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PREPOZITII SI CONJUNCTII IN ENGLEZA

Gramatica



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PREPOZITII SI CONJUNCTII

Prepozitiile sunt in mod normal asezate in fata substantivelor sau pronumelor si dupa verbe. Ele pot de asemenea preceda verbele in -ing.



Exista putine reguli referitoare la prepozitiile limbii engleze. Foarte adesea utilizarea lor trebuie invatata pe dinafara. Prepozitiile creeaza probleme considerabile celor care invata engleza deoarece o anume propozitie care in propria sa limba va cere o anumita prepozitie va avea in engleza o alta prepozitie.

Prepozitii de miscare

Miscare in sus/in jos

Down (to) up (to) on (to) off

Down: o miscare in jos sau scadere a respectului statutului.

Sam broke his arm when he fell down the slope.

The Conservative Government went down at the last elections

Down to: o miscare catre sud.

I was staying in Paris but I went down to Nice to visit an old friend of mine.

Up: o miscare in sus sau a dobandi respect social.

Next door's cat always climbs up a tree to hide whenever it hears our dog bark.

Dr. Barnard went up in people's estimation when he performed the first heart operation.

Up to: o miscare catre nord sau o miscare in sus a statutului social.

John works in Rome now but he is being moved up to Milan next week.

Joe has done well in his career; he's been promoted up to managing director in just four years.

On(to): o miscare spre o suprafata mai inalta.

I had to move the books on(to) the top shelf so my child couldn't reach them.

Off: o miscare spre o suprafata mai joasa.

When the cat saw a mouse running across the floor it jumped off the sofa to chase it.

Nota

Utilizare speciala. Este destul de comuna folosirea structurilor-tip, precum:

Up/down the street

Up to/down to the supermarket

On/off a bus, bicycle, plane, ship, sau orice alt mijloc de transport. (dar: into/out of a car)

Deplasare printr-un spatiu

Across along by past through over

Across: o miscare dintr-o parte spre cealalta, pe sau aproape de suprafata.

It takes a long time to sail across the Atlantic.

Along: a parcurge lungimea a ceva

If you walk along the Champs Elysees you will eventually reach the Eiffel Tower.

By: a se misca de-a lungul sau in apropierea a ceva.

If you pass by the shops today, will you get me a litre of milk?

Past: a se misca de pe o parte a ceva pe cealalta.

I am sure I saw a thief move past the window.

Through: a se misca printre lucruri.

The gateway was so narrow that the truck driver had problems getting through it.

Over: a se misca pe deasupra unei suprafete dintr-o parte in alta a ceva.

It's quicker to fly over the Atlantic than to sail across it.

Directii

Around at away from for into onto out of to towards

Around: miscari pe o traiectorie circulara.

I went all around the house to find an open window, but I couldn't.

At: catre ceva sau cineva.

He looked at me as if I were a criminal.

Away from: a parasi, a pleca de la cineva sau ceva.

When I was a boy I ran away from school because I didn't like it.

Away from poate fi folosit si in sens abstract: = free from everything.

I can't wait to get away from it all.

For: a se misca cu o destinatie precisa.

Sherlock Holmes left for Glasgow as soon as he received the news of the murder.

Into: a se deplasa catre interiorul a ceva.

The last they saw of the explorer was when he went into the jungle to hunt for tigers.

Onto: a aseza ceva peste altceva.

The professor put his papers onto the lectern and began his lesson.

Out of: a iesi din ceva.

The prisoner was let out of prison after a ten year sentence.

To: a se delpasa in directia unei anumite persoane sau a unui lucru.

Can you give me a lift to work tomorrow morning, please?

Towards: a se delpasa catre ceva sau cineva

I think we should head towards the mountain; it's much coller there at this time of the year.

Nota

You shout at somebody (cand esti nervos)

But you shout to somebody (cand vrei sa atragi atentia)

You throw something to somebody (cand vrei sa prinda ce arunci)

But you throw something at somebody or something (cand vrei sa lovesti pe cineva sau ceva)

Miscari comparative

After ahead of / in front of behind

After: a urma sau urmari

The shop-keeper ran after the boy who smashed his window.

Ahead of / in front of: a preceda pe cineva sau ceva

I'll go on ahead of / in front of you and find a place to camp for the night.

Behind: a urmari pe cineva sau ceva, a urma cuiva.

The old lady drove so close behind me that, when I braked, she crashed into me.

Prepozitii de pozitie

Pozitii pe verticala

Above after below down in on over to under(neath) up

Above: mult mai sus decat altceva, chiar si figurativ

I am above his insults.

After: ceva putin inferior unui alt lucru

Carl Lewis came in second in the 100 meters after Linford Christie.

Below: ceva imediat inferior unui alt lucru, sau mai putin important

In a company structure a sales representative comes below a sales manager.

Down: a fi partea inferioara a ceva, si a avea mai putin respect pentru cineva

She went down in my estimation when she said those things.

On: similar cu above, dar in contact cu ceva

There's a telephone on the wall over there.

Over: similar cu above, dar obiectul este mai aproape de ceva

The horse jumped over the obstacles beautifully.

To: estimari relative

The Marketing Manager of I.B.U. reports to the General Manager.

Under: similar cu below, dar obiectul este mai aproape de ceva

That bridge is too low for that truck to go under.

Underneath: la fel ca under dar mai formal

The tunnel underneath the English Channel was opened in the summer of 1994.

Up: contrarul lui down

"Is this the shop?" "No, it's further up the street."

In: un spatiu inchis

My little boy closed himself in the bathroom and couldn't get out.

Pozitii relative

Against along alongside around at beside by on the right / on the left of near next to towards

Against: in contact cu altceva sau altcineva

Don't lean against that post. It's just been painted.

Along: de-a lungul a ceva

An Avenue usually has trees along it.

Alongside: asezat alaturi de ceva sau cineva

The newly weds walked alongside each other down the aisle.

Around: vecinatate

He must be around here somewhere; I can see his footprints.

At: o pozitie precisa

If you don't wait at the bus stop, the bus won't stop.

Beside: similar cu alongside

The anxious mother sat beside her ill baby all night.

By: in vecinatatea

Bill's very lucky; he has a summer house by the sea.

On the right of / on the left of: asezat la dreapta / stanga a ceva sau a cuiva

There's a suspicious looking man standing on the left of the president.

Near: aproape de ceva sau cineva

I live near my office, so I can walk to work.

Next to: in directia a ceva sau a cuiva

Nights get darker as we get towards Christmas.

Pozitii opuse

Across after before behind facing in front of opposite over

Across: trecut de o anumita limita

If you look across the field you'll see the church.

After: o pozitie consecutiva

My best friend had five children, one after the other.

Before: a se desfasura inainte de altceva

You must learn to walk before you run.

A se desfasura in prezenta cuiva

Stand before the Judge and swear to tell the truth.

Behind: asezat in spatele a ceva sau al cuiva

Don't turn round, Jack. There's a snake behind you.

Facing: privind in directia a ceva sau a cuiva

Turn your seat facing me so I can see you properly.

In front of: asezat inaintea a ceva sau cuiva

There's a long queue in front of me. I can't possibly wait.

Opposite: similar cu facing

They built a warehouse opposite my house and blocked out my view of Monte Vecchia.

Over: ceva aflat de cealalta parte a altceva

Dover is over the Channel from Calais.

Prepozitii de timp

Timpul pe ceas

About around at in on

About: un timp aproximativ

My appointment at the dentist's is at 10.00 o'clock, but he's always about half an hour late.

Around: la fel ca about

My dentis is never punctual; he's always around half an hour late.

At: timpul exact

The film starts at 8 o'clock.

Nota

At se foloseste si pentru a face referiri la perioada din preajma sarbatorilor:

I always go skiing for a week at Christmas.

In: o parte a zilei, luni, anotimpuri si ani

I like to have a big breakfast in the morning.

It doesn't rain much in Greece in summer.

On: cu zile ale saptamanii / date / zile anumte

The road works will start on Monday and finish on Wednesday.

I last saw him on July 4th.

Nota

Se spune:

In the morning/ afternoon / evening

Dar

At night

timpul de dinainte si de dupa.

after before by past to

After: mai tarziu decat un timp sau eveniment dat

As my first appointment is after nine, I can catch a later train.

Before: inaintea unui timp sau eveniment dat

Before we start, I'd just like to introduce myself.

By: ceva care se petrece inainte sau nu mai tarziu de un moment dat

Applications must be sumitted by June 5th.

Past: similar cu after dar mai colocvial, folosit si pentru a exprima ora

I'm tired. It's past my bed time.

To: folosit de asemenea pentru a exprima ora

It's a quarter to midnight: only 15 minutes to go before the New Year.

Durata in timp

About between during for in since until

About: durata estimata

The play will probably last about two and a half hours.

Between: de la un punct dat in timp la un altul

The period between leaving school and going to university was a stressful one.

During: o perioada stabilita in timp

I managed not to do any work during my holiday, though I should have.

For: durata unei perioada date de timp

World War II went on for six years.

In: o anumita durata

I'm going to the shops. I'll be back in an hour.

Since: de la punctul de inceput din trecut pana in prezent

Italy has been a republic since 1945.

Until: durata pana la un punct dat in timp

Hong Kong will belong to England until 1997, when it goes back to China.

Diverse

Because of: cauza

The UK is suffering because of the economic crisis.

For: similar cu because of dar legat in general de credinte

Nadir Tylon lived and died for his country.

Scop

A knife is used for cutting things.

In: parte a unui proces

Nowadays a lot of aluminium is used in the car industry.

Of: cauza unei actiuni

Lots of people in India are dying of hunger.

With: un sentiment care determina o actiune

Susana cried with joy when she read her exam results.

folosirea unui instrument

Don't put that screw in with a hammer. Do it with a screwdriver.

By: prin actiunea sau creatia cuiva / a ceva

John Lennon was killed by an assassin's bullet.

Like: un anumit comportament

My husband acts like a child when he can't get his own way.

pentru a compara fiinte/lucruri similare

Even though they are twins they don't look like each other.

As: profesia cuiva

She works as a nurse in Guys Hospital London.

But: cu exceptia a ceva sau cineva

He took everything but the kitchen sink. (Expresie)

At: abilitati intr-o anume activitate

My daughter, Emma, has always been good at drawing.

In: similar cu at, dar nu se poate folosi cu good sau bad

My daughter, Emma, has always been interested in drawing.

From: originea

My family come from Warrington in Cheshire.

With: legatura, atasament

The little girl always goes to sleep with her cuddly teddy.

Without: opusul lui with

I always drink coffee without sugar.

For: ceva sau cineva potrivit sau destinat

This grammar book is for foreign students of English.

Conjunctiile sau cuvintele de legatura se folosesc pentru a lega propozitii.

Acest capitol se ocupa cu perechi de cuvinte de legatura care ar putea provoca anumite confuzii pentru cei ce studiaza engleza.

Utilizare:

Conjunctii de timp

as, when, while se folosesc cu referire la o actiune care se petrece in acelasi timp cu alta.

When my alarm clock rings at 7 o'clock I get up.

As I was looking out of the window, I saw him arriving.

While you were out shopping, John rang.

after, as soon as, before, when se folosesc cu referire la o actiune care se petrece imediat dupa o alta.

After I left university, I went to work abroad.

As soon as I heard him speak on TV, I changed the channel.

When I finished typing those letters, I posted them.

The client put the phone down before I could give an explanation.

until / till se refera la durata in timp a unei situatii.

I can't go out until my mother comes back.

I can't change my car till I have finished paying for it.

Nota

Just poate fi folosit in fata acestor conjunctii pentru a sublinia apropierea in timp a acelor doua actiuni

Just as he noticed he was being watched, he ran off.

Conjunctii contrastive

although, even though, though se folosesc cu referire la afirmatii opuse sau contraste, inaintea subiectului sau verbului.

Although he is a good writer, he has never published a book.

Even though there's a speed limit he always exceds it.

Nota

Though este o alternativa mai putin formala pentru although si even though. In engleza vorbita apare de obicei la sfarsitul propozitiei.

George studied hard. He didn't manage to pass his exam though.

in spite of sau despite se folosesc cu referire la afirmatii opuse sau contrastante, in fata unui substantiv, pronume sau gerunziu.

In spite of the traffic, he still managed to get here in time.

Despite the weather, we decided to go anyway.

Nota

In spite of si despite pot fi folosite si cu the fact that.

In spite of the fact that he was very busy, he took time off work.

while, whereas se folosesc cu referire la contrastul dintre doua afirmatii.

Brian eats a lot, while Henry hardly eats at all.

My old car was very slow, whereas my new one is much faster.

however se foloseste cu referire la contradictia dintre doua propozitii.

The secret agent was told to be at the meeting point at 6 o'clock sharp. However, when he arrived, his contact wasn't there.

Conjunctii de cauza si efect

because, because of, as, since se folosesc cu referire la motivele de a face o actiune.

The baby cried because it was hungry.

Dad is not going to work today because of the strike.

As it's raining, you had better take an umbrella.

Since the president is abroad, the vice-president will take his place today at the presentation.

Nota

Because, because of, as si since au acelasi sens dar folosesc constructii diferite.

Because se foloseste inainte de subiect si verb.

Because of se foloseste inainte de substantiv.

As si since se folosesc amandoua la inceputul propozitiei.

so, therefore se refera la rezultatul unei actiuni.

Joe has exams all next week, so he can't go out in the evenings.

The Mayor has attend an urgent meeting. Therefore he'll have to cancel the lunch engagement.

Nota

So si therefore au acelasi sens. So este mai frecvent in engleza vorbita.



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