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PREPOZITII SI CONJUNCTII
Prepozitiile sunt in mod normal asezate in fata substantivelor sau pronumelor si dupa verbe. Ele pot de asemenea preceda verbele in Ėing.
Exista putine reguli referitoare la prepozitiile limbii engleze. Foarte adesea utilizarea lor trebuie invatata pe dinafara. Prepozitiile creeaza probleme considerabile celor care invata engleza deoarece o anume propozitie care in propria sa limba va cere o anumita prepozitie va avea in engleza o alta prepozitie.
Prepozitii de miscare
Miscare in sus/in jos
Down (to) up (to) on (to) off
Down: o miscare in jos sau scadere a respectului statutului.
Sam broke his arm when he fell down the slope.
The Conservative Government went down at the last elections
Down to: o miscare catre sud.
was staying in
Up: o miscare in sus sau a dobandi respect social.
Next doorís cat always climbs up a tree to hide whenever it hears our dog bark.
Dr. Barnard went up in peopleís estimation when he performed the first heart operation.
Up to: o miscare catre nord sau o miscare in sus a statutului social.
Joe has done well in his career; heís been promoted up to managing director in just four years.
On(to): o miscare spre o suprafata mai inalta.
I had to move the books on(to) the top shelf so my child couldnít reach them.
Off: o miscare spre o suprafata mai joasa.
When the cat saw a mouse running across the floor it jumped off the sofa to chase it.
Utilizare speciala. Este destul de comuna folosirea structurilor-tip, precum:
Up/down the street
Up to/down to the supermarket
On/off a bus, bicycle, plane, ship, sau orice alt mijloc de transport. (dar: into/out of a car)
Deplasare printr-un spatiu
Across along by past through over
Across: o miscare dintr-o parte spre cealalta, pe sau aproape de suprafata.
takes a long time to sail across the
Along: a parcurge lungimea a ceva
you walk along the Champs Elysees you
will eventually reach the
By: a se misca de-a lungul sau in apropierea a ceva.
If you pass by the shops today, will you get me a litre of milk?
Past: a se misca de pe o parte a ceva pe cealalta.
I am sure I saw a thief move past the window.
Through: a se misca printre lucruri.
The gateway was so narrow that the truck driver had problems getting through it.
Over: a se misca pe deasupra unei suprafete dintr-o parte in alta a ceva.
quicker to fly over the
Around at away from for into onto out of to towards
Around: miscari pe o traiectorie circulara.
I went all around the house to find an open window, but I couldnít.
At: catre ceva sau cineva.
He looked at me as if I were a criminal.
Away from: a parasi, a pleca de la cineva sau ceva.
When I was a boy I ran away from school because I didnít like it.
Away from poate fi folosit si in sens abstract: = free from everything.
I canít wait to get away from it all.
For: a se misca cu o destinatie precisa.
Holmes left for
Into: a se deplasa catre interiorul a ceva.
The last they saw of the explorer was when he went into the jungle to hunt for tigers.
Onto: a aseza ceva peste altceva.
The professor put his papers onto the lectern and began his lesson.
Out of: a iesi din ceva.
The prisoner was let out of prison after a ten year sentence.
To: a se delpasa in directia unei anumite persoane sau a unui lucru.
Can you give me a lift to work tomorrow morning, please?
Towards: a se delpasa catre ceva sau cineva
I think we should head towards the mountain; itís much coller there at this time of the year.
You shout at somebody (cand esti nervos)
But you shout to somebody (cand vrei sa atragi atentia)
You throw something to somebody (cand vrei sa prinda ce arunci)
But you throw something at somebody or something (cand vrei sa lovesti pe cineva sau ceva)
After ahead of / in front of behind
After: a urma sau urmari
The shop-keeper ran after the boy who smashed his window.
Ahead of / in front of: a preceda pe cineva sau ceva
Iíll go on ahead of / in front of you and find a place to camp for the night.
Behind: a urmari pe cineva sau ceva, a urma cuivaÖ
The old lady drove so close behind me that, when I braked, she crashed into me.
Prepozitii de pozitie
Pozitii pe verticala
Above after below down in on over to under(neath) up
Above: mult mai sus decat altceva, chiar si figurativ
I am above his insults.
After: ceva putin inferior unui alt lucru
Carl Lewis came in second in the 100 meters after Linford Christie.
Below: ceva imediat inferior unui alt lucru, sau mai putin important
In a company structure a sales representative comes below a sales manager.
Down: a fi partea inferioara a ceva, si a avea mai putin respect pentru cineva
She went down in my estimation when she said those things.
On: similar cu above, dar in contact cu ceva
Thereís a telephone on the wall over there.
Over: similar cu above, dar obiectul este mai aproape de ceva
The horse jumped over the obstacles beautifully.
To: estimari relative
The Marketing Manager of I.B.U. reports to the General Manager.
Under: similar cu below, dar obiectul este mai aproape de ceva
That bridge is too low for that truck to go under.
Underneath: la fel ca under dar mai formal
tunnel underneath the
Up: contrarul lui down
ďIs this the shop?Ē ďNo, itís further up the street.Ē
In: un spatiu inchis
My little boy closed himself in the bathroom and couldnít get out.
Against along alongside around at beside by on the right / on the left of near next to towards
Against: in contact cu altceva sau altcineva
Donít lean against that post. Itís just been painted.
Along: de-a lungul a ceva
An Avenue usually has trees along it.
Alongside: asezat alaturi de ceva sau cineva
The newly weds walked alongside each other down the aisle.
He must be around here somewhere; I can see his footprints.
At: o pozitie precisa
If you donít wait at the bus stop, the bus wonít stop.
Beside: similar cu alongside
The anxious mother sat beside her ill baby all night.
By: in vecinatatea
Billís very lucky; he has a summer house by the sea.
On the right of / on the left of: asezat la dreapta / stanga a ceva sau a cuiva
Thereís a suspicious looking man standing on the left of the president.
Near: aproape de ceva sau cineva
I live near my office, so I can walk to work.
Next to: in directia a ceva sau a cuiva
Nights get darker as we get towards Christmas.
Across after before behind facing in front of opposite over
Across: trecut de o anumita limita
If you look across the field youíll see the church.
After: o pozitie consecutiva
My best friend had five children, one after the other.
Before: a se desfasura inainte de altceva
You must learn to walk before you run.
A se desfasura in prezenta cuiva
Stand before the Judge and swear to tell the truth.
Behind: asezat in spatele a ceva sau al cuiva
Donít turn round, Jack. Thereís a snake behind you.
Facing: privind in directia a ceva sau a cuiva
Turn your seat facing me so I can see you properly.
In front of: asezat inaintea a ceva sau cuiva
Thereís a long queue in front of me. I canít possibly wait.
Opposite: similar cu facing
They built a warehouse opposite my house and blocked out my view of Monte Vecchia.
Over: ceva aflat de cealalta parte a altceva
Prepozitii de timp
Timpul pe ceas
About around at in on
About: un timp aproximativ
My appointment at the dentistís is at 10.00 oíclock, but heís always about half an hour late.
Around: la fel ca about
My dentis is never punctual; heís always around half an hour late.
At: timpul exact
The film starts at 8 oíclock.
At se foloseste si pentru a face referiri la perioada din preajma sarbatorilor:
I always go skiing for a week at Christmas.
In: o parte a zilei, luni, anotimpuri si ani
I like to have a big breakfast in the morning.
doesnít rain much in
On: cu zile ale saptamanii / date / zile anumte
The road works will start on Monday and finish on Wednesday.
I last saw him on July 4th.
In the morning/ afternoon / evening
timpul de dinainte si de dupaÖ
after before by past to
After: mai tarziu decat un timp sau eveniment dat
As my first appointment is after nine, I can catch a later train.
Before: inaintea unui timp sau eveniment dat
Before we start, Iíd just like to introduce myself.
By: ceva care se petrece inainte sau nu mai tarziu de un moment dat
Applications must be sumitted by June 5th.
Past: similar cu after dar mai colocvial, folosit si pentru a exprima ora
Iím tired. Itís past my bed time.
To: folosit de asemenea pentru a exprima ora
Itís a quarter to midnight: only 15 minutes to go before the New Year.
Durata in timp
About between during for in since until
About: durata estimata
The play will probably last about two and a half hours.
Between: de la un punct dat in timp la un altul
The period between leaving school and going to university was a stressful one.
During: o perioada stabilita in timp
I managed not to do any work during my holiday, though I should have.
For: durata unei perioada date de timp
World War II went on for six years.
In: o anumita durata
Iím going to the shops. Iíll be back in an hour.
Since: de la punctul de inceput din trecut pana in prezent
Until: durata pana la un punct dat in timp
Kong will belong to
Because of: cauza
For: similar cu because of dar legat in general de credinte
Nadir Tylon lived and died for his country.
A knife is used for cutting things.
In: parte a unui proces
Nowadays a lot of aluminium is used in the car industry.
Of: cauza unei actiuni
of people in
With: un sentiment care determina o actiune
Susana cried with joy when she read her exam results.
folosirea unui instrument
Donít put that screw in with a hammer. Do it with a screwdriver.
By: prin actiunea sau creatia cuiva / a ceva
John Lennon was killed by an assassinís bullet.
Like: un anumit comportament
My husband acts like a child when he canít get his own way.
pentru a compara fiinte/lucruri similare
Even though they are twins they donít look like each other.
As: profesia cuiva
She works as a nurse in Guys Hospital London.
But: cu exceptia a ceva sau cineva
He took everything but the kitchen sink. (Expresie)
At: abilitati intr-o anume activitate
My daughter, Emma, has always been good at drawing.
In: similar cu at, dar nu se poate folosi cu good sau bad
My daughter, Emma, has always been interested in drawing.
family come from
With: legatura, atasament
The little girl always goes to sleep with her cuddly teddy.
Without: opusul lui with
I always drink coffee without sugar.
For: ceva sau cineva potrivit sau destinat
This grammar book is for foreign students of English.
Conjunctiile sau cuvintele de legatura se folosesc pentru a lega propozitii.
Acest capitol se ocupa cu perechi de cuvinte de legatura care ar putea provoca anumite confuzii pentru cei ce studiaza engleza.
Conjunctii de timp
as, when, while se folosesc cu referire la o actiune care se petrece in acelasi timp cu alta.
When my alarm clock rings at 7 oíclock I get up.
As I was looking out of the window, I saw him arriving.
While you were out shopping, John rang.
after, as soon as, before, when se folosesc cu referire la o actiune care se petrece imediat dupa o alta.
After I left university, I went to work abroad.
As soon as I heard him speak on TV, I changed the channel.
When I finished typing those letters, I posted them.
The client put the phone down before I could give an explanation.
until / till se refera la durata in timp a unei situatii.
I canít go out until my mother comes back.
I canít change my car till I have finished paying for it.
Just poate fi folosit in fata acestor conjunctii pentru a sublinia apropierea in timp a acelor doua actiuni
Just as he noticed he was being watched, he ran off.
although, even though, though se folosesc cu referire la afirmatii opuse sau contraste, inaintea subiectului sau verbului.
Although he is a good writer, he has never published a book.
Even though thereís a speed limit he always exceds it.
Though este o alternativa mai putin formala pentru although si even though. In engleza vorbita apare de obicei la sfarsitul propozitiei.
George studied hard. He didnít manage to pass his exam though.
in spite of sau despite se folosesc cu referire la afirmatii opuse sau contrastante, in fata unui substantiv, pronume sau gerunziu.
In spite of the traffic, he still managed to get here in time.
Despite the weather, we decided to go anyway.
In spite of si despite pot fi folosite si cu the fact that.
In spite of the fact that he was very busy, he took time off work.
while, whereas se folosesc cu referire la contrastul dintre doua afirmatii.
Brian eats a lot, while Henry hardly eats at all.
My old car was very slow, whereas my new one is much faster.
however se foloseste cu referire la contradictia dintre doua propozitii.
The secret agent was told to be at the meeting point at 6 oíclock sharp. However, when he arrived, his contact wasnít there.
Conjunctii de cauza si efect
because, because of, as, since se folosesc cu referire la motivele de a face o actiune.
The baby cried because it was hungry.
Dad is not going to work today because of the strike.
As itís raining, you had better take an umbrella.
Since the president is abroad, the vice-president will take his place today at the presentation.
Because, because of, as si since au acelasi sens dar folosesc constructii diferite.
Because se foloseste inainte de subiect si verb.
Because of se foloseste inainte de substantiv.
As si since se folosesc amandoua la inceputul propozitiei.
so, therefore se refera la rezultatul unei actiuni.
Joe has exams all next week, so he canít go out in the evenings.
The Mayor has attend an urgent meeting. Therefore heíll have to cancel the lunch engagement.
So si therefore au acelasi sens. So este mai frecvent in engleza vorbita.
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