fossil fuels containing azote are released by the process of burning NH3 and NOx. During the process of combustion developed under high temperatures, the oxygen in the air and the nitrogenous oxides interact, and give birth to nitrites. Both nitrites and sulphates are to be found in rainwater as corresponding acids that lead to diminishment of the pH.

Thus, according to I.C.I.M. Bucharest, bellow there is a presentation of precipitation quality evolution for the year 2000 in the following localities, situated in the zone of the motorway sector: Ploiesti, Campina, Azuga, Busteni, Cheia.

Indicator

Sampling point

Quarter

I

II

III

IV

pH

Azuga

Busteni

Campina

Ploiesti

Cheia

SO4

Azuga

Busteni

Campina

Ploiesti

Cheia

AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY

The flora and fauna along the motorway itinerary differ depending on the type of relief specific to the respective zone. Agricultural lands generally dominate, especially in plain zones, where we also encounter meadow semi-natural vegetation, and forests.

Plain zones are characterized mostly by oak woods. As altitudes rise, towards the town of Campina, we encounter mixed wood of beech and common oak.

The hill regions are generally characterized by lawns and forests.

The forest that the motorway passes through or by are:

v     Plain region of Bucharest - Banesti: forests of Surlari, Vlasia, Chitoreanca, Calugareasca, Dumbrava, Moara Domneasca, Rafoveanca and Buda;

v     Hill region Banesti – Comarnic: this region features only a small portion of forest owned by Forest District Campina;

v     Mountain region Comarnic – Rasnov: forests belonging to sections Posada, Valea Larga, Valea lui Bogdan, Valea Rea, Valea Sipei, Valea Fetii, Valea Grecului, Valea Rasnoavei and Clabucet;

v     Hill region Rasnov - Codlea: no forests.

The flora and fauna on the motorway itinerary differs depending on the type of relief specific to that respective zone.

Fig. 3.5.-a Flora in the area of Bucharest-Brasov motorway

Fig. 3.5.-b Fauna in the area of Bucharest-Brasov motorway

v   The plain zone between localities of Bucharest – Banesti

Generally, plain zones feature agricultural lands, in prejudice of natural habitats that cover reduced areas. On the sector between Bucharest and the zone crossing the Cociovalistea River, there are small surfaces of non-natural habitats, on the right side (road direction to Ploiesti) and on the left side, there are mostly human surfaces specific to the draining system of Dimieni – Tunari. Another example of natural habitats is featured by the zone between Km 22+200 and Km 23 where the motorway passes through a corner of the Surlari forest, and then by the edge of Vlasia forest between Km 24+700 and Km 26+100.

The structure of the brush is: sky – 39%, stalked oak – 24%, lime – 14%, others.

After crossing Prahova River, the motorway cuts through the Chitoreanca forest (Km 43 – Km 44), administered by Forest District Ploiesti. Oak is the predominant feature on this zone.

Between Km 44+700 and Km 45+800 the motorway crosses the forest of Calugareasca, administered by Forest District Ploiesti, where poplar is the dominant species.

In the zone between Km 49+600 – Km 51+300, the motorway crosses Moara Domneasca forest, and between Km 53+700 – Km 54 Rafoveanca forest.

Then the motorway crosses human zone. In the zone between Km 60 – Km 61+500 the motorway route passes approx. 130 m by the Barcanesti glasshouse, and then takes a round-about way on South-West of Ploiesti.

Between Km 73 and 74+300 the motorway passes by the Buda woods at distances between few meters and one kilometre. The forest is of acacia and is private property.

The forests mentioned above belong to the Ist functional category and play a protection role. The phyto-sanitary state of the trees is satisfactory. Data provided by Forest District of Snagov and Ploiesti indicate that there are protected areas on the motorway itinerary.

Among the products of the forest capital, that have been traded, we can mention: forest fruits, mushrooms, lime flowers (30 – 50 kg dried flowers/ha). Under the same circumstances, we can also mention the mellipherous potential of the lime tree, the honey flow coefficient being between 200 – 220 kg/ha.

The fauna in plain forest zones is composed of: deer, boar, hare and pheasant. In the zone of Sicrita forest, there is hunting fund made of boar and deer. These animals migrate periodically to other regions searching for food and water, but they return to mate. Among birds of hunting interest, we mention woodcock and pheasant.

Field Fauna specific for open zones of forest-steppe and steppe is represented by the following mammals: gopher, hamster, field mouse, hare, polecat, weasel and ermine.

Aquatic fauna is various enough, and piscicultural fauna occupies an important position. Among most important species populating the lakes on the motorway itinerary, we mention: crucian, tench, pike, carp, zander, perch, bream, sheat fish etc. In plain zones nearby Ploiesti there is chub and perch.

v   Hill zones between localities of Banesti – Comarnic

The hill zones from Banesti up to the bridge over Prahova River, at km 95 the motorway crosses agricultural lands and then enters a zone of natural habitat.

Approximately between Km 101+700 – km 102 (on the left side in the direction of Brasov) the motorway route crosses a forest zone under the administration of Forest District Campina. The predominant species consist of poplar and willow.

The specific fauna for agricultural lands consists of gopher and other steppe rodents.

The aquatic fauna in hill zones consists of umber. Waste water draining from existing industrial units along the Prahova Valley and Teleajen, as well as oil distilleries have generated an increased water pollution, which gradually diminished the number of fish species.

v   Mountain Zones between localities of Comarnic – Rasnov

Between Comarnic and Rasnov the motorway route runs along the main river stream in the Prahova Valley. As altitude grows, oak forests – specific to plain regions – are replaced by replaced by beech and common oak forests. In mountain zones woods belong to the 1st functional category having special protection functions.

According to data provided by Forest District Sinaia and Azuga, the forests are in good condition. The major roles played by these woods reside in:

Protection:

Hydro-geological role, regulating the water draining process from the mountain sides, reinforcing river banks, as well as maintaining a constant water flow;

Anti-erosion role, reinforcing vulnerable soils as well as degraded ones.

Social:

Landscape; permanent forests on mountain sides;

Climate improvement and pure ozone air;

Maintenance and reinforcement of human health by leisure and relaxation etc.

Implemented in the major bed of the Prahova River and in Valea Rasnoavei, the motorway route crosses the woods administered by Forest District from Sinaia, Azuga and Brasov.

On the Comarnic – Sinaia sector, there are forests belonging to units of Posada, Valea Larga, Valea lui Bogdan, Valea Rea and Valea Sipei.

Posada Unit is administered by the Forest District Sinaia. The forests are edged by Valea Seciului and Valea Magarului and are made of: mountain layer of mixtures, mountain pre-mountain layer of mixtures and hill layer of beech forest.

The basic species of beech and fir tree define the middle and superior production class. There have been implantations of spruce fir, larch tree and pine in the zone featuring degraded soils.

Natural reservations of spruce fir, larch tree, pine and fir tree seeds are not close to the motorway route. The woods under the administration of the Posada unit play a landscape and leisure role for the Posada spa and DN 1 national road.

Valea Larga Unit is edged by Valea Larga and Valea Dogariei.

The production fund consists mainly of forest formations: fir and beech wood (55%) and mixtures of spruce fir, fir and beech (38%).

The fauna belongs to the hunting fund of Comarnic – Posada – Valea Larga. Hunt categories are made of: deer, bear, boar, and deer and hare as secondary hunt.

The specific fauna of the forest fund administered by Valea Larga Unit belongs to the hunt fund and contains: deer, wolf, fox, marten and boar.

Valea lui Bogdan Unit is edged by Plaiul Piscu Cainelui and Plaiul Fruntea lui Vasii, featuring the following types of forest assemblies: mountain layer of mixture and mountain pre-mountain layer of beech wood.

Along with general social and economic functions characterizing mountain forests of Valea lui Bogdan there are natural reservations of spruce fir, fir, pine and larch tree seeds, which will not be affected by the motorway construction. The forest is used for production: timber and cellulose destined to superior processes. Other products: hunt, edible mushrooms and medicinal plants.

Valea Rea Unit occupies a total surface of 1146,3 ha. Predominant forest assemblies are similar to those in the Valea lui Bogdan Unit plus the mountain layer of spruce fir wood.

Valea Rea Unit is a provider of wood products: timber wood (spruce fir, fir, beech), valuable beech tree exemplars used in superior processes (furnishing). Other products: hunt, forest fruits and medicinal plants.

Valea Sipei Unit is composed of the following forest formations: pure fir wood, fir – beech and pure beech mountain wood.

The forest plays the role of climate improver, forest geno-fund preserver and natural park. The discussions with representatives of Forest District Sinaia, the administrator of the forest fund in the region, indicate that the Bucharest – Brasov motorway route will not cross-zones belonging to the natural reservation.

The wood products are used in the following purposes:

Medium wood, thick and very thick for timber,

Wood for timber and cellulose (fir, beech and spruce fir),

Construction wood (fir, spruce fir),

Valuable fir tree, beech, spruce fir and larch tree exemplars are used in superior processes (furnishing).

On the Sinaia – Predeal sector, there are woods administered by Units Valea Sipei (described above), Valea Fetii and Valea Grecului.

Units Valea Fetii and Valea Grecului are dominated by the following forest assemblies: fir – beech and pure fir wood. On small areas in the Valea Fetii unit, there is also alder wood of white alder tree (approx. 1%).

The wood mass is composed almost entirely of beech and fir (98%), of which beech represents 2/3. Spruce fir is less frequent (2%).

Along general social and economic functions specific to mountain forests, the forests mentioned above provide soil protection in regions featuring big slopes, swamps or at the limits of mountain lawn. Another function is of geno-fund and forest eco-fund protection. Thick trees, of high quality are used as timber wood.

From Predeal, altitudes begin to decrease slowly along the motorway.

Between Km 146+800 – Km 157+000 (on the left side and right side of the motorway) and Km 157+000 – Km 161+000 (on the left side of the motorway) the motorway crosses a forest region under the administration of Forest District Brasov. The forest is classified as protection and production unit. The Unit is located in the upper region of the Prahova Valley passageway, featuring a predominant mountain geomorphology. The land gradient is between 5 – 400, and slopes bigger than 300 present the risk of erosion. This zone features predominant mixtures of spruce fir, fir and beech of approx. 28%. Other forest assemblies are: pure spruce fir, spruce fir-fir and pure fir.

The last forest region crossed by the motorway is under the administration of Forest District Rasnov. The predominant species is beech, specific to lower altitude.

Besides the protection function, woods crossed by the motorway or along the motorway route play also a production role. This category includes forest fruits production (raspberry and blackberry) and edible mushrooms (edible boletus, yellowish, honey, fungus). We can also mention other products such as: Christmas trees, resin and fern.

Fauna in forest zones consists of:

stable non-predatory hunt: deer, stag, boar, mountain cock, hare,

stable predatory hunt: bear, lynx, fox, wolf, wild cat, marten, polecat, weasel.

Between Valea Bradetului and the Clabucet peak, on the left side of the motorway Forest District Azuga has signalled itineraries for the moving of domestic flocks, especially for cattle.

Aquatic fauna in mountain regions consists of: trout, umber, chub.

v   Hill zones between localities of Rasnov – Codlea

From the zone of Rasnov altitudes start to decrease from approx. 700 m up to approx. 560 m at Codlea. The motorway route in this zone passes somehow parallel to rivers Ghimbasel and Barsa, crossing agricultural lands and hay-fields.

Forests are replaced by agricultural lands mostly of potatoes and sugar beet.

The fauna along the motorway route is specific for the zones of agricultural lands: gopher, hamster, field mouse, hare, polecat, weasel and ermine.

The aquatic fauna is represented by the fish fauna of rivers Barsa and Ghimbasel.

HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

The Bucharest – Brasov motorway route sums up 174 km and runs on the territory of Bucharest and counties of: Ilfov, Prahova and Brasov.

In Ilfov, the villages that will be affected by the construction of the motorway are: Voluntari, Tunari, Stefanesti de Jos, Moara Vlasiei, Snagov, Gruiu.

In Prahova

Towns: Ploiesti, Baicoi, Campina, Breaza, Comarnic, Sinaia, Busteni, Azuga.

Villages: Balta Doamnei, Gherghita, Draganesti, Dumbrava, Rafov, Berceni, Barcanesti, Targsoru Vechi, Aricesti Rahtivani, Floresti, Magureni, Banesti, Poiana Campina, Cornu.

In Brasov

Towns: Predeal, Rasnov and Codlea.

Village: Cristian.

From the economic potential point of view, localities can be grouped as follows:

v   Bucharest – economic, industrial and touristic centre.

v   Ilfov County – the localities in the department of Ilfov (Voluntari, Tunari, Stefanesti de Jos, Moara Vlasiei, Snagov, Gruiu) have agriculture as basic economic function. Also, a part of the localities, especially those that are close to Bucharest, have touristic potential that has not been materialized up to this moment. These zones feature a special natural environment, and also a significant historical background.

v   Prahova County. The department of Prahova presents localities based on the following functions:

A) agricultural profile (localities: Balta Doamnei, Gherghita, Draganesti, Dumbrava, Rafov, Berceni, Barcanesti, Targsoru Vechi, Aricesti Rahtivani, Floresti, Magureni, Banesti),

B) industrial petrochemical profile (localities: Ploiesti and Baicoi),

C) small industry profile (localities: Poiana Campina, Campina, Comarnic, Azuga),

D) touristic profile (localities: Sinaia and Busteni).

v   Brasov County In Brasov we encounter the following basic functions:

A) touristic profile (town of Predeal),

B)industrial touristic profile (town of Brasov),

C) agro - sylvic and small industry profile (localities: Rasnov, Codlea and Cristian).

Municipal town of Bucharest

According to the data registered in 1999, the municipal town of Bucharest had a population of 2.011.305 inhabitants. Bucharest, capital of the country, is the biggest city in Romania from the point of view of both population and surface. An industrial center, Bucharest reunites enterprises of different activity profiles belonging to various branches among which we mention:

automotive industry (machine tools, machinery and industrial equipment for other industrial branches);

electro technical and electronic industry;

tractors, machines and agricultural devices industry;

transport means industry;

chemical industry;

industry of cellulose and paper;

construction materials industry;

light industry, etc.

Also, the capital hosts the most famous cultural, higher education institutions, etc.

The North zone, where the Bucharest – Brasov motorway begins, was subject to an important development both commercial and residential, during these last years.

The pollution sources are:

v   Big industrial units – most of them are provided with local pre-water cleaning stations; however the water drained into the public sewerage network does not comply with the limits imposed by norm NAPA 002/2002. Also, as a function of the technological process, they represent important sources of air pollution.

v   Road traffic – contributes on a large extent to the existing pollution effect, as both air and also noise. In centre of the capital, the noise level exceeds by far the acceptable limit of the buildings facade provided by STAS 10009 – 88, and reaching values of more than 80 - 90 dB.

Ilfovv County

Localities in Ilfov County, Voluntari, Tunari, Stefanestii de Jos, Moara Vlasiei, Snagov and Gruiu, crossed by the motorway, benefit of special natural and historical conditions that are not entirely made use of. Among them, Snagov is considered as the most important leisure zone. The woods and lake of Snagov possess an important touristic potential, especially for inhabitants of Bucharest and neighboring localities. Localities of Moara Vlasiei and Gruiu also benefit of a special natural habitat due to the presence of the woods and lake of Snagov. The zone of the locality of Gruiu is attractive due to its valuable architectonic monuments: the Monastery of Caldarusani, the Mansion from Caciulati, and the Hermitage from Balamuci. Among the leisure areas, we mention the woods of Tunari, included in the recreation zone of Baneasa – Tunari and, besides the aesthetic aspect, it plays also the role of improving climate factors. The forest zones South of Stefanestii de Jos, as well as the Pasarea Valley also represent some points of interest. In the present the touristic potential of this zone is not valued, however, there is the possibility of agro-tourism, which might be encouraged by the motorway construction.

As a characteristic of the plain zone, lands are used in agricultural purposes. Agricultural lands occupy 50 – 80% of the total surface (approx. 80% in localities of Tunari and Dascalu and approx. 50% in the other localities). Up to the zone of Moara Vlasiei, 80 – 90% of the agricultural lands are arable. This percent decreases to approx. 50% in localities of Moara Vlasiei, Snagov and Gruiu. Plain soils are good for cereals, vegetables, vine and fruit trees. Among localities with very fertile soils, Snagov is on the first place, its agricultural surface fitting the 1st and 2nd class of suitability. On the opposite side, locality of Voluntari has soils that fit the 3rd class of suitability. Generally, these soils need measures of improvement or development.

The vegetal production depends on the type of soil and includes mainly cereal cultures. Thus, in Voluntari, where soils are of poor quality, dominant cultures are corn and wheat. In other localities, vegetal production is more diverse and includes, besides cereals (wheat, rye, corn and sunflower), potatoes, vegetables and vine. The zoo technical sector is represented by: sheep, cattle and porcine, animals being raised within individual households.

The industrial activities are little represented in the above mentioned localities. Generally, there are small alimentary, agricultural and agro-zoo technical, storage houses, service providers, small industry.

The population is generally decreasing, and registers an aging process by diminishment of natural population growth. Most of the population is within the 15 – 59 years age group. The aging process is justified by the migration tendency of young people to localities providing higher economic possibilities and more jobs. Snagov makes an exception, because the demographic increasing tendency is mainly due to the positive migration surplus. Table no. 3.6-1 gives some data concerning the number of inhabitants and distribution by sex.

Table no. 3.6-1 - Number of inhabitants and distribution by sex

Locality

No. inhabitants / census year

Male

Female

Village of Voluntari

No data available

No data available

Village of Tunari

Village of Stefanesti de Jos

Village of Moara Vlasiei

Village of Snagov

Village of Gruiu

Most localities are not connected to a centralized water supply system, the necessary of water being taken from individual wells. Blocks of flats are provided with own systems based on water supply from drilled wells. The locality of Snagov, with the villages Snagov and Ghermanesti, makes an exception, and they are provided with a centralized system of water supply.

There is no sewerage network but in Snagov. In other localities, public institutions and individual households have their own cesspits. In general, wastewaters from cesspits penetrate the soil and, depending on the ground conditions, they can be drained into brooks or on the valleys in the zone. Wastewater coming from industrial units are collected and directed towards septic tanks, and they are periodically emptied. Localities of Snagov and Ghermanesti are connected to a purifying station provided with a mechanic- biological level.

One of the biggest problems is water pollution: Valea Cociovalistea and lake of Snagov, due to unauthorized draining, especially unmonitored household downloads and touristic developments. The absence of sanitary protection around the lake allows this problem to aggravate.

Environment problems in the localities mentioned above generated mainly by the following sources:

Operation of industrial units,

Uncontrolled waste deposits,

Road traffic.

Among polluting industrial units, we mention:

v   In the village of Tunari:

Metal foundries from S. C. METALINTERCO – sound and air pollution;

I.B.N.A. Balotesti - F.N.C. Tunari – smell pollution (from bone dust);

KLEVEK – smell pollution (smell of roasted coffee);

v   Village of Stefanestii de Jos

I.B.N.A. Balotesti - F.N.C. Tunari – smell pollution (from bone dust);

KLEVEK – smell pollution (smell of roasted coffee);

v   Village of Gruiu: RADP asphalt and concrete station in Santu – Floresti – chemical air pollution.

Historical monuments and architectural sites

Among historical monuments, we noticed a series of churches, among which the most important are the monasteries of Snagov – village of Snagov and Caldarusani – village of Gruiu as well as the Palace of the family of Alexandru Ghica – village of Moara Valsiei. We specify that the Bucharest – Brasov motorway route will not affect the existing historic monuments.

Concerning the archaeological sites, studies have been carried for this stage, by the National History Museum of Romania and Department History and Archaeology Museum of Prahova. Researches have identified the following zones:

Km 1+900 – sporadic traces of human settlements dated for the Middle Age;

Km 9 - in the zone of the motorway route: there are signs of medieval settlements;

- at a distance of approx. 150 m from the motorway route: the multi-layer settlement (classic Dacian era, Middle Age, Early Middle Age);

Km 19+600 – multi-layer settlement featuring traces of inhabitance from bronze age, post-Roman and Middle Age;

Km 20+150 – traces of Neolithic and middle age eras;

Km 23+400 – traces of sporadic medieval settlements and from the Post-Roman era.

Prahova County

A) Localities of agricultural profile

In Prahova County, the villages of agricultural profile are: Balta Doamnei, Gherghita, Draganesti, Dumbrava, Rafov, Berceni, Barcanesti, Targsoru Vechi, Aricestii Rahtivani, Floresti and Magureni.

Between localities Banesti and Comarnic the motorway route passes through a hill zone, that affects the extra-urban fields of localities: Banesti, Poiana Campina, Breaza and Cornu. Among them only Banesti has an agro-forest profile.

Localities in the department of Prahova have special economic functions compared to those from the department of Brasov. Thus, localities from plain and hill zones from the department of Prahova are based on agriculture and livestock, some of the active population being employed in neighbouring localities on industrial profile - generally, small enterprises running small businesses. Varying from a locality to another, there are ballast pits or small industrial units.

Of all administrative surfaces, agricultural lands are the largest, occupying approx. 80-85% of the entire surface. The locality of Magureni shows a smaller percentage of approx. 40%. Among agricultural lands, arable fields are predominant: 80% in the villages of Gherghita, Draganesti, Dumbrava, Targsoru Vechi and Floresti and 30 – 50% in the villages Rafov, Baicoi, Magureni and Banesti.

Soils generally fit the 2nd and 3rd categories, the basic cultures being of cereals: wheat, rye, maize, barley, two-row barley, and among vegetables, potatoes. The exception is made by the village of Floresti where soils fit the 3rd fertility category (approx. 46% of the agricultural lands) and the IVth group (approx. 44%).

The zootechnical sector is generally developed within individual households that raise sheep, porcine, poultry and cattle. Some localities feature poultry and livestock farms.

The population is generally decreasing, registering the aging process by diminishment of the natural population growth. Most of the population is between 15 – 59 years, and the population able to work represents a percent of approx. 50%. The aging process is justified by the migration tendency of young people to localities providing higher economic possibilities and more jobs. Table no. 3.6-1 gives some data concerning the number of inhabitants and distribution by sex

Table no. 3.6-1 - Number of inhabitants and distribution by sex

Locality

Census year

Total No. inhabitants

Male

Female

Balta Doamnei

No data available

No data available

Gherghita

No data available

No data available

Draganesti

Dumbrava

No data available

No data available

Rafov

Berceni

Barcanesti

No data available

No data available

Targsoru Vechi

No data available

No data available

Aricesti

No data available

No data available

Floresti

Magureni

Banesti

Most localities are not connected to a centralized water supply system, the necessary of water being taken from individual wells. Blocks of flats are provided with own systems based on water supply from drilled wells. The exception is made by some villages belonging to the communes: Dumbrava, Barcanesti, Targsoru Vechi, Floresti, Magureni and Banesti.

The communes from the Prahova are not fitted their own sewerage network. At the present, domestic waters are evicted into dry latrines, septic tanks or suction pits. Waste waters from small industrial units or poultry/livestock farms are collected and directed towards local pre-purifying stations (the swine nursery from the village of Gherghita drains wastewater into the local pre-purifying station provided with a mechanic – biological level). There is a purifying station of small capacity with mechanic level in the locality of Barcanesti, for the zone of blocks of flats. Wastewater is then drained into the Recea brook. Also, the village of Floresti disposes of a purifying plant fitted with mechanic – biological level.

Environment problems signalled in the localities mentioned above till the present are generated by the following main sources:

Operation of industrial units,

Uncontrolled waste deposits,

Road traffic,

Usage of azotes-based fertilizers in agriculture.

Among the polluting industrial units, we mention:

v   Village of Rafov: - the AGROMECs – soil pollution with oils and fuels caused by maintenance and repairing operations;

v   Village of Floresti: - the tire enterprise VICTORIA and Crematory SC VICTORIA – poisonous gases.

A big problem of the localities nearby industrial platforms Ploiesti and Brazi consists of oil products pollution. Such an example is the locality of Barcanesti where there are signs of oil residues caused by leakage from the petrochemical industrial group and the heating station Brazi distribution network. Depending on the climate conditions, dominant wind direction, Barcanesti is affected also by the poisonous gases released by the petrochemical platform Brazi. ASTRA and BRAZI distilleries are also the source for vapour and gas releases. The impact upon the environment materializes as soil and underground water layer pollution, affecting the human factor. A similar problem has been signalled also in the communes of Balta Doamnei and Rafov. The localities are crossed by pipes transporting crude oil and oil products from the oil distilleries.

Locality of Targsoru Vechi is also affected by the industrial activity developed on petrochemical platforms of Ploiesti and Brazi. Due to the wind dominant direction, N-E, villages in the commune Targsoru Vechi, especially Strejnicu, are affected by the dispersion of pollutants of type H2S and SO4.

In the zone of localities Targsoru Vechi and Magureni there are signs of erosion at the level of the bank in the valley of Prahova River. The inundation risk is also high, especially near Magureni.

B) Localities of industrial profile – petrochemical industry

In Prahova, a special place is occupied by the localities of Ploiesti and Baicoi, which have industrial profile orientated on the petrochemical sector.

The town of Ploiesti is included in the category of complex functionality. It has a great industrial potential and it is also relevant for the activities developed in the field of service provision, transportation and trade. The town of Ploiesti, also called the “fortress of Romanian oil” concentrates a large number of industrial objectives, among which distilleries and the oil equipment plant are the most important. Due to the presence and operation of distilleries in the region, the town acquires a preponderantly petrochemical character. South to Ploiesti, on the edge of the evacuation cone of Prahova, there is a powerful petrochemical industrial group and the heating station Brazi. Besides the petrochemical profile, it also features a representative automotive industry.

In the town of Baicoi the main activities are concerned with oil drilling and processing industry. PETROM SA Bucharest, the SP Baicoi branch, pumps crude oil, the main resource in the region, at Baicoi and Tintea – Liliesti. The town of Baicoi represents one of the main oil plants in the department of Prahova. The great number of derricks, tank parks, and gas stations is obvious. There are also lots of repairing workshops, material storage houses, offices, transport platforms etc.

Besides units S.P. Baicoi – spread almost all over the inter-urban territory, the town of Baicoi features two industrial mini-zones:

In the West: SC CAMEXIP SA, Hydraulic equipment and sub-assemblies plant FESH;

In the South, in the district of Liliesti: drilling lease and BAT ENERGOPETROL.

The agricultural sector is very poorly represented due to the polarization of the work force towards the industrial sector. The main cultures are of maize, wheat, rye, barley, tow-row barley and permanent cultures. Apple and plum trees with 78%, respectively 18%, dominate the fruit growing industry. The largest productions in both agriculture and fruit growing come from private producers.

Table no. 3.6-3 – Population Evolution

Locality

Total No. inhabitants / census year

Male

Female

Observations

Ploiesti

No data available

No data available

Population density is > 400 inhabitants / km2 most of them employed in industry.

Baicoi

Total population growth of the population fits a slow increase, the natural progress registered during the last years being of 0,5.

Among the entire population, inactive population represents (55,8%);

There is a big number of shuttle service persons (approx. 2500 persons) that travel to the neighboring localities: Ploiesti, Campina, Floresti and Plopeni..

Pollution generating sources are:

Industrial plants, tank parks, operational derricks, which are both pollution sources, as well as sources for fires and explosions;

The industrial activity of oil and natural gases extraction and processing; networks, installations, abandoned oil pipes and wells;

Unmonitored waste deposits;

Road traffic.

C) Localities of small industry profile

In Prahova, localities Poiana Campina, Campina, Comarnic and Azuga have developed their small industry branch in particular.

Localities Poiana Campina and Campina are placed in a zone of rich human resources, which fact favored the process of industrialization. Towns of Comarnic and Azuga are mainly based on industrial economic functions.

The municipal town of Campina, placed at the joining between plain and hills, is an important industrial center in the region, and it attracts a significant amount of work force from the neighboring localities for a distance up to 15 Km. 32 enterprises operate within the industrial zone, grouped on industrial sectors: transport of electric and thermal energy, extraction and processing of oil, automotive industry, chemical sector, wood cutting and processing, bakery, constructions, transportation etc.

Situated in a zone of transition between plain and sub-Carpathian hills, the municipal town of Campina and locality of Poiana Campina have a small agricultural surface. Of all administrative territory surface, the agricultural surface represents only 35% for Campina and approx. 37% for Poiana Campina. The arable surface is approx. 11% of the administrative territory surface. The main cultures are: maize, potatoes, vegetables, root crops. The largest productions resulted from potatoes, maize and vegetables, and in fruit-growing from plum trees. Agriculturally, not even animal breeding is not a dominant activity sector.

Although it is an industrial zone, Campina has significant touristic potential that represents in fact the access passage to the touristic zone of Doftana.

Towns of Comarnic and Azuga have a certain specific profile due to the economic relations they keep with industrial units or economic agents in the country. The main industrial units in the towns mentioned above are:

v       In Comarnic: Enterprise of heat-proof products „Vulturul”, S.C. PRESCON – Cement plant, S.C. SAFAR –Romcamp Workshops, S.C. EXFOR – Branch of technological transport and operation – primary wood processing Ploiesti, S.C. SINAOS – IMEX – Timber plant, Workshops for wood processing and woodwork, Alimentary Industry, Furniture storage house.

v       In Azuga: SC STIAZ SA Azuga, SC SINTER – REF SA Azuga, SC BERE Azuga SA, SC POSTAV, SC VINALCOOL PRAHOVA – Department of champagne, SC TIPOGRAFIA EVEREST SRL, SC ROMSILVA PROD IMPEX SRL.

Agricultural surfaces are reduced, and arable fields are very present in very low percents. In Azuga the forest sector plays a very important role, since forests occupy approx. 76% of the administrative land. Generally, the main agricultural activities – zoo-techniques and fruit growing – are developed in regime of private business. Of the entire agricultural surface, only approx. 1 % is arable land, which is usually used for maize and potatoes.

According to the last population censuses, the population evolution corresponds to the data in the table no. 3.6-5.

Table no. 3.6-4 – Data concerning the population

Locality

Total No. inhabitants / census year

Male

Female

Observations

Poiana Campina

The predominant age group (59,9%) is between 15 - 29 years, followed by the very young of 0 – 14 years (20,5%);

Of the total number of inhabitants, only 45% represent the active population

Campina

There is a decrease of the natural population growth during these last years, and migration is the main source for population increases;

The active population and the employed population have high values, namely 48,1% and 46,3% (of the total population) compared to the average on the department. There is no demographic aging process of the population

Comarnic

Diminishment of the natural population growth;

The population is not subject to the phenomenon of demographic aging: little population over 60 years (14,5%) in favor of adult population (34,5%);

The non-active population represents 53% of the total population which is an inferior percentage compared to the average on the department;

The unemployed ratio, reported to the active population is of 7,7%, under the average on department.

Azuga

No data available

No data available

Very high percent (31%) of young population reported to the old population;

The population able to work exceeds 50% reported to the dependant population.

Localities Poiana Campina, Campina, Comarnic and Azuga are provided with both centralized water supply network, and also sewerage system. Wastewater is drained at the purifying stations afferent to the localities. The exception is made by the towns of Comarnic and Azuga provided just with local pre-purifying stations of waters coming from industrial units.

Environment problems signaled up to the present in the above mentioned localities are mainly caused by the following sources:

Operation of industrial units – PETROUTILAJ and SC CHIMFOREX in Poiana Campina; Mechanic plant, distillery, zones of oil drilling as well as enterprises such as Foundry and STEROM in the municipal town of Campina; Enterprise of heat-proof products „Vulturul” and the Cement plant in the town of Comarnic; SC SINTER REF – town of Azuga.

Uncontrolled waste deposits,

Road traffic.

A special problem is the phenomenon of land shifting occurring in the zone of the town of Comarnic. - in the zone of Vatra Satului towards Poiana and the zone of Podul Vartos.

Degraded soils are a result of the action of some human or natural factors such as:

Soil erosion due to uncontrolled grazing and intensive operation of natural resources;

Uncontrolled operation works in woods that partially emptied and destroyed the soil.



Actions of torrents in the valleys, without any leveling works or bank reinforcement.

D) Localities of touristic profile

This category includes mountain localities on the Prahova Valley: Sinaia and Busteni, as well as, the localities Breaza and Cornu, which also have touristic potential due to the special natural background.

Breaza and Cornu have a somehow special characteristic providing leisure and rest and treatment, the tourism here being of mountain type, on agricultural specific features. Breaza fits the balneo and climatic spa category, being on the third place of importance in Prahova County. Placed in the zone of sub-Carpathian hills in the Prahova Valley, the locality of Cornu possesses balneo resources, a mild climate and diverse landscapes. Specific resources of hill touristic area are in favour of developing some tourism versions: leisure and recreation, itinerary and transit tourism.

The towns of Sinaia and Busteni are on the first two places concerning their importance among touristic spas on the Valea Prahovei – Prahova County.

The tourism economy (tourism industry) is determined by the cities, the agriculture and industry being quite poorly represented. The presence of some favourable natural conditions represented the basic hit point for the development of mountain tourism, which fact determined the development of an important material basis (accommodation, public alimentation, recreation, fun, winter and summer sport, cable transport installation). The profile of these mountain spas is complex and provides special conditions for:

treatment based especially on condition provided by natural environment and characteristic microclimate (neuroses);

leisure – active leisure especially, by means of multiple touristic itineraries featuring various length and necessary effort degree;

mountain tourism, due to racetracks, installations and developments destined to winter and summer sports.

In Prahova County, the National Park of Bucegi covers 4116 ha and is composed of 8 natural reservations and 16 nature monuments, which are strictly protected areas. The information the Romanian Academy has provided till now shows that the route of the Bucharest – Brasov motorway will not affect this natural reservation.

Agriculture is poorly represented, due to the absence of good lands. Arable fields are very small, and they are usually split into several neighbouring parcels located next to the owner’s household. The dominant vegetal cultures on fields featuring big gradient, consist of forage plants. Hayfields and pastures occupy small surfaces, for which reason livestock is not a developed sector. On the other hand, forestry, due to woods, occupies an important place in the economy of the localities.

Generally, the industry is poorly represented, a significant percent of the work force is distributed in the touristic sector. In Sinaia, the most important industrial unit is the Enterprise of Fine Mechanics, which undertakes work force from both the town and neighbouring localities, while Busteni presents the unit Hartia Busteni SA.

The population, according to the last censuses is decreasing due to diminishment of the natural population growth. Table no. 3.6-6 provides data concerning the population.

Table no. 3.6-5 – Data concerning the population

Locality

Total No. inhabitants / census year

Male

Female

Observations

Breaza

Percentage of the population over 60 years is of 16,76%;

Inactive population represents 55% of the total population;

Unemployment rate is 4,66% of the active population;

Work resources are specific for the age groups between 16 -54 years.

Cornu

Unemployment rate is 8,3% higher than the average on the department;

Active population represents 46,6%;

Most of the work force travels to localities providing economic potential (urban environment).

Sinaia

Active population represents 50,37% of the total population;

Number of unemployed if of approx. 3,3% of the total active population;

In 1995 the number of tourists represented 36,8% of the total number per department.

Busteni

No data available

No data available

Both natural and migrating progress registered negative values.

All localities are provided with centralized water supply system, being also connected to the sewerage network. Most localities dispose of wastewater purifying stations, even the locality of Cornu where wastewater are filtered through a settler type Imhoff before being discharged into the Baltita brook. Only the town of Busteni makes an exception.

Environment problems that we observed till now in touristic localities, are mainly generated by the following sources:

Uncontrolled waste deposits,

Road traffic.

In the region of Sinaia, soil is degraded due to erosion phenomenon caused by uncontrolled woods operations or uncontrolled torrent valleys. Also, the phenomenon of fir trees withering due to industrial pollution is a warning. Industrial pollution contributed to acid rains, which are very aggressive to vegetation. Besides acid rains, the draught is also an alarming factor for the firtrees withering.

Historical monuments and archaeological sites

The Culture, Cults and National Cultural Patrimony of Prahova County informed us that there are no historical monuments to be affected by the motorway in the region.

According to estimations of specialists from the Departmental History and Archeology Museum Prahova, along the studied sector, there might be approx. archeological site in the following locations:

Km 32 – medieval objectives of siliste type;

Km 38 – Neolithic objectives and from II – III p. Ch. centuries;

Km 39 – Km 40 – objectives of Latene type, from II – III and V – VII p. Ch. centuries;

Km 49 – objectives from II – III p. Ch. Centuries and of Dridu type;

Km 52 – objectives from II – III and V – VI p. Ch. centuries, of Dridu and medieval type (cent. XV – XVII);

Km 55 – objectives from II – III, IV - V , VI - VII p. Ch. centuries;

Km 56 - objectives from II – III, V - VII p. Ch. Centuries and of Dridu type;

Km 57 - objectives from V - VII p. Ch. and of Dridu type;

Km 58 – Neolithic objectives, from III – IV and V – VII p. Ch. centuries;

Km 59 – objectives of Latene type;

Km 70 – Km 73 – archaeological objectives of tumulus, hillocks raised in purposes of protecting tombs and funerary implements, from Neolithic, bronze age, hallstatt, Latene;

KM 73 – Km 74 – Neolithic archaeological objectives of Cris and Gumelnita type, mil. 5 – 4 a. Christ;

Km 75 – Km 92 – archaeological objectives of tumulus type from bronze age, hallstatt, Latene;

The rest of the route (up to Km 146) – possible archaeological objectives on the high and low platforms of the Prahova river, on both banks.

They will not be affected definitively because, during execution, works will be assisted by a specialist responsible with carrying out the archaeological download of the location.

We mention that the general estimate of the works includes the necessary sums for these options.

Brasov County

A) Localities of touristic profile

In Brasov, Predeal fits this category that is in fact the first in the country among spas on touristic profile.

The tourism economy (industry) is representative for Predeal, the agriculture and industry being practically absent. The existence of favourable natural conditions represented the basic hit point for the development of mountain tourism, which fact determined the development of an important material basis (accommodation, public alimentation, entertainment, recreation, winter and summer sports, cable transport installations). The profile of this mountain spa is complex and provides special conditions for:

v   Treatment based especially on the conditions provided by natural background and characteristic microclimate (neuroses);

v   Leisure – active leisure especially, by means of multiple touristic itineraries featuring various length and necessary effort degree.

v   Mountain tourism, due to racetracks, installations and developments destined to winter and summer sports..

Predeal is provided with a sky track developed and maintained in very good conditions in purposes of winter sports.

Table no. 3.6-7 provides data concerning the population

Locality

Total No. inhabitants / census year

Male

Female

Observations

Predeal

Percentage of active population by comparison to the stable population in town is of 48,3%.

Predeal is provided with all utilities: water networks, sewerage and gas.

Environment problems signaled up to the present are generated mainly by the following sources:

Uncontrolled waste deposits,

Road traffic.

B) Localities of industrial profile

This category includes Brasov, which is one of the most important industrial centers in the country.

The main industrial branches in the municipal town of Brasov are: automotive industry, where Brasov is number one in the country, chemical industry, construction materials industry, cellulose and paper etc.

Due to the dominance of industry, agriculture and livestock are practiced on a small scale.

The population, according to the census from 1992, sums up 323.736 inhabitants in the municipal town of Brasov, which places it on the 5th place in the country.

From the point of view of the average age, in the department, the old population covers a percentage of 10,8% (women over 60 years, and men over 65 years) of the total population, and in Brasov this percent decreases to 9,2% in favor of the age category between 20 – 60 years. The natural population growth, during 1975 – 1994 is shown in table 3.6-1.

Table no. 3.6-7 – Evolution of population growth between 1975 – 1994

Year

Population growth %

Starting with 1990, hired population, from the economic sector of the municipal town of Brasov has constantly decreased. The work force employed in industry is the most numerous (approx. 50,8%), and it is followed by transportation, telecommunications, education, constructions and trade.

Due to its special natural and historic background, Brasov represents a high attraction for tourists.

Brasov is fitted all facilities: water networks, sewerage and gases. Wastewater is purified by the filtering stations of the city.

C) Localities profiled on agriculture and forestry and on small industry

In Brasov County, starting from the zone of Predeal, altitude become lower, the touristic zones are left behind and they are replaced by hill regions, where the localities Rasnov, Cristian and Codlea have a preponderant forestry potential.

The localities in Brasov County (Rasnov, Cristian and Codlea) due to the natural background, are basically operating in forestry, the small industry and partially tourism. However, the latter is not entirely revaluated. Pastures dominate these zones, and there is an important forestry fund, which encouraged the development of wood processing services.

Tourism, although it exists, is inadequately revaluated. Such an example is the town of Rasnov which is placed at the junction of many touristic routes: there is a linking road to Poiana Brasov, it is placed on the route of DN 73 towards the Bran zone, it has connections for Predeal passing through the region of Paraul Rece (Cabana Diham, Malaiesti, Cheia). The town of Codlea is on a similar position, and has a series of hit points concerning the touristic potential:

Natural background of great value and diversity, due to relief formations;

Important road and railway traffic network;

Close to other touristic zones: Brasov, Poiana Brasov, villages of Branene, lakes from Dumbravita;

Possibilities for practicing winter and summer sports;

Existence of some old and valuable architecture objects.

The only developed touristic unit in town is the Complex of Codlea Bai – swimming pool, oriented mainly on recreation, entertainment and nautical sports. Codlea swimming pool and the two storage lakes located downstream developed due to the existence of a water spring of constant temperature (approx. 18°C) and a relatively big flow. Soils in these regions are good for vegetable cultures, among which the potato is most frequent.

The population is generally decreasing as a consequence of the diminishment of natural population growth. Table no. 3.6-8.presents a series of data concerning the population.

Table no. 3.6-8 – Data concerning the population

Locality

Total No. inhabitants / census year

Male

Female

Observations

Rasnov

Employed population: 7643 persons (46,6%);

Inactive population: 8518 persons.

Cristian

Employed population is of 1640 persons (45,5%), among which 1300 are commuters.

Codlea

employed population in the secondary sector represents 62,4%, in the private sector 15,6%, and in the third sector 18,4% of the total;

the population between 20 and 60 years represents (56%) of the total.

Localities of Rasnov, Cristian and Codlea are connected to the centralized water supply system. The springs of Cheia and Rasnov – for drinkable water and deep wells for industrial water represent the water supply source.

In localities of Rasnov and Codlea, there is a sewerage network for domestic wastewater. The locality of Cristian is provided with a small sewerage sector connected to the domestic wastewater collector of Rasnov – Ghimbav. Domestic water from most dwellings is drained into suction well and scooping tanks.

Waste domestic water from Rasnov and Cristian are transported by the sewerage network to the Purifying Plant from Brasov. Wastewater from Codlea is drained into the local purifying plant.

Among polluting industrial units we mention:

Town of Rasnov: Hank and Romacril Mill,

Village of Cristian: SOREC,

Town of Codlea: SC „Mecanica” SA and SC „Magura” SA (air polluting sources), S.C. „Colorom”SA and „Suinprod” (water polluting sources).

Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites

According to the studies carried out by the Departmental Museum of Brasov, the zone the motorway crosses on the Predeal – Codlea sector, features the following archaeological sites:

Km 156 – Km 157 – settlements on platforms and in caves, dated as pre-historic and from Middle Age;

Km 157 – Km 161 – settlements on Paleolithic, Neolithic and passage to the bronze age platforms;

Km 166 – Km 168 – Roman camp (Cumidava) with civil centre and necropolis;

Km 172 – Km 174 – civil settlement from the Bronze Age (Hallstatt), upon another settlement from the 2nd Iron Age (La Tene).

Other sites may be discovered on the sector between Km 168 – Km 172, from different ages.

We mention that during execution of motorway construction works, affected sites will be archeologically discharged and construction works will be surveyed in view of overtaking other undiscovered sites.

Noise level along the motorway route

At the present, there are no noise sources on the motorway route, while on national roads DN 1 and DN 1A, the reduced traffic flow generates high values of the noise level.

In view of assessing the sound pressure level, ICIM Bucharest have carried out some measurements at the following points (Annex no. IVa and IVb).

Table no. 3.6-9 – Noise levels in the zone of the motorway and DN1 sector

Location

Measurement time

LA,1h

[dB(A)]

Lech (dB(A))acc.to

STAS 10009-88

Location characteristics

Motorway - zone of Bucharest

1 hour

In the zone of Tunari forest. Noise specific to a peaceful zone

Motorway - zone of Caciulati

1 hour

Nearby the loc. of Caciulati. Noise specific to a peaceful zone

Motorway - zone of Busteni

1 hour

Road traffic represents the main noise source

Motorway - zone of Predeal

1 hour

Various activities. The main noise is generated by the road traffic in the region

DN1, zone of    Baicoi between 12.00-13.00

1 hour

Border of DN1 – within an interval of average traffic

DN1, zone of Baicoi between 15.00-16.00

1 hour

Border of DN1- within an interval of maximum traffic

DN1, zone of Busteni between 12.00-13.00

1 hour

Border of DN1 – within an interval of average traffic

DN1, zone of Busteni between 15.00-16.00

1 hour

Border of DN1- within an interval of maximum traffic

DN1, zone of Predeal between 12.00-13.00

1 hour

Border of DN1 – within an interval of average traffic

DN1, zone of Predeal between 15.00-16.00

1 hour

Border of DN1- within an interval of maximum traffic

The results of the measurements indicate values under the maximum allowable limit, according to STAS 10009-88. Higher values, however at the bottom limit of acceptance, are registered on the national road DN 1, in the towns of Baicoi, Busteni and Predeal, as well as in the zone of the motorway sector through cities of Busteni and Predeal. Given the forecasted conditions (in case the motorway is not built), we can estimate the acceptable noise level will be exceeded on DN1, due to the increasing traffic.

Positive effects for human settlements due to construction of the Bucharest – Brasov motorway

The big traffic volume using the Bucharest – Brasov motorway passageway leads to exceeded traffic capacity on certain sectors of DN 1 (such as the zone of the Otopeni town or the Comarnic – Brasov sector). Also, in a short interval, traffic on the Bucharest – Ploiesti sector of DN 1 will exceed the acceptable level. Concerning the other important national road, on the sector of the motorway, DN 1A, it presents a high percent of heavy traffic, since heavy traffic is forbidden on DN1.

The big traffic volume on these national roads generates a high pollution level: high values of polluting substance releases into the atmosphere and limit sound levels or over the acceptable limits. Reduced flow, frequent stops and breaking are a discomfort for inhabitants of the communes crossed by the DN 1 and DN 1A national roads, contributing also to increasing the fuel consumption and the travel duration.

The only available solution on the Bucharest – Brasov sector resides in building the motorway. The motorway will take over some of the traffic actually running on the national roads DN 1 and DN 1A, and thus will contribute to reducing the pollution level, of both exhaust releases and also noise. The execution of the motorway will also enhance a more fluent traffic on DN 1 and DN 1A, which will reduce the fuel consumption and the travel time.

The traffic on the motorway will develop within European standards, in safety and comfort conditions.

During execution works, the motorway will also be a source of jobs. After it has been opened to use, the zones crossed by the motorway will develop due to construction of: gas stations, motels, restaurants etc. Those units will also require supplementary work force. The creation of new jobs will have a benefic effect, many of the zones crossed by the motorway featuring unemployment rates that high enough. Except for the mountain towns on touristic profile on the Prahova Valley, these localities are characterized by an aging process of the population.

THE EFFECT OF THE FRAGMENTATION

The fragmentation of the habitat is a particular effect that the linear infrastructure has upon both natural and human factors as well as upon the landscape. The fragmentation effect can be defined as a separation of the habitat into smaller and isolated units. This effect manifests on: natural habitats, hydro graphic basins, human settlements, as well as on the landscape by the modifications operated upon the natural environment.

These aspects are paid special attention within the European cooperation, on one hand as a consequence of researches and obtained results in this direction, and on the other hand due to ever bigger degree of awareness of the importance of the biotic factor for the environment health.

The effect of the linear infrastructure upon the natural and human environment can be:

v     direct – by splitting the physical environment,

v     indirect – through barrier and polluting effects generated by traffic.

The pollution effect manifests on short distances when dealing with air and sound pollution or on long distances in case of acid rains and phenomenon’s of acidulation and eutrophy. However, we assume that road traffic has a smaller significance than industrial sources. The impact upon the environment, as a consequence of road traffic is described in detail in chap. 6.

The fragmentation effect along the motorway depends upon the characteristic features of the crossed zones.

In order to evaluate objectively the effect produced by habitat fragmentation, we must consider the following:

v     impact upon natural factors, respectively modifications that occur at the level of hydro graphic basins, and natural habitats;

v     impact upon human settlements;

v     modifications on the natural landscape.

THE IMPACT UPON NATURAL FACTORS

From the natural factor point of view, the fragmentation effect generated by the linear infrastructure manifests upon:

v     underground waters,

v     surface waters,

v     soil,

v     natural habitat: flora and fauna.

UNDERGROUND WATER

THE IMPACT UPON UNDERGROUND WATER

The motorway impact upon underground water influences the zones featuring underground water layers that closer to the surface, where it is possible to modify the natural draining regime and the quality indicators. Road drainage and excavations can determine the decrease of the underground water layer level in adjacent zones, while the embankments and structures can raise this level in the direction of natural streams. Adjacent effects refer to the expansion of humid areas, expansion or appearance of swamps, soil saturation, possible erosions and degradations of soil and vegetation.

The sensibility of the zone depends on physical impacts (hydraulic), biological (habit of fauna and different species of creatures), and also on the human factor (water supply for recreation, economic or household units), the impacts determined by changes of the water stream regime.

The motorway impact upon underground water depends on large extent on its depth and its self-purifying degree. Self-purifying degree depends mostly on the type of soil from the respective zone. The soil layer behaves as a stabilizing and reaction environment depending on humidity, temperature and acidity, which determine the intensity of the bacterial actions.

In zones of motorway influence, due to the fact that the underground water layer is closer to the soil surface, and underground waters directions heads towards the lakes of Snagov and Caldarusani, they are considered as having a higher vulnerability degree than the lakes on Mostistea, Pasarea and Colentina (fig. 4.1.1 – a and fig. 4.1.1 - b).

Bellow, there is a presentation of the main characteristics of the underground water layer in the zone of Bucharest – Snagov, which is more vulnerable due to the entertainment potential of the zone North to Bucharest.

These estimates were based on the premises of an influence zone located on both sides of the motorway for a distance of maximum 10 km.

Fig. 4.1.1.- a Underground water layer depth reported to the soil surface in the hydro graphic basin of the Colentina river, Pasarea Valley, Mostistea Valley, Cociovalistea, Ialomita and Prahova rivers

Fig. 4.1.1.- b – Medium level of underground water layer in absolute values

The general direction of underground water drainage follows the West-oriented water streams with a slight deviation towards North-South

PROTECTION MEASURES

Ø        To determine the route, the designer addressed the National Company “Romanian Waters”. The representatives of the above mentioned company specified all uses of underground water (well fronts) located along the route and sanitary protection zones. They have also indicated the existing projects in the region.

Thus, in the Bucharest – Brasov zone of the motorway route, they indicated the following works:

Ø        Underground water caption fronts in the following zones: Civitas Breaza (drinkable water), front Tatarani – Teleajen, front Silistea 2 (drinkable and technological water), front Cap Rosu. Among them, the closest to the motorway route is a caption front situated in the zone of Km 90 - Km 91.

Ø        Treatment stations: station of the town of Comarnic (tanks in the zone of Posada);

Ø        Water cleaning stations or designed ones: Azuga, Busteni, Sinaia, Comarnic, Campina;

Ø        Water supply network of the district Ploiesti – Vest;

Ø        Drinkable water supply pipes (in the zone of Km 58 – Km 91 at distances of maximum 1 Km from the motorway);

Ø        Residual platform from Banesti.

There have been also signalled humid zones nearby the motorway rout at: Rafov – Bracanesti (on the Cotinboaica brook), Dumbrava – Draganesti (on the Prahova river) and Draganesti – Hatcarau (on the Prahova river). The motorway route was established in view of avoiding these zones.

SURFACE WATER

THE IMPACT UPON SURFACE WATER

The motorway impact upon surface water can generate the modification of the natural flowing direction regime, especially in zones where streaming processes take shape. We estimate that the natural flowing direction of waters will not be affected, since the motorway will cross the water streams it encounters on bridges. Depending on local conditions, such modifications might generate floods, soil erosions, as well as increased quantities of sediments on water stream beds. In plain zones, the fragmentation contributes to diminishing the intensity of erosion processes and respectively the pollutant settlements into the soil, while in hill and mountain zones, it contributes to accelerating these processes.

The impact upon the linear surface water infrastructure can increase its vulnerability to pollution in certain areas.

On the Bucharest-Ploiesti sector, except for Valea Snagovului, all the other hydrographic basins will be crossed or have direct contact with the motorway. Among them we can mention Colentina River with Pipera Lake, Valea Pasarea, Valea Mostistea, Cociovalistea River, Prahova River and Teleajen River.

Starting from the hypothesis of a maximum influence of the motorway, for up to 10 km, we can specify the following: Balta Manastirii is placed outside the 10 km lane, the impact of the motorway being insignificant, the Snagov lake is approx. 4-11 km far from the route, Silistea Snagovului is closer at a distance smaller than 4 km, the Caldarusani lake, placed at 2-6 km far from the humid zones from the Valea Mostistea, are beyond the medium influence lane of 5 km. However, there are many ponds on the Cociovalistea River and Valea Pasarea with significant contact zones to the motorway, which facilitates the transmission of negative effects downstream, towards the Caldarusani and Pasarea lakes. The Pipera Lake has direct contact with the motorway, lakes on Colentina being located at a distance of approx. 2 km – in a zone bigger motorway influence. This image is important because it emphasizes the space relations between aquatic eco-systems and the motorway. They will be emphasized especially through the effects of pollutant transportation to a certain distance as acidification and eutrophy processes.

Fig. 4.1.2.1 -1 – Hydrographic basins crossed by the motorway

Another form of manifestation of the impact of the linear infrastructure upon water streams consists of modifying the natural stream regime, by concentrating stream currents to certain points and, in many cases, by increasing the speed of these currents. Depending on local conditions, these modifications may contribute to floods, soil erosions and to increasing the quantity of sediment deposits on water streams. In this respect, ballast works lead to increased erosion phenomenon on the river bed, which has direct impact upon mountain sides stability. Along the route the Prahova river bed is highly eroded, especially on the Banesti – Azuga sector, the plain zones are lightly eroded and there is a moderate erosion as altitude grows. This evolution is presented in fig. no. 4.1.2.1.- 2 – 4.1.2.1.- 7.

Meadows landscape – sub-layer of raw sand and gravel, eroded banks and poor vegetation, at Blejoi (the bridge zone over Teleajen. (fig. 4.1.2.1.- 2)

The Prahova River at Banesti – bed of sand and gravel, gabion reinforcement, cross shoulder in the river bed, ballast works.

(fig. 4.1.2.1.- 3)

The Prahova River at Breaza de Jos, upstream of the bridge (left bank) – high erosion of the riverbed generated by ballast works downstream,

instability of the banks. (fig. 4.1.2.1.- 4)

The Prahova river at Breaza de Jos, under the bridge: river bed erosion has reached the base rock.

(fig. 4.1.2.1.- 5)

Nistoresti Flag Station (on the right mountain side) – soil sliding, erosion of the vegetal soil, deepening of the Prahova riverbed.

(fig. 4.1.2.1.- 6)

Prahova River upstream of Azuga railway station – abrupt banks and deepened riverbed.

(fig. 4.1.2.1.- 7)

The route of the Bucharest – Brasov motorway can run into torrent valley. Torrents are water streams characteristic to mountain and hill regions, on big and irregular slopes, and little of no water during most of the year, but which, during heavy rains or snow melting, carry short but violent freshets.

4.1.2.3. PROTECTION MEASURES

The motorway construction will not change the natural surface water stream regime. Bridges have been designed in order to pass over water streams. Also, in the zone of Km 96+585 – Km 97+466, we designed a bridge along the Prahova River, lest it affects existing works. On the Prahova River we have designed works of riverbed leveling and bank defense. Supplementary, we can mention the following general measures:

v       Choosing the route in view of avoiding vulnerable zones, characterized by high erosion;

v       Measures in view of reducing water streams speeds;

v       Forest curtains for the riverbed protection. Species used: willows, black and white alder trees, Euro-American poplars, white poplars, acacia and forest pine trees. The role of these curtains is to raise the riverbed bottom, in the respective zone, by natural sealing off and permanent protection of banks against water currents.

v       Hydrotechnics cross works for torrent development. Their purpose is to reinforce the riverbed and stream banks, and to retain deposits. On the other hand, this type of works is also a method of river stream leveling by directing water on a special corrected route.

The last two measures of reducing the impact are in fact measures of reinforcing water streams banks, such as measures of planting grass or of providing cross shoulders in the riverbed. Such an example is the zone of access into the town of Sinaia (fig. no. 4.1.2.3 - 1).

The entry in Sinaia: riverbed highly eroded, reinforcement by embedment shoulder and barrage; local reduction of the fall with approx. 4-5 m.

Crossing zone from the right on the left bank.

(fig. no. 4.1.2.3 - 1)

SOIL

4.1.3.1. THE IMPACT UPON SOIL

The impact of the linear infrastructure upon the soil manifests through: increased erosion and soil instability, as well as by increased soil vulnerability to pollution. The erosion degree increases when the natural conditions are modified and it is a consequence of the constant interaction between soil structures, climate conditions and water resources. The relation with the habitats differs depending on the vulnerability degree of the territory to the eroding processes.

The motorway construction is a supplementary factor of aggression that can amplify the instability processes, on both riverbed by ballast works, and also by interventions on the mountain sides.

During the elaboration of the impact study, there have been signalled eroding processes nearby the locality of Breaza, and soil sliding in the zone of the locality of Cornu between km 99 – km 100, on the right side of the motorway. Information provided by the Forest District Campina, indicate that this zone has been protected against soil sliding, but the motorway route does not affect the protection plantations.

Small sliding occurs due to the lack of tall vegetation, of woods essence that can reinforce the soil on big depths. Sliding can happen when the riverbed misbalance is very big and transmits to the mountain side, the process being triggered even if the latter is well covered with trees.

Erosion processes of the water on the mountain side are very active in the hill zone, characterizing the zone of the locality of Breaza and further up to Azuga. Erosion processes, together with soil sliding are a systematic factor of soil degradation, and implicitly lead to reducing the biological structure. The soil losses, on the background of small young and fragile soils, represent an integrating vulnerability factor, and an effective remedy would be to cover it with vegetal life of type and essences able to reduce the streaming process on the mountain and hill side.

Fig. 4.1.3.1. – a – Digital terrain model in the area of Banesti - Comarnic

The sector of Banesti – Comarnic is characterized by the highest intensity of geo-morphological processes, which are in direct relation to the longitudinal section of the Prahova River. Both in the zone of Breaza, and also Campina, the motorway route is edged by abrupt sides and follows a tableland zone lightly inclined in the NV – SE direction, approximately along the Prahova river.

The risk of collapsing is high, especially in the zone of the town of, inside the tableland zone, where lakes of different forms have formed.

Such a zone, due to its morphological structure has a high instability potential on sides of high sliding risk. In this respect, the deepening or raising of the riverbed can be factors of triggering/slowing down the existing processes. A better tracking of these processes was achieved through the local gradients – the model of slopes at a resolution of 50 m.

Fig. 4.1.3.1. – b – Slopes model at 50 m resolution in the area of Banesti – Comarnic

Both Breaza and Campina are separated from Valea Prahovei by mountain sides inclined at approx. 40%, fig. 4.1.3.1. – b emphasizing the instability degree depending on the slope values. Also, except for the tributary valleys, we can notice stripes on small slopes edges by big slopes (respectively, of bright colour among dark grey tones) that run along the river, both in the region of Poiana Campina, and also North to Breaza, which are active zones of slow descent of mountain sides.

The motorway construction is a supplementary factor of aggression that can amplify the instability processes, on both riverbeds by ballast works, and also by interventions on the mountain sides. . Such an example can be noticed at the entry in Sinaia, on the bridge over Prahova, where, due to local conditions, the route must attack an abrupt mountain side. We are confronted with the same problems in the region of Busteni.

The impact of the linear infrastructure gives birth to the process of annihilation of the natural soil properties. In this category we include the soil humidity that undergoes modifications that have direct effect upon vegetation. The initial parameters characterizing the filtered layer change particularly due to the charging action of the motorway upon the ground. The consequence consists in diminishing the pores volume (phenomenon identified especially at large pore soils) with direct effect upon the aeration process. In a chain of effects, the following factors are affected: fauna characteristic to the respective soil, microbe activity and nutrient balance.

4.1.3.2. PROTECTION MEASURES

v   We recommend that zones of disafforesting should be limited to the strict necessities.

v   We recommend replantations and plantation maintenance. Replantations must observe local conditions by choosing some species able to resist to toxins generated by road traffic. The grass of the “vetivera zizanioides” type proved to be very effective in purposes of protecting the soil against erosion.

v   When establishing the solutions, we considered the land configuration, preventing the creation of big embankments and excavations.

v   Planting of shrubs and trees (wooden mass) represents an effective solution in reducing erosion on abrupt mountain sides.

Besides, there is a series of technical measures by provision of works of types such as:: downstream aprons, pitching of stone walls, gabions, support walls. A combination of these methods can also be an effective measure to control erosion.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Evaluation of the existing situation

In order to emphasize the impact upon environment generated by the motorway construction, the evaluation must be carried out in relation to the existing situation.

In this respect, we assessed the manner and degree of occupation and use of the land at the present (without motorway), the density of human settlements and the degree of provision with transport infrastructure.

Motorway crossed territories, in plain zones up to Ploiesti, are generally occupied by man, and the degree of natural zones is small enough, compared to mountain zones. In this respect, the impact of the motorway construction upon the environment is smaller in plain zones than in mountain zones

Fig. 4.1.4 - a – Distribution of the forest areas along the motorway

Fig. 4.1.4 - b – Ratios of the forest cover along the motorway

Fig. 4.1.4 - c – Forest areas (mean widths on 10 km sectors) within

the two - side bands of 10 km width; number of crossings by the

actual roads in each band from the widths have been considered

to the estimation of the fragmentation effects.

On the Bucharest – Ploiesti sector, forest zones are significant, 30 - 40%, in North part of the capital, while up to the end of this sector, they cover very small zones.

The habitat fragmentation effects were analyzed for forest zones, which have the most important role in preserving bio-diversity. On the trophy chain, the bio-diversity preservation concerns especially big animal species that need certain territory dimensions. Reducing of compact woods surfaces by land occupation, sectioning, barrier effect or intrusion in peaceful zones generates a regrouping process of big species or of the most vulnerable to new factors of stress. The complexity of these relations is difficult to approach quantitatively, for which reason the approach was made by comparison to the present situation. As indicator, we used the compact surface dimension, as average value on sectors of 10 km. along the motorway route there are already different degrees of fragmentation, as a consequence of infrastructure elements indicated in fig. 4.2 – a ( chap. 4.2 – Human Settlements).

Fig. 4.1.4.- d – Quantification of forest zones along the motorway route

Fig. 4.1.4 – d presents a comparative quantification (present situation, without motorway, and future situation, with motorway) of the zones covered by woods along the motorway route on sectors of 10 km and within band 1, 2, 5 and 10 km wide. In the present situation, forest units afferent to each sector along the motorway route are sectioned by a number of transport lanes that are evidenced for each lane. We obtained an estimated average fragmentation degree by the report between the lane width and the number of sections.

The motorway construction can represent a new fragmentation of the natural habitat on one hand, and, on the other hand, the reduction of the existing surfaces such as the Prahova Valley zone.

The results presented fig. 4.1.4 – d represent the medium effects undergone by 5 km and de 10 km lanes on one hand, and of the motorway on the other hand. By considering certain overlapping over zones of influence of localities, we assessed that the supplementary fragmentation effect generated by the motorway construction will affect especially the zones nearby the Paraul Rece spa.

4.1.4.1 THE IMPACT UPON FLORA AND FAUNA

The fragmentation effect determines reducing of habitats and their functionality. The impact of the linear infrastructure upon flora and fauna can result into isolating fauna on both sides of the road. The effect consists in restricting the access of some animals to their season zones of nutrition or mating. In case the motorway is built without edging fences, the special literature “Manual on roads and environment” – elaborated by the World Bank – indicates a mortality coefficient among slow moving animals that can reach a level of 1/10.

In some cases, the impact upon flora and fauna leads to replacing some valuable species with other of less importance, but more enduring. The most severe impact is sensed by forest zones where there is a tight interaction between the system components: water, soil, vegetation - fauna.

4.1.4.2 PROTECTION MEASURES

v   In order to protect the flora, the motorway route must avoid as much as possible forest zones, and deforestation actions should be made on very reduced surfaces.

v   The road should avoid natural reservations and parks.

v   The measures destined to protect the fauna are presented in detail in chapter 74. The motorway enclosure will prevent the animals to enter the platform, and thus will prevent collisions between fauna and traffic.

v   The designer has designed 2 culverts for animals at Km 44 and Km 48. Their location has been established in order to correspond to the main migration routes. The dimensions of the bridges for animals are: 10 m wide, and 3,50 m high, the fauna being characteristic for plain zones.

v   On the sector between Ploiesti and Predeal it was not necessary to design culverts, since the motorway is near DN 1, CF Bucharest – Brasov and the Prahova river, and animals do not cross this zone not even today. On the sector Predeal – Codlea it was not necessary to design culverts for animals, since the zone is provided with many bridges and viaducts, and animals can also use them.

v   Animals can also use the other bridges too (for water draining and those of 5 m wide).

HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Evaluation of the existing situation

To indicate on real bases the impact generated by the motorway construction, reported to the existing situation taken as a reference value, our evaluation must consider also the existence/development of localities along the road, which represent as many pollution and fragmentation sources for the natural habitat.

The territory occupation and use process and also the transport infrastructure design are developed in relation to the relief levels. Along the motorway route, the biggest density of human settlements and transport roads is in zones of plain and hill.

The big number of localities (fig. 4.2. - a) and transport networks indicate the fact that the environment on which we must evaluate the motorway impact, already features a big degree of human intervention.

Fig. 4.2 - a – Distribution of localities along the motorway

Except for the 10 km sectors in the zones of Bucharest and Ploiesti, the density of localities (on 10 km band) is at least double in zones of hills compared to plain zones, but very small North to Ploiesti. In mountain zones, a big number of localities fit the ± 2 km band, with a maximum value in the zone between km 100 - km 120.

 

Fig. 4.2 - b – Locality occupation degree of land

The impact, as well as the fragmentation effect generated by human settlements upon natural environment was assessed by means of influence bands chosen at values of 1000 m in rural zones and 2000 m in urban ones. The influence of localities upon the natural environment is sensed especially by the zones at the beginning of the motorway, where natural landscape was replaced by semi-natural or mostly agricultural landscape.

Besides the fragmentation and barrier effect, generated by the existence and development of human settlements, we should also consider the impact of pollutants such as waste materials, wastewater or toxins that are a consequence of the activities carried out.

Based on these estimations we could evaluate the natural zones where the motorway is the only environment pollution and fragmentation source (fig. 4.2. - c).

Fig. 4.2 - c – Zone where the motorway contributes to the fragmentation effect exclusively

Besides human settlements, our estimate also considered communication ways for road and railway traffic, which also contribute to the intense fragmentation effect upon natural environment. In this respect, we chose as examples the influence bands of 500 m for railway and departmental roads, and 1000 m for national roads.

Fig. 4.2 - d – Cumulating effect generated by human settlements and transport ways

By cumulating these effects with previous ones specific for human settlements, unmodified natural spaces from the present will be ever smaller. Thus, the motorway contribution, compared to the current reference situation, is practically insignificant on the sector between Bucharest – Ploiesti, which is a zone developed from the point of view of both localities and also of the number of transport roads devised.

THE IMPACT UPON HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

The impact of the linear infrastructure takes different shapes, being a barrier effect for both human factor and also the development of local activities – lands.

From the point of view of the impact upon the land use, our evaluation considered the land type, profitability and use in the analyzed zone. In this respect, we considered plain, hill and mountain zones separately. Agricultural zones, mostly of cereal cultures dominate plain zones. As altitude grows, they are replaced by woods, and then, in hill zones, specific for the last motorway sector, agricultural lands and hayfields reappear. In hill zones, the basic cultures are of potatoes and white beet.

Fig. 4.2.1 – b Characteristic cultures for the zones crossed by the motorway

Agriculture can be affected in many different ways, among which we mention:

v   The effect caused by de the motorway construction by occupation of agricultural lands. In this case, the qualitative aspect given by the economic value of the lands is on the first place, and the quantitative aspect is less important (surface of the motorway zone that is excluded from the circuit);

v   The modification of the operational system of the land – disappearance or sectioning of existing lands;

v   The impact upon passageways, transits, access. Isolation of agricultural lands is the result of the barrier effect generated by the motorway.

In hill zones, land profitability is ever smaller, the place of the cereal cultures being taken by lawns, orchards or forests.

MEASURES TO REDUCE THE IMPACT

v   The designer established the route after several sessions of meetings with both local authorities and population, so as to affect the least possible the development of the activities carried out at the present. We considered also the projects in the zone.

v   The designer observed the continuity of the access ways in the zone of the motorway. Interrupted routes will be rebuilt by the construction of passageways over the motorway. Their location was commonly agreed upon with representatives of the local authorities.

Thus, on the sector Bucharest – Ploiesti we designed a total number of 24 overpasses that provide continuity of traffic from one side of the motorway to the other, which gives an average distance of approx. 2,7 Km between passage points over the motorway.

We also designed the passage of local roads under bridges or passageways, summing up 24 pieces. On the whole, possibilities of over passing or under passing the motorway amount to a number of 48, which leaves a distance of 1,14 km between two passing points.

In the zone of Bucharest – Ploiesti, following the discussions with the population affected by the motorway construction, we proposed the construction of 22 culverts of corresponding dimensions to allow access of agricultural machinery and utilities, besides the culverts mentioned above. These culverts will provide access to properties and are located as follows: Km 12+600, Km 13+720, Km 15+550, Km 17+050, Km 17+450, Km 20+630, Km 27+150, Km 27+450, Km 30+350, Km 31+250, Km 33+220, Km 34+050, Km 35+400, Km 36+250, Km 37+800, Km 38+280, Km 39+350, Km 41+950, Km 45+400, Km 46+370, Km 48+770 and Km 57+000.

A positive effect of the motorway construction concerns the economic development of localities along the motorway road, due to the offer of new jobs and diversifying the existing ones.

LANDSCAPE

THE IMPACT UPON THE LANDSCAPE

From the visual perspective, the linear infrastructure represents a form of intrusion in the natural landscape by modification of initial characteristics.

An important aspect that we must consider is to fit the project in the landscape. This issue concerns the relation with touristic and historical zones in both plain and mountain zones. In the plain zone, the special historical value is concentrated in the zone of Snagov and of localities of Moara Vlasiei and Gruiu. Here, there is a big volume of historical monuments, which will not be affected by the motorway construction.

In the mountain zone, Valea Prahovei represents the main treasure and touristic attraction source, and it also has a significant history and cultural value.

This landscape can be affected negatively by the motorway construction by the implementation of new elements that do not belong to the natural environment in the respective zone. This category includes: interchanges, service spaces for the motorway users, maintenance centres, communication and information centres, respectively, illumination systems.

Since it is appreciated differently by local inhabitants (along the motorway), by users (tourists) or by naturalists, the landscape is a difficult problem to solve.

MEASURES TO REDUCE THE IMPACT

Relief

Depending on the possibilities, we tried to design the longitudinal motorway section so as to fit as much as possible the land configuration, and avoid the creation of zones of big embankments and excavations.

This was difficult to achieve in the zone of Prahova Valley, since the space is reduced here by the existence of the national road DN 1, the railway Bucharest – Brasov, industrial units or dwellings. The motorway route in this zone (Comarnic – Predeal) is very sinuous, with many designed bridges over Prahova or its tributary rivers and passageway over the national road and railway. We encountered special problems during designing on Valea Rasnoavei (Predeal – Rasnov) where the land is roughly uneven and it was necessary to provide viaducts and bridges. Aesthetically, and from the point of view of the landscape, viaducts over large valleys are recommended instead of embankment works. Therefore, we designed viaducts in the zone of Predeal – Cristian (Km 146+800 – Km 168+600).

On the other hand, we shall plant grass, and proceed to more complex landscape development at some points, such as interchanges, service spaces, fee stations, maintenance and coordination centers:

v     Maintenance and coordination centers (CIC) - Km 24,

v     Maintenance bases (districts) - 3 points: Km 59 (crossways of motorway and the East Ploiesti By-Pass), Km 92+950 (Banesti) and Km 162+145 (in the zone of the Rasnov interchange),

v     Service spaces type S3 – 3 spaces type S3 at Km 20, Km 87+550, Km 160+000,

v     Service spaces type S1 – 3 spaces type S1 la Km 35, Km 56 and Km 116+175,

v     Short term parking – 10 long term parking la Km 11+500, Km 28+400, Km 42+550, Km 50+400, Km 67+100, Km 78+100, Km 101+700, Km 134+325, Km 148+300, Km 169+550.

Concerning the zone between Km 3+200 – Km 3+500, on the left side of the motorway, where there is a trash pit, we propose to hide behind a green area, approx. 3m wide, planted with thick shrubs.

For the green middle band in the zone Bucharest – Dumbrava, we propose the following shrub species: forsythia (Forsythia – Intermedia), Ligustrum – Vulgare and wooden mallow (Hybiscus – Syriacus). They have an important landscape function, and also of anti-blinding protection.

v   Forsythia reaches a height of up to 3,0 m, of divergent branches, yellow-olive sprouts. Leaves are oval and long, even spear-shaped. It is the first species that blossoms intensely in spring. It grows very fast.

v   Lemnul cainesc is up to 4 m high in June – July, with small white-yellowish flowers. The leafage is green-yellowish, and semi-persistent. It endures frost, drought, and chemical air pollution.

v   Wooden mallow is a tall shrub up to 3,0 m high, on vertical port, with 5 – 12 cm long leaves. Its large, solitary flowers are white, pink, red or purple-violet-colored. Flowers blossom in July-September.

The species is resistant enough to drought and heat, and it does not need a special soil.

Works that will be executed after planting:

Soil settling and plant hilling;

Plant watering, immediately after planting;

Cutting-off in order to remove old and withered branches.

Our landscape development proposals for the spaces afferent to the motorway, was based upon the following aspects:

the landscape seen by drivers: space development by plantations aimed at increasing the visual interest by vegetal forms, season colours of leafage or flowers, dynamic rhythm in development generating a sensation of harmony, comfort and safety;

the road opposed to the landscape: space development by plantations to valorize the surrounding landscape.

General requirements for the green spaces:

v   to form screens hiding some anaesthetic elements placed nearby the motorway;

v   to represent backgrounds emphasizing some valuable constructions nearby the motorway road;

v   to contribute by their presence in dull zones crossed by the motorway to creating the optical comfort of drivers by the qualities of the vegetation used in this respect, and to increasing the traffic safety by its effects, in order to avoid accidents;

v   to form protection curtains against dust, gas smoke and noise, by planting shrubs in groups or as fences.

Selection criteria for the species to be used:

v   to be enduring in what concerns smoke, exhaust gas, dust, etc;

v   to grow fast;

v   to have a long life duration;

v   feature an as long as possible interval between foliation and leaf-falling;

v   root system must be deep, not superficial< in safety zones, species of revolving roots, or revolving-lining roots, are more enduring to strong winds actions and there is a risk of roots to expand superficially on a large surface, disturbing the road coating;

v   not to have a big capacity of sending out suckers in safety zones;

v   to tolerate crown cutting that is often necessary, in order to obtain regular shapes or to maintain the necessary height to protect air power or phone wires, etc;

v   alignment tree trunks must be straight, of minimum 2,50 m high;

v   their crowns must have pyramidal, cone or globular shape;

v   to avoid monotony, we recommend not planting the same species throughout the entire road length. Species can alternate at intervals of 1,50 – 2,00 km. We recommend changing the plantation type at junction points or those of direction changes.

We recommend that local species should be used, so as newly planted vegetation may fit organically by preserving a certain connection with the surrounding vegetation.

In case of the studied motorway sector, we recommend using species such as:

resinous trees: Juniperus Virginiana, black pine;

thick leafage trees: black sycamore maple tree, red oak, willow, acacia;

resinous shrubs: small fir tree needles;

thick leafage shrubs: small acacia, cornel tree, hawthorn, wooden mallow, forsythia, lemn cainos, redbox thorn, lilac.

Vegetation elements we proposed for landscape development consist of trees and shrubs of resinous species, which remain green throughout the entire year and leafy species on falling leaves, but presenting the advantage of chromatic season variation.

The basic background for landscape development consists of grass plantation. Covering elevations in embankment and excavation, the surfaces covered by grass, besides their soil reinforcement function, are also the background emphasizing shrub vegetation. Also, horizontal surfaces within premises and parking areas are designed as grass lawns, destined to planting trees and shrubs.

EMPHASIS ON ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE AREAS

The process of tracing and specifying vulnerable zones on the motorway road was carried out by using a graphic method, based upon synthetic maps.

The method consisted of representing environment elements as maps and then determining a synthesis value to overlap the maps.

These maps allow you to use supplementary information in estimating the impact of the motorway on a larger zone (a band of approx. 10 Km on both sides of the motorway) by considering the difficulties and the elements of interest. Information provided by these thematic plans is distributed in 3 or 4 value classes (different colours).

The graphic representation of the zones of different values was carried out on the basis of a grading scale chosen on the scale of the 3 - 4 value classes, respectively:

v       without a specific value (bright yellow);

v       weak value (ochre);

v       big value (pale-red);

v       exceptional value, vital element (dark red).

To assess vulnerable zones in the zone of the motorway road, we designed synthetic maps for the following environment resources: agriculture, forest, water and landscape, which can be influenced the motorway construction.

Unitary maps, as well as criteria and elements considered in order to analyze environmental resources, are the following:

v   Agriculture – the graphic representation is based upon overlapping of climate, soil fertility and agricultural profitability maps.

Climate – the map represents climatic conditions that transform certain zones into more favourable zones for agriculture than others;

Fertility (soil quality) – the map represents the soil fertility by considering its fitting into agricultural adequacy classes;

Agricultural profitability – the map indicates the profitability criteria of the territory.

v   Forest – the synthesis map for the forest is based upon the protection role of forests and forest profitability.

The protection role of the forests – the map indicates the zones where forests act as soil protectors against erosion and sliding or as recreation areas;

Forest profitability – the map indicates the economic role of the forest, by considering the importance of the local wood industry, wood works quality and conditions.

v   Water – we considered the following elements represented on special maps: catchments, pipes, tanks and surface waters.

Catchments, pipes, tanks – the map indicates the route of the main pipes, the zones provided with water catchments system and tanks, as well as the zones of sanitary protection for them.

Surface water – the map represents the characteristics of the surface waters (morphology, flora and fauna).

v   Landscapes – unitary maps, on which the synthesis map was based for this landscape were: diversity of vegetal coating, sound level and visual aspect.

Diversity of vegetal coating – the map indicates the zoning of the vegetal coating – a major element of natural landscape. In natural zones and forests, vegetation is permanent, and in agricultural zones, where vegetation is less diverse and changes every year, we considered the thickness of the fence stripes, shrub bushes.

Sound level – the map indicates a certain zone distribution, by considering the current road traffic noise level, and also of railway, industrial zones and dwelling zones.

The visual aspect – the map emphasizes the built zones, as well as the zones admired for their special landscape beauty.

The conclusions revealed by overlapping these unitary maps, represented for each analyzed environment factor, are the following:

v   Agriculture

The plain zone between Bucharest – Ploiesti has a big enough agricultural potential, with very fertile soils in the zone Bucharest – Moara Vlasiei and Gruiu – Dumbrava. Of the analyzed surface, more than 80% is occupied by agricultural surfaces.

Further on, the motorway crosses the zone of the locality of Floresti, agricultural lands of satisfactory up to good potential, and then agriculture will not be affected till the zones between the localities of Rasnov and Codlea.

v   Water

In the zone of the motorway sector between Bucharest – Ploiesti, on the sector Bucharest – Snagov, surface waters (lakes) are destined mainly to leisure purposes.

Generally, rivers in plain zones do not have various morphology and are regularized.

In the analyzed zone, the water supply is carried out mainly from underground sources.

On the Comarnic – Predeal motorway sector, the motorway will run parallel to the Prahova River, sometimes even in the major riverbed. In this zone Prahova river is considered to have a various morphology, flora and fauna.

Between Predeal and Rasnov the motorway will cross many valleys, of temporary flows.

v   Forest

In the zone of Bucharest – Snagov forests have a special entertainment role. Along the sector Bucharest – Ploiesti, forests have protection functions, and forest profitability is generally poor.

The woods on the mountain sides from the Prahova Valley have an important role of defense against soil sliding and erosion, as well as an exceptional economic profitability, since they supply wooden material of several categories, as well as secondary products (mushrooms, Christmas trees, resin, etc).

v   Landscape

On the sector between Bucharest – Ploiesti, the predominant cultures are agricultural. The exception is made by the zone of Snagovului, where the forest surface is bigger. There are also isolated forest skirt zones, vines and orchards.

The sector Bucharest – Ploiesti crosses most of the natural zones, displaying a pleasant visual landscape. The forest zone from Snagov can also be considered as a region of very pleasant visual landscape. South to Ploiesti, the motorway will pass through a constructed zone.

Concerning the sound level, along the Bucharest – Ploiesti sector, there are mostly peaceful zones, featuring no noise sources. The zone situated south to Ploiesti is characterized by high noise level, since here there are sources of phonic pollution (railway, DN 1 etc).

On the Prahova Valley, the motorway runs through zones where landscape is very important, but next to the road there are communication ways (DN 1 and railway Bucharest – Brasov) and constructed zone. Due to their existence, we cannot say that these zones are peaceful at the present, from phonic point of view.

Between Predeal and Rasnov the motorway will cross a territory where the landscape is less affected by human activities.

By overlapping unitary maps mentioned above, it resulted that on the sector Bucharest – Ploiesti, the motorway generally crosses lands of medium importance, natural habitats being crossed on restrained areas. A vulnerable zone on this sector is the zone of Snagov, which is considered a zone of recreation due to the special natural environment (lake and forest of Snagov).

Between Ploiesti and Comarnic, the motorway also crosses lands of medium importance. This zone is dominated by agricultural fields of a not very significant value or fields neighbored by constructions.

Between Comarnic and Predeal the motorway crosses Valea Prahovei, and passes by some of the most important touristic spas in Romania. In this zone, we have taken measures so as not to affect these spas.

Valea Rasnoavei is a zone that up to the present has not been affected by human activities. The, up to Codlea, the motorway will cross a zone of agricultural lands.

The Bucharest – Brasov motorway route was established so as to have minimum impact. The project also proposes a series of protection measures.









Politica de confidentialitate

DISTRIBUIE DOCUMENTUL

Comentarii


Vizualizari: 4456
Importanta: rank

Comenteaza documentul:

Te rugam sa te autentifici sau sa iti faci cont pentru a putea comenta

Creaza cont nou

Termeni si conditii de utilizare | Contact
© SCRIGROUP 2020 . All rights reserved

Distribuie URL

Adauga cod HTML in site