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-A forma un nr.gresit = To dial a wrong number

-Am fost intrerupti = We were cut off

-Dati-mi,va rog,legatura cu = Will you please put me through to ;

Will you please connect me with

-Inchideti,va rog = Please hang up

-N-am inteles prea bine ce ai spus = I have not gathered what you have said

-Nu suna = No buzz

-Telefon international = International call

-Te voi suna pentru a stabili o intalnire = I'll ring you up for a definitive appointment

-Va rog,asteptati = Please hold on

-Va rog,asteptati pe fir = Please hold the line

-Va rog,interior 265 = Give me extension 265

-Voi suna mai tarziu = I'll be phoning later

-Vorbiti mai tare,va rog = Please speak up


-A pleca de la zero = To start from scratch

-A renunta,a ceda = To back out ;

To climb down ;

To give in ;

To wilt ;

-Acesta este motivul principal = This is the overriding consideration

-Am onoarea de a confirma primirea = I am pleased to acknowledge receipt

-Ati putea fi atat de amabil incat sa ne comunicati daca =Would you be so kind as to let

us know whether

-Aveti vreo obiectie in ceea ce priveste = Would you object to our ;

Would you have any objection to our

-Ca raspuns la scrisoarea (e-mail-ul) dv. = Further to your letter (your e-mail)

-Cu parere de rau va aducem la cunostinta ca = We are sorry to let you know that ;

We are sorry to inform you that

-Din data de = Under date of

-Iata cum vad eu lucrurile = That's how I figure it out

-In sprijinul cererii mele = In support of my claim

-Intelegandu-se ca = On the understanding that

-La ora fixata = At the appointed time

-Mai mult sau mai putin = More or less ;

So so

-Mi-a transmis ca = He left me word that

-Nu voi mai insista = I will not press the point

-Orar,program = Time schedule

-Pe cheltuiala = Defrayable by

-Sper sa nu ma intelegeti gresit = I hope you will not misunderstand my remark

-Sansele sunt mai mari = The odds are better

-Stiti cumva daca = Do you happen to know whether

-V-as fi recunoscator daca ati binevoi sa = I would be grateful if you could

-Va multumesc anticipat = With best thanks beforehand ;

Thanking you in advance

-Veti gasi anexat = Please find attached

-Voi reveni in timp util = I shall revert in due course

-Vom lua legatura cu = We are getting in touch with


-Accept postul = I'll take on the job

-A detine functia,a fi in functie = To hold (held,held) office

-Director executiv = Managing director

-Director interimar = Acting manager

-Directorul precedent = Former manager

-Director adjunct = Deputy manager ;

Joint manager ;

Assistant manager ;


-Director Tehnic-Investitii = Technical and Development Manager

-O noua conducere intra in functiune = A new management takes office

-Sef de departament = Department head ;

Departmental manager

-Sef serviciu = Chief clerk

-Sef de birou = Office manager

-Sef de personal = Staff manager ;

Personnel manager.


-Abilitate profesionala = Technical ability

-A rezilia = To determine

-Concedii platite = Holidays with pay

-Perioada de proba = Period of probation

-Sarbatoare legala = Statutory holiday

-Se arata dispus sa = He is framing well


-Asigurare contra accidentelor = Accident insurance

-Asigurare contra bolilor de toate genurile = Health insurance

-Asigurare pentru accidentele la locul de munca = Insurance against injuries to workmen

-Asigurare pe termen = Time insurance

-Asigurat = Policy holder

-Hazard,risc = Hazard

-Risc = Exposure

-O propunere de asigurare = A proposal form


-A compensa = To make (made,made) up for

-A da,a furniza,a asigura,a dispune = To provide for

-A da nastere la = To give (gave,given) rise to

-A executa ,a indeplini,a face = To carry (carried,carried) out

-A expune = To set out

-A intreprinde o actiune = To take (took,taken) an action

-A instiinta = To give (gave,given) notice of

-A produce,a provoca = To bring (brought,brough) about

-A restitui = To pay (paid,paid) back

-A se afla sub = To fall (fell,fallen) below

-A se baza pe = To rest upon

-A tine un examen = To conduct an examination

-Ca o consecinta a ,ca rezultat al , de pe urma = As a result of

-Cat priveste = As far as are concerned ;

As far as go

-Chiar daca = Even though

-Cu program redus,cu jumatate de norma = Part-time

-De regula = As a rule

-Impreuna cu, odata cu , alaturi de = Along with

-In ce priveste = As to

-In discutie = At stake

-In functie de = According to ;

Depending on ;

Depending upon

-In masura in care = To the extent that

-Intr-un scop = For a purpose

-In / Pe drum spre = On his way to

-Neconsiderat = Not thought of

-Pe temeiul ca = On the ground that

-Sa presupunem ca = Assume that


-agrement = approval

-Autorizatie de construire = Planning permission (U.K.) ;

Building permit / license (Aus)

-Autorizatie PSI = Fire (prevention) Permit ;

Fire certificate

-Proiect Tehnic = Basic Engineering *

(*Vezi in Anexa - definitia pe larg a conceptului de Basic Engineering )

-borna = terminal stud

-cheie tubulara in trepte = step socket

-chinga = sling

-cofraj de lemn = wooden shuttering

-debitul compresorului = compresor output

-Proiect de detaliu = Detail Engineering *

(*Vezi in Anexa - definitia pe larg conceptului de Detail Engineering )

-de trei ori = factor of three

-disponibil / comercializat separat = supplied loose

-eroarea pasului = pitch variation error

-executare proiect la cheie de catre proiectantul-constructor = turnkey aproach of designer-constructor

-furnitura = scope of supply

-grinda cu inima plina = solid web girder

-greutate proprie = kerb weight

-identificarea riscurilor = hazard spotting

-intalnit frecvent = widely witnessed

-lucrari in garantie = warranty work

-participant la lucrari in calitate de expert = expert witness on proceedings

-pierderile prin antrenare sunt mari = carryover losses are more

-prelucrator prin aschiere = cutting machine operator

-presiune nominala de deschidere = pich-up pressure rate

-prospect = flyer

-pus la masa = grunded

-putere nominala = name plate capacity

-P&ID mark-up = verificarea / corectura a Diagramei de Proces si instrumentatie

-putere termica = thermal input

-rezervor de acid uzat post decantare = spend acid after settler drum

-rezervor secundar de alimentare = swirl pot

-set de pene = wedge element train

-sistem de recuperare si controler antipompaj = spillback system and anti-surge socket

-solicitare compusa = combined stress

-trasee tehnologice = process flows

-tub si profil tubular = tube and hollow section

-titei brut disponibil = crude slate

-vizita de orientare si evaluare a situatiei din teren = plot plan walkdown



A&A [Addition & Amendments] = Completari si Modificari

-a.a.r.,AAR [Against All Risks] = (Asigurare) impotiva tuturor riscurilor

-acce [acceptance / accepted] = acceptat

-a/d [after date] = cu incepere de la data de ; dupa data (stabilita)

-ad.,adv.,advt. [advertisment] = (anunt) reclama

-add. [addition] = completare

-ad.lib.[ad libitum,at will] = la libera alegere

-adv [advice] = sfat

-ad.val.[ad valorem,according to value] = in raport cu valoarea

-afsd.[aforesaid] = sus-mentionat

-a/m,A/M [above-mentioned] = mai sus mentionat

-a/o,A/O [Account of (on behalf of)] = In contul(in numele)

-A/P [Additional Premium] = Prima Suplimentara

[Advice of Payment] = Aviz de Plata

-arr [arrival] = sosire

-ASSPT [American Standard Straight Pipe Thread] = Filet normal cilindric pentru tevi standardizat in SUA

-ASTPT [American Standard Taper Pipe Thread] = Filet conic pentru tevi standardizat in SUA

-AST [American Standard Thread] = Filet standardizat in SUA

-attn.,Attn. [attention] = atentie ; in atentia

- B -

-B.A.s.t.[British Association stadard thread] = Filet standardizat in Marea Britanie

-b.c. [between centres] = distanta intre centre

-b.m. [bending moment] = moment de incovoiere

-b/p [blueprint] = copie pe hartie heliografica / ozalid

-BSFT [British Standard Fine Thread ] = Filet normal fin standardizat in Marea Britanie

-BSWT [ British Standard Whitworth Thread ] = Filet Whitworth standardizat in M.B.

-by. [busy] = ocupat

- C -

c. & c. [cash and carry sale] = vanzare / livrare direct din depozit

-cct. [circuit] = circuit

-ch.[central heating] = incalzire centrala

-CH [Custom House] = Vama

-chq [cheque] = cec

-cht [ chart] = diagrama,schema,desen,tabel,grafic,harta,nomograma

-C/I [Insurance Certificate] = Certificat de Asigurare

-c./o.,C/O,CO [Cash Order] = Ordin de plata in numerar;Nota/Ordin de incasare

-c/o [care of] = in atentia

-CO [Certificat of Origin] = Certificat de Provenienta

-Co. [Company] = Societate anonima

-COD[Cash On Delivery] = Plata La Livrare

-cont [contract] = contract

-c.s.[cast steel] = otel turnat

-cs.,Cs [ case(s)] = lada,lazi

-cwt [hundredweight] = 112 livre = 0,508 quintale

- D -

-d.a. [days after acceptance] = (nr. de zile) dupa acceptare

-deb [debenture] = obligatiune

-d.d.,d./d. [days late,days after date] = nr. de zile de intarziere

-dd (delivered) = livrat

-def [deferred] = amanat

-dft [draft] = tiraj,trata,cambie ; proiect,schita,concept,ciorna

-dis(c) [discount] = reducere,rabat,bonificatie;scont

-d./o.,D/O [Delivery Order] = Ordin (Nota) de Livrare

-do.[ditto,the same] = idem

-doz. [dozen] = duzina

-d.s.[document signed] = document semnat

-dz [dozen] = duzina,12 buc.

-E -

-ea [each] = fiecare

-EPC [Engineering Procurement and Construction] = Partea de Inginerie ce se ocupa de    Constructii si Incheirea Contractelor

-e./e. [error excepted] = facand abstractie de erori

-e.o.m. [end of month following date of sale ] = plata la "x" zile de la sfarsitul lunii

-ExD = In constructie AntiEx

-exs.[expenses] = cheltuieli,costuri

- F -

-FEED [Front End Engineering Design] = Faza de Planificare Timpurie (Initiala) a Proiectului de Constructie al unei Fabrici (Instalatii) Industriale *

(*Vezi in Anexa - definitia pe larg a FEED)

-fig [figure] = cifra,numar

-fo [firm offer] = oferta ferma

-f./s.[factor of safety] = factor/ coef. de siguranta

-FW [Full Weigh] = Greutate Totala / Completa

[Fly Wheel] = Volant

-fwdr.[forwarder] = expeditor,trimitator

-f.w.h.[flexible working hours] = program de munca flexibil

- G -

-gds [goods ] = marfuri

-g.f. [ground fog] = ceata / pacla la sol

-g.t.[gas thread] = filet pentru tevi de gaz

-gtd.[guaranteed] = garantat

-gro. [gross] = brut

-H -

-h.a.[hoc anno,in this year] = anul curent

-h.&c.[hot and cold water] = apa calda si rece

-H/E [Heat Exchanger] = Schimbator de Caldura

-hf. [half] = jumatate,semi-

-HO [ Head Office] = Sediu Principal

-h.r. [half round] = semirotund

-HSS [ High Speed Steel] = Otel Rapid

- I -

-Inc [Incorporated] = Societate anonima pe actiuni (in SUA)

-ince. [insurance] = asigurare

-iss. [issue] = editie (a unei carti),nr.(al unui ziar),emisiune (de actiuni),punct in litigiu,

chestiune controversata,conditie,rezultat

-inst. [instant] = data curenta,curent,al acestei luni ;urgent

-inv [invoice] = factura ;lista de marfuri

-Iwks [Iron works] = Turnatorie de fonta,uzina metalurgica/siderurgica   

- J -

-JIS [Japanese Industrial Standard] = Standard Industrial Japonez

- L -

-l.a. [leasehold area] = suprafata inchiriata

[local agent] = agent local

-ld [lead] = plumb,grafit

[load] = greutati,incarcatura

-le. [lease] = inchiriere

-l.h. [left hand] = de stanga,cu filet stanga

-l.j. [lap joint] = imbinare prin suprapunere

-l.& m. [labour and material] = material si mana de lucru

-LOA [Lenght Over All] = Lungime maxima/de constructie/de gabarit

-l.s.t.[local standard time] = ora locala standard

-LT [Low Tension] = Joasa Tensiune

- M -

-MBO [Management By Objectives] = Management /conducere prin Obiective

-MCD [Master Clerical Data] = Norme de timp pentru activitatea de birou

-MD [Managing Director] = Director,Administrator delegat

-mdsc.,mdise. [merchandise] = marfa,marfuri

-MDW [ Measured Day Work] = Norma fixata zilnic (pentru munca platita zilnic0

-MEL [Minimum Earnings Level] = Nivel Minim de Castig

-Messrs.[Gentlemen,Sirs] = Domnilor

-MO [Manually Operated] = Cu Functionare/Actionare Manuala

-m.o.a. [money on account] = bani in cont

-m.o.m. [middle of month] = mijloc al lunii

-MOM [Minutes Of Meeting] = Proces -Verbal (al unei sedinte),minuta,protocol

-mt [ empty] = gol,fara continut ; fara incarcatura

-m.t. [ machine tool] = masina-unealta

-mxd [mixed] = amestecat

- N -

-n.a. [neutral axis] = axa neutra

[non acceptance / accepted] = neacceptat

[no advice] = neavizat

-NA [Not Available] = Nedisponibil,neaccesibil,care nu se poate procura

-NB [No Bid] = Nu se ofera,fara oferta,neobtenabil

[Nota Bene,Note Wel] = A se lua nota

-NCO [Non-Commissioned Officer] = subofiter ; sergent

-NC-thread [National Coarse - thread] = Filet normal cu pas mare standardizat in SUA

-n.e.i. [not elsewhere indicated] = nu se indica in alta parte

-NF-thread [National Fine-thread] = Filet normal fin standardizat in SUA

-n.h.p. [nominal horse power] = cai putere nominal;putere nominala (in Cai -Putere)

-n./k. [not known,unknown] = necunoscut

-n.l.t. [not later than] = nu mai tarziu de

-n.o.h.p [not otherwise herein provided] = daca nu este prevazut altfel

-NOR [Notice Of Readiness] = Aviz "Gata pentru Operare" (incarcare sau descarcare)

-n.p.f. [not provided for] = nu este prevazut pentru

-n.s. [not specified] = nespecificat

[not sufficient] = insuficient

-ntfy [ notify] = a notifica,a anunta,a instiinta,a avertiza

-N-thread [Normal - thread] = Filet cu profil normal, standardizat in SUA

-NTP-thread [National Taper Pipe-thread] = Filet normal conic pentru tevi, standardizat in SUA

-n.u. [name unknown] = nume necunoscut

- O -

-obs.,Obs. [obsolete] = scos din uz / din circulatie ;invechit,demodat

-o'c [o'clock] = ora

-o.c. [open circuit] = circuit deschis

[out-current] = (mers) in gol

-OC [Of course] = Desigur,de la sine inteles

[Office Copy] = Copie dupa dosar

[Open Cover] = Ambalaj deschis / descoperit (fara capac)

[Order Cancelled] = Comanda Anulata

[Over the Counter] = In mapa de corespondenta

-o./d.,O/D [Overdraft] = Descoperit,cont fara acoperire

[on demand] = la cerere,la comanda

-O.D. [On Delivery] = Platibil la Livrare

-ODC [Over Dimension Cargo] = Incarcatura Agabaritica

-OMO [Ordinary Money Order] = Mandat postal simplu

-OMS [Output per Man-Shift] = Productie / Om - si Schimb ; productivitatea muncii

-on a. /c. [on account] = in contul

-o./o. [order of] = la comanda,din dispozitia

-OOO [Out Of Order] = dereglat,deranjat,defect,scos din functiune

-optg [operating] = conditii (regim de exploatare / de lucru,de functionare

-ord. [ordinary] = obisnuit,comun,simplu

-ors.[others] = altii

-o.s.[one side] = o parte,o fata

[on sample] = conform mostrei

[on spot] = pe loc,la fata locului,la vedere

[other side] = partea cealalta

[other sources] = alte surse

[outsides] = partile laterale

[outsize] = masura mare / exceptionala

-o./s. [out of stack] = consumat,epuizat,(care) nu se afla in stoc/in depozit

-o./s.,O./sg [outstanding] = neachitat,restant,nesolutionat,litigios

-OV [Over Voltage] = supratensiune

- P -

-pc [peace] = bucata

[price] = pret,cost,valoare

-p.c. [petty cash] = bani marunti,(cont) de cheltuieli marunte

[pitch circle] = cerc de divizare / primitiv

[postcard] = carte postala

-p.c.,PC [prime cost] = cost propriu,costuri proprii,pret de fabrica ; cost de productie

-p./c.,P/C,PC [Price Current] = Pret curent,lista de preturi,pretul pietii

-p.c.d. [pitch circle diameter] = diametrul cercului de divizare

-pchs [purchaser] = cumparator,achizitor ; beneficiar

-pcs [pieces] = bucati

-pct. [precinct] = circumscriptie ; hotar,limita,vecinatate

-pd [paid] = platit,achitat

-p.h.p. [packing house products] = produse proaspete

-P.m.h. [ Per ma-hour] = Pe Om si Ora [postmark] = stampila postei

-Pro [For /on behalf of] = Pentru / in numele

-prox [proximo,next month] = luna viitoare

-PTO [Power Take-Off] =Priza de Putere / de Forta

-P.T.O. [Please Turn Over] = Va rog, intoarceti

-purst. [pursuant] = conform cu

- Q -

-qq. [questions] = intrebari ; probleme

-qr(s) [quarter (s)] = sfert,trimestru

-q.,qy. [query] = intrebare ; indoiala ; semn de intrebare

- R -

-rec.,rcpt.[receipt] = chitanta

-rec.,recr. [receiver] = destinatar

-rect. [receipt] = chitanta,adeverinta de plata,incasari,venituri

-r.d. [running days] = zile la rand / consecutive

-R&D [Research and Development] = Cercetare (stiintifica)

-red. [ received] = primit

-rem. [remitance] = transmitere,expediere (prin mandat) ; bani expediati (prin posta,etc.)

-R.M. [Royal Mail] = Posta britanica

-r.,r.r.,RR [rail road] = cale ferata

-r.s. [rolled steel] = otel laminat ; laminate

-rly.,r.w.,Rwy,Ry [ railway] = cale ferata ,Cai Ferate

- S -

s.g. [specific gravity] = greutate specifica

-sgd [signed] = semnat

-sh [sheet] = foaie de tabla,panza,strat,invelis,placa,tabel,schema,diagrama

-s.h. [specified hours] = ore specificate

-sh(s) /shr [share(s)] = actiune,actiuni

-SHEx [Sunday,Holidays Excepted] = Cu Exceptia Duminicilor si Sarbatorilor legale

-Shpt;S/N [Shipping note ] = Nota de imbarcare

-sig.mis. [signature missing] = fara semnatura

-sig.unk. [signature unknown] = semnatura necunoscuta

-sit.rep. [situation report] = raport de situatie

-sls.[sales] = vanzari ; solduri

-slsm. [salesman] = vanzator [specific heat] = caldura specifica

-sqq.,seq [sequentes ; sequentia] = urmatorii,urmatoarele

-ss.,SS. [scilicet] = adica si anume ; cu alte cuvinte

-Stg [Sterling] = (Lira) sterlina

-s.t.p.,STP [ standard temperature and pressure] = presiune si temperatura normale

-sty [storey] = etaj,cat

-swbd. [switchboard] = tablou de distributie / de masurare si control,pupitru de comanda

-sy. [supply] = furnizare,livrare

[survey] = studiu,cercetare,inspectare,expertiza;releveu

- T -

t.d.,TD [time deposit] = depuneri banesti pe termen lung

-tm. kpr. [time keeper] = normator,pontator

-TMO [Telegraphic Money Order] = Mandat telegrafic

-TO [Telegraph Office] = Oficiu Telegrafic

[Telephone Office] = Oficiu Telefonic

[Telex Office] = Oficiu Telex

-T/o. [Transfer order] = Dispozitie de Transfer / de Virament

-t.o. [turnover] = cifra de afaceri,incasari,dever

-t.o.[turn over] = intoarce foaia

-TOD [Time Of Day] = In timpul zilei (ora de zi)

-tpk. [turnpike] = autostrada cu plata / cu taxa ; bariera (la intrarea pe autostrada cu plata)

-T/s [Tanker ship] = Tanc petrolier,nava cisterna

-twp. [township] = comuna ; oras ; district

- U -

-ult. [ultima,last month] = ultima luna

-u.m. [under mentioned] = mentionat mai jos

-UPS [Uninterruptible Power Supply] = Sursa (alimentare suplimentara) Neintreruptibila cu Energie Electrica (la disparitia tensiunii de retea pentru sistemele de calcul,etc.)

-u.t. [usual terms] = conditii uzuale / obisnuite

-u.u.t. [under usual terms] = in conditiile obisnuite

- V -

-var [various] = diverse;diferit,distinct;deosebit

-v.f.,VF [very fair] = foarte corect

-v.i. [vide infra,see below] = vezi mai jos

-viz [videlicet,namely] = adica si anume,cu alte cuvinte

-v.s. [vide supra,see above] = vezi mai sus

-vs.,v [versus,against] = in raport cu ; in functie de ; in comparatie cu ; contra

-v.s.m. [variable speed motor] = motor cu viteza variabila

- W -

-w.a. [ will advise] = (se) va aviza

-w.d. [without date] = fara data,nedatat

-W/F [Weather Forecast] = Prognoza /previziune Meteo

-w.g. [water gauge] = coloana de apa ; apometru,contor de apa ; indicator de nivel

[weight guaranteed] = greutate garantata

[wire gauge] = calibru pentru sarma

-wh. [which] = care

-whs.,w. [ warehouse] = magazie,antrepozit

-whsle [wholesale] = vanzarea cu ridicata,vanzare en-gros

-w.k. [well-known] = (bine)cunoscut ; renumit

-w.p. [waterproof] = impermiabil,hidrofug,etans,protejat contra apei

-w./r. [was received] = a fost primit

-w.r.t. [with reference to] = cu referire la

-WT [Whitworth Thread] = Filet Whitworth

[Will Talk] = Va accepta convorbirea

-WV [Working Voltage] = Tensiune de Lucru /normala de alimentare

-WW [Waster - Waster] = rebut (la tabla)

- X -

-x.div.,XD [ex dividend,without dividend] = fara dobanda

-Y -

-YO [Yearly Output] = Productie Anuala

-y.p. [yield point] = limita de curgere

-Y.r.n. [Your name please] = Numele rog (in telefonie)

- Z -

-ZZZ [zig zag] = zig zag



Around 80% of the entire costs are defined in the early planning phase of an industrial plant construction project, the so-called Front End Engineering & Design (FEED) phase. Decisions that are made at the start of this FEED phase influence subsequent design tasks and largely determine the usability, performance and cost-effectiveness of a plant or unit. These in turn have a direct effect on the safety and environmental compatibility of the plant or unit in subsequent operation.

The FEED phase is divided into three task areas when setting up a new plant or unit:

Provisional decision on investment by the owner or investor for the construction of a unit or plant

Production of quotations by an EPC contractor

Early phase of the Basic Engineering after the order has been awarded.

The provisional decision on investment is based on a process and conceptional technical draft that is controlled as a rule by the operator of the plant or unit or the licensor of the technology or process. Here the procedure is designed and simulated. The aim is a first cost estimate ( 25 %) and the description of the plant or unit in the form of process specifications, including the process flowcharts and installation planning as applicable so as to estimate the amount of space required for the unit or plant. The estimate of costs in this phase is often based on data from existing plants or units from which the corresponding estimates can be made. If this is relevant in business terms, the quotation phase now starts for the project. The conceptional draft in elaborated in the quotation and a search is made for a solution that is determined by the requirements and limitations of the process, the overall constructional conditions and other project specifications.

The most important things to be done in this phase consist of a calculation of costs ( 10 %), determined by the provisional design of all the supply items. These form the basis for the binding cost proposal of the EPC contractor and serve as a template for the Basic Engineering.

Once the final decision on investment has been made in the early Basic Engineering phase, the concepts and details in the quotation are investigated and stipulated in detail by an EPC contractor and all the main supply items are specified and stated. In addition, the calculation of costs that has been made is checked continuously and modified if necessary.


Faza de FEED = Faza de Planificare Timpurie (Initiala) a Proiectului de Constructie a unei Fabrici (Instalatii) Industriale

Aproape 80% din costurile totale sunt definite in faza FEED.

Faza FEED se imparte in 3 domenii de responsabilitati (sarcini) atunci cand se amena-jeaza (se construieste) o noua fabrica sau instalatie:

Decizia provizorie a proprietarului sau investitorului asupra investitiilor in vederea constructiei unei fabrici sau instalatii ;

Obtinerea de oferte de catre un Contractor EPC ;

Faza timpurie (initiala) a Proiectului Tehnic dupa acordarea comenzii.

Decizia provizorie asupra investitiilor se bazeaza pe o Schita de Proiect (Draft) a concep-

tiei tehnice sau a Procesului care este avizata de regula de catre Operatorul Fabricii sau Instalatiei sau de catre Licentiatorul Tehnologiei sau Procesului.In cadrul acesteia se pro-

iecteaza si se simuleaza procedurile.

Scopul este o estimare primara a costurilor (25%) si descrierea fabricii sau instalatiei sub forma specificatiilor de proces incluzand schemele tehnologice de proces si planurile de instalare astfel incat sa se poata estima marimea spatiului necesar pentru amenajarea fabricii sau instalatiei.

Estimarea costurilor in aceasta faza se bazeaza adesea pe datele obtinute de la fabrici sau instalatii existente pentru care se pot face estimari corespunzatoare.

Daca acestea sunt relevante afacerii,faza de ofertare (cotatie) a proiectului poate sa inceapa acum.Cel mai important lucru ce trebuie facut in aceasta faza consta in calcu-larea costurilor (10%) pe baza unui proiect provizoriu al tuturor articolelor furnizate.

Aceste costuri formeaza baza costurilor de ofertare propuse de catre Contractorul EPC si servesc ca model pentru Proiectul Tehnic.

Odata luata decizia finala asupra investitiilor,in faza timpurie (initiala) a Proiectului Tehnic,conceptele fundamentale si detaliile cotatiilor sunt investigate si stipulate in deta-

liu de catre Contractorul EPC si toate articolele principale aprovizionate sunt specificate si stabilite.Suplimentar,calculatia costurilor efectuata se va verifica mereu si modifica da-

ca e necesar.

Obiectul conceptului de FEED - prezentat sintetic:

Producerea de specificatii ;

Analiza Modului Defectiuni ;

Verificarea rationalizarii sistemului ;

Studii conceptuale ;

Selectia furnizorilor ;

Elaborarea pachetelor de lucru.

Basic Engineering (Proiectul Tehnic)

The Basic Engineering comes at the beginning of each planning phase. Here the results from the FEED (Front End Engineering and Design) phase are evaluated, made more precise, documents for approvals are created, the determinations of costs are refined and the schedule of the project is specified in detail.

The Basic Engineering comprises the following activities, among other things:

-Determining the plant labeling structure, such as, for example, KKS (the German Kraftwerks Kennzeichen System, or power station labeling system) or AKZ ;

-Planning of the installation, construction and automation of the plant or unit and the use of apparatus and machines ;

-Drawing up the P&ID flowcharts ;

-The equipment is defined, technical data sheets ands lists of the various class classes are created and put through the revision process ;

-Measuring principles are defined and all the components are matched to their requirements ;

-Layout and installation planning in the 2D and 3D areas ;

-The design data is input and is made available for the ordering procedures ;

-The functional diagrams for the main tasks to be handled within the control technology are worked up in connection with the system description ;

-Electrical consumers are defined and the intrinsic consumption of the plant or unit is determined ;

-Specifications documents are created ;

-Risk assessments are carried out for the plant or unit and safety concepts are developed.


Proiectul Tehnic se intocmeste la inceputul fiecarei faze de planificare.In cadrul acestuia sunt evaluate rezultatele din faza FEED,sunt facute mai precise,sunt create documentele pentru aprobari,sunt ajustate calculatiile de costuri,graficul de proiect (programarea pro-

iectului) e specificat(a) in detaliu.

Proiectul Tehnic (Basic Engineering) cuprinde urmatoarele activitati,printre altele:

Determinarea structurii de marcare (etichetare) a fabricii,cum ar fi,de exemplu

KKS (the German Kraftwerks Kennzeichen System [Sistemul German de Simbolizare a

Centralelor Electrice] sau sistem de etichetare a centralelor energertice) sau AKZ :

Planificarea instalatiilor,constructiilor si automatizarilor fabricii si folosirea apa-

ratelor si masinilor ;

Elaborarea schemelor tehnologice si de automatizare P&ID ;

Definitivarea echipamentelor utilizate,intocmirea specificatiilor tehnice si a liste-

lor diferitelor clase,grupe,categorii si indeplinirea procesului de revizuire ;

Definirea principiilor de masurare si ajustarea tuturor componentelor conform cerintelor ;

Intocmirea planurilor de amplasare si instalare in 2D si 3D ;

Introducerea datelor de proiectare (de calcul) si validarea lor pentru procedurile de comanda :

Elaborarea diagramelor functionale pentru sarcinile principale de operare din ca-

drul tehnologiei de control in legatura cu descrierea sistemului ;

Stabilirea consumatorilor electrici si a consumurilor intrinseci (specifice) ale fa-

bricii sau instalatiei ;

Intocmirea documentatiilor de specificatii ;

Evaluare riscurilor fabricii sau instalatiei si dezvoltarea conceptelor de siguranta.

Detail Engineering (Proiect de detaliu)

A true to detail installation model of the plant or unit is created in the Detail Engineering phase. Using the data from the Basic Engineering, it is possible to determine the exact deadlines for the intended planning and construction workflows, the plant or unit can be calculated very precisely and specified for apparatus, equipment, machines and processes.

The result of this is, for example, concrete specifications and queries for process technology, machine and apparatus technology, and process automation. The queries are evaluated and the suppliers are determined accordingly.

Using Comos it is now possible to virtually run through an implemented plant or unit by means of integrated, flowchart-based plant design, allowing the operational and maintenance workflows to be assessed precisely.

In the Detail Engineering phase the following documents can be created as an example within Comos and the corresponding objects can be managed :

-P&ID schematic diagrams ;

-Data sheets and lists ;

-Functional diagrams;

-Field planning and documentation ;

-Hook ups ;

-Loops ;

-Medium- and low-voltage and automation documentation (circuit, terminal, cable and switching cabinet design diagrams) ;

-Parts lists and other evaluations ;

-System requirements/specifications of all components and systems of the production units ;

-Detailed risk analyses.

Construction documents, just like other documents, are kept consistent and are managed with revision and history base data.


In faza de "Proiect de detaliu",e detaliat modelul real de instalare al fabricii.Folosind datele din Proiectul Tehnic se pot determina termenele exacte pentru programarea pla-

nificata si etapele de lucru ale constructiei fabricii sau instalatiei se pot calcula foarte precis cu specificarea aparatelor,echipamentelor,masinilor si proceselor prevazute.

In urma intocmirii acestora vor rezulta specificatiile concrete si chestionarele pentru pro-

cesul tehnologic ,masinile ,aparatele tehnlogice si automatizarea procesului.

Chestionarele vor fi evaluate si insusite corespunzator de catre furnizori.

Folosind softul "Cosmos",in acest moment e posibil sa se opereze virtual in cadrul unei fabrici sau instalatii implementate prin intermediul schemelor tehnologice bazate pe pro-

iectul fabricii,permitand evaluarea corecta a fluxurilor operationale si de mentenanta.

In cadrul fazei Proiect de detaliu se pot elabora urmatoarele documente (spre exemplu in cadrul softului "Cosmos") si se pot manageria obiectivele corespunzatoare:

Diagramele (schemele) P&ID ;

Liste si Foi de date ;

Diagrame (scheme) functionale ;

Documentatii si sistematizare teren ;

Scheme de montaj,conexiuni (Hook ups) ;

Documentatii pentru tensiuni medii si joase si de automatizare (circuite,terminale,

cabluri,schemele electrice ale tablourilor de comanda ) ;

Liste cu piese si alte evaluari ;

Cerinte / specificatii de sistem a tuturor componentelor si sisteme ale unitatilor de

productie ;

Analize de risc detaliate.

Obiectul conceptului de "Detailed Design" prezentat sintetic:

Calculatii debite ;

Dimensionarea si alegerea componentelor ;

Amplasarea generala ;

Acorduri specificatii internationale ;

Desene de proiect (proiect de tehnologie) ;

Cerinte de putere I / O.

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