Scrigroup - Documente si articole

Username / Parola inexistente      

Home Documente Upload Resurse Alte limbi doc  


AstronomieBiofizicaBiologieBotanicaCartiChimieCopii
Educatie civicaFabule ghicitoriFizicaGramaticaJocLiteratura romanaLogica
MatematicaPoeziiPsihologie psihiatrieSociologie


Exerctii de gramatica a limbii engleze - timpurile verbale

Gramatica

+ Font mai mare | - Font mai mic



DOCUMENTE SIMILARE

Trimite pe Messenger
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE – THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS
Stilul - Definitie, Calitati generale
SUBSTANTIVUL LATIN
DIATEZA PASIVA (Passive voice)
CURS DE LIMBA ENGLEZA
Grupurile de litere: ce, ci, ge, gi, che, chi, ghe, ghi
Numeralul
Declinari latina
Verbul - Cele 4 forme verbale din engleza
SCRIEREA CORECTA A FORMELOR VERB – PRONUME


SIMPLE PRESENT




Prima forma a verbului

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

Afirmativ

I, you, we, they

like

coffee.

He, she, it

likes

coffee.

Negativ

I, you, we, they

do

not

like

coffee.

He, she, it

does

not

like

coffee.

Interogativ

Do

I, you, we, they

like

coffee?

Does

he, she, it

like

coffee?

Prezentul simplu (Simple Present)

se formeaza pornind de la forma de infinitiv „ to work” – I work, we work

pers a III-a singular (he, she, it) primesc „-s” la sfarsitul cuvatului: he works, she works, it works

consoana+y --- ies (cries, tries)

vocala+y --- ys (pays, says)

intrebarea:

Do you like Paris?

Does he speak French?

Negatia

I don’t like Paris.

He doesn’t speak French.

Arata:

  1. o actiune obisnuita I usually go to school by bus. He goes to the seaside very often.
  2. un obicei

Mother drinks coffee in the morning.

We always spend our Saturday night in a club.

3. un plan oficial, care nu depinde de noi

 

SIMPLE PRESENT

Prima forma a verbului

 

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

 

Afirmativ

I, you, we, they

like

coffee.

Negativ

I, you, we, they

do

not

like

coffee.

 

Interogativ

Do

I, you, we, they

like

coffee?

 

Prezentul simplu (Simple Present)

se formeaza pornind de la forma de infinitiv „ to work” – I work, we work

pers a III-a singular (he, she, it) primesc „-s” la sfarsitul cuvatului: he works, she works, it works

consoana+y --- ies (cries, tries)

He, she, it

does

not

like

coffee.

He, she, it

likes

coffee.

vocala+y --- ys (pays, says)

Does

he, she, it

like

coffee?

intrebarea:

Do you like Paris?

Does he speak French?

Negatia

I don’t like Paris.

He doesn’t speak French.

Arata:

  1. o actiune obisnuita I usually go to school by bus. He goes to the seaside very often.
  2. un obicei

Mother drinks coffee in the morning.

We always spend our Saturday night in a club.

3. un plan oficial, care nu depinde de noi

The plane lands at 6 o’clock.

The trip ends on the 5th of January.

  1. titluri de ziar

Ship sinks in the Pacific!

President of America meets Ambassador of Jamaica.

  1. instructiuni, retete

You mix the sugar with the eggs and add cocoa.

Open the box. Then, push the red button.

  1. prezentul narativ

This book is about a woman who finds out that her husband is cheating on her.

Well, I open the door, I go in, and what do I see on my bed? Mary’s dog!

  1. citatele

Nietzche says: God is dead. God says: Nietzche is dead.

Shakespeare says: „to be or not to be- that is the question”

  1. comentarii sportive

Hagi passes the ball to Mutu, Mutu hits the ball and. goal!

  1. adevaruri generale

Water boils at 100 oC.

Birds fly. The Earth moves round the sun.

10. dupa viitor, in propozitiile cu „if”

We will be late if we wait for Mary.

If they eat this soup, they will feel sick.

Adverbe utilizate: always, usually, occasionally, rarely, never, seldom, sometimes, every day/week/month/year, from time to time, etc.

EXERCITII

Pentru fiecare propozitie, alege ce arata:

  1. Fish swim.
  2. If you don’t come with me to the cinema, I won’t come with you to the disco.
  1. In this book, a little boy runs away from home and learns about living on his own.
  2. Father likes to watch TV in the evenings.
  3. Just like the mouse says: “ Keep the cheese, I just wanna get out of the trap”
  4. X passes the ball to Y, and Y hits it to the gate.
  5. 12 children die in terrible car accident. Bus driver was drunk.
  6. You put the eggs in a big bowl and mix them with warm milk.
  7. Cuckoos never build nests.
  8. I will tell you to your mother if you don’t clean your room now!
  9. The bus from Cluj arrives in Bucharest at 7 o’clock.
  10. Yesterday I visited Michael. I come in and he tells me that his dog is dead!
  11. Do not expose the film to light before putting it into the camera.
  12. Tom usually wakes up at 8 o’clock, washes and has breakfast, then goes to school.

Tradu:

  1. daca nu imi vei scrie o scrisoare, nu voi vorbi cu prietenii tai.
  2. voi pleca la mare daca voi avea bani.
  3. el isi va cumpara un caine daca mama sa il va lasa.
  4. voi citi toata cartea asta seara daca voi avea timp.
  5. daca tu vei pleca la bunici, atunci eu voi ramane la tine acasa si voi avea grija de pisicile tale.
  6. daca ai avea putina rabdare ai intelege ca nu sunt vinovata.
  7. noi vom veni cu tine daca tu nu il vei vizita pe Radu.
  8. tu nu vei termina emisiunea la timp daca invitatul va incepe sa-ti povesteasca despre copilaria sa.
  9. daca nu vei gasi cartile la biblioteca, eu iti voi da o carte.
  10. el nu ii va scrie    un mail prietenei sale, daca nu va avea timp.
  11. daca noi nu o vom suna, ea nu va sti unde este petrecerea.
  12. ea va cumpara acea masina daca va avea destui bani.

Prezentul continuu

The action is happening now: PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb vb forma continua (ing)

Afirmativ

I

am

speaking

to you.

You

are

reading

this.

Negativ

She

is

not

staying

in London.

We

are

not

playing

football.

Interogativ

Is

he

watching

TV?

Are

they

waiting

for John

Se formeaza din prezentul verbului to be (am, is, are) si verb, la care se adauga terminatia –ing

I’m working; you are singing; she is playing; we are learning; they are washing

Intrebarea

Am I staying?

Are you working?

Is he playing?

Negatia

I’m not staying

You aren’t working

He isn’t playing

Arata:

actiune in progres in momentul vorbirii

She’s singing in the bathroom!

  1. actiune care e in progres in mod general, nu in momentul vorbirii

I’m learning to drive this month.

She’s working in a hospital for a week.

I’m staying in a hotel until I find a flat

  1. planuri neoficiale (care pot fi modificate) -obligatoriu este adverbul de timp

I’m going to the seaside next week.

We’re going to the cinema tomorrow.

  1. arata iritare, enervare din cauza unui obicei prost al cuiva:

You are always complaining about my cooking!

She is always borrowing money from everybody and she never returns it!

Adverbe utilizate: today, /tomorrow, these days, this week/ month/year, now, etc.

Verbe care nu pot fi folosite la prezent continuu:

  1. verbe de activitate non-durativa, care sunt considerate incheiate in momentul in care au fost initiate: kick, slam.

He kicks/ slams the door. He places the cake in the oven.

  1. verbe care exprima o perceptie senzoriala: see, hear, smell, feel, sound, taste

the flower smells nice=floarea are un miros placut.

Daca folosim prezentul continuu, nu ne referim la o calitate ci la o activitate

The soup tastes well vs I’m tasting the soup

The flower smells nice vs I’m smelling the flower

The cloth feels smooth vs I’m feeling the cloth.

Sau verbul are alt sens:

The suitcase weights a ton! Vs I’m weighting the baby.

I hear a noise from the house vs I think I’m paranoid because I’m hearing things.

The lawyer is hearing the criminal. (audiaza)

I can see him now vs I’m seeing my ex-boyfriend tomorrow

We’re seeing the town this week.

I think I’m in love vs I’m thinking about the future.

  1. verbele care exprima o activitate mintala: believe, know, think, imagine, mean, mind, remember, recollect, recall, suppose, forget, suspect, guess, presuppose, realize, understand, wonder
  2. verbe care exprima sentimente, stari sufletesti: love, like, care for, hate, dislike, detest, regret, prefer, wish, admire, doubt, want.
  3. verbe care exprima o relatie: apply to, be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, include, intend, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, promise, have, require, resemble, respect, seem . (implica un CD sau CI)

dar:

it depends on what he says (depinde) vs I’m depending on you(contez pe tine)

EXERCITII :

Alege tipul de actiune:

I’m learning Japanese this year.

He is always talking very quickly and I can’t understand what he’s saying!

My friends are going to the seaside tomorrow.

Look! The dog is eating from your dish!

Alege clasa din care face parte verbul subliniat din propozitiile urmatoare:

He always slams the door when he enters my room!

This problem of yours doesn’t concern me anymore.

I detest men who don’t shave their beard and moustache.

Yes! Now I remember his name! He is Nick!

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

Present perfect tense

Auxiliar have + vb III (Past Participle)

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

have

seen

ET.

You

have

eaten

mine.

She

has

not

been

to Rome.

We

have

not

played

football.

Have

you

finished?

Have

they

done

it?

Reprezinta un eveniment vazut din perspectiva axei prezentului, anterior momentului vorbirii, dar a carui anterioritate nu este fixata, avand un caracter nedefinit.

Forma : has/have+ forma a treia a verbului

I have heard a noise. She has heard a noise.

Se foloseste cu adverbe care exprima o perioada de timp deschisa, nedeterminata: today, this week, this month etc

(trecutul simplu se folosea cu adverbe ce exprima o perioada inchisa, terminata: last week, yesterday.)

arata o actiune abia incheiata, terminata recent sau in momentul vorbirii. Se folosesc adverbe precum: just, already, up to now, so far, lately, recently: He has just phoned. He has already come

arata un eveniment nedefinit (fata de trecutul simplu, care desemneaza un eveniment definit , unic): I’ve seen Mary vs I saw Mary at the conference.

desemneaza un eveniment al carui autor exista in prezent, fata de trecutul simplu care arata ca autorul sau evenimentul nu mai exista in prezent:

Simple past tense PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

Shakespeare wrote many sonnets Ionescu has written a few poems

(Shakespeare is dead) (Ionescu is alive)

Did you see the exhibition? Have you seen the exhibition?

(the exh. is closed now) (the exh. is still open)

John injured his arm. John has injured his arm.

(now it doesn’t hurt him any longer) (it still hurts him)

arata o actiune inceputa in trecut si care continua si in momentul vorbirii. Adverbe folosite:

a)       arata durata: for a long time, for ten minutes, for two days: He has been here for half an hour.

b)       arata inceputul perioadei de timp: since yesterday, since december, since you came: He has studied English since the beginning of the school year.

arata o actiune caracteristica, repetata in trecut, prezent si poate si in viitor. Se folosesc adverbe precum: often, always, never, sometimes: He has often performed in public.

Contrast:

I’ve bought a new car. I bought a new car last week.



PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

present perfect continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

Auxiliar have + been + vb forma continua (ing)

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

have

been

waiting

for one hour.

You

have

been

talking

too much.

It

has

not

been

raining.

We

have

not

been

playing

football.

Have

you

been

seeing

her?

Have

they

been

doing

their homework

Forma: has/have + been +v-ing

Arata:

O actiune inceputa intr-un moment trecut care continua in prezent si poate si in viitor: they have been playing tennis for half an hour= joaca tenis de o jumatate de ora.

Contrast:

I’ve worked on this song since 5 o’clock I’ve just finished it.

I’ve been working on this song since 5 o’clock I’m still working on it

o actiune repetata frecvent, pe o perioada care se intinde din trecut pana in prezent: I’ve been riding this bike for three years

TRECUTUL SIMPLU (Simple past tense (vb II)

Simple past tense (V 2)

V1

V2

V3

base

past

past participle

regular verb

work

worked

worked

The past form for all regular verbs ends in -ed.

explode

exploded

exploded

like

liked

liked

irregular verb

go

went

gone

The past form for irregular verbs is variable. You need to learn it by heart.

see

saw

seen

sing

sang

sung

You do not need the past participle form to make the simple past tense. It is shown here for completeness only.

Desemneaza un eveniment definit care a avut loc in trecut.

Forma

Verbe regulate: terminatia –ed

I worked in a hospital last year.

Did you work in a hospital last year?

I didn’t work in a hospital last year.

Verbele terminate in consoana+y=ied (voc+y=yed)

Verbele terminate in e primesc –d final: move-moved

In cazul verbelor neregulate, se foloseste forma a doua. Speak-spoke, eat-ate, etc.

Arata:

  1. o actiune incheiata in trecut: I went to the opera last night.
  1. o actiune repetata in trecut (romana=imperfect): I often visited him=il vizitam adesea.
  1. prezentul, pentru a exprima o rugaminte politicoasa: I wondered if you could lend me this book=ma intrebam daca ati putea sa-mi imprumutati aceasta carte.
  1. prezentul in vorbirea indirecta: mi-a spus ca e bolnav= he told me he was ill.

TRECUTUL CONTINUU (past continous tense)

Past continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

Aux be (future form – was) + vb forma continua (ing)

I

was

watching

TV.

You

were

working

hard.

He, she, it

was

not

helping

Mary.

We

were

not

joking.

Were

you

being

silly?

Were

they

playing

football

Forma: be+vb-ing

Arata:

  1. o actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment trecut: I was walking at 2 o’clock yesterday. A big fire was burning in the fireplace.
  1. o actiune durative in desfasurare, intrerupta de o actiune non-durativa, momentana : he came in when I was eating= a intrat in timp ce eu mancam.
  1. o actiune repetata in trecut, iritanta pentru ceilalti: he was always coming late to the English lessons.
  1. plan neoficial in trecut: I was leaving to the seaside the next month= plecam la mare luna urmatoare.

Atentie: ramane valabila lista de verbe care nu pot aparea la forma continua, sau isi schimba sensul! Vezi prezentul continuu.

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE (past perfect tense)

past perfect tense

subject

auxiliary verb

Aux be (vb II) + vb (ing)

main verb

I

had

finished

my work.

You

had

stopped

before me.

She

had

not

gone

to school.

We

had

not

left.

Had

you

arrived?

Had

they

eaten

dinner?

Desemneaza un eveniment anterior unui moment sau unui eveniment trecut.

I had worked in a hospital before I started my own business.

He had visited me twice before Christmas.

Se foloseste si in vorbirea indirecta: he told me he had seen her the day before.

Forma : had+ forma a treia a verbului

I had finished the book by ten o’clock yesterday, by the time you came.

Traducere: mai mult ca perfect= terminasem cartea…

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

past perfect continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

Aux be (vb II)+ been + vb (ing)

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

had

been

working.

You

had

been

playing

tennis.

It

had

not

been

working

well.

We

had

not

been

expecting

her.

Had

you

been

drinking?

Had

they

been

waiting

long?

Forma: had + been+ v-ing

Arata:

  1. o actiune trecuta, inceputa inaintea unei actiuni trecute si continuand pana la ea. I had been waiting for my friend since 2 o’clock when he finally arrived.
  2. a actiune trecuta, inceputa inaintea unei actiuni trecute si continuand pana la ea si poate si dupa aceea They had been playing football since ten o’clock.
  3. o actiune repetata in trecut, anterioara unui alt eveniment. He had been writing poems for two years when I met him.

!!! ramane valabila lista de verbe care nu pot fi utilizate la forma continua sau isi schimba sensul

compara :

i had tried three times to get you on the phone.

I had been trying to get you on the phone.

Atentie:

Daca cele doua evenimente sunt legate prin adverbele before, after, nu mai e obligatorie folosirea timpului past perfect, pentru ca ordinea evenimentelor devine clara the train left five minutes before I got to the station.

VIITORUL SIMPLU (future simple)

future simple

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

will

open

the door.

You

will

finish

before me.

She

will

not

be

at school tomorrow.

We

will

not

leave

yet.

Will

you

arrive

on time?

Will

they

want

dinner?

Desemneaza un eveniment posterior fata de momentul vorbirii. Este un viitor pur, indicand doar ca actiunea are loc intr-un moment viitor, mai apropiat sau adeseori mai indepartat de momentul vorbirii.

Ex:

I will go to the seaside tomorrow.

He will write postcards to his parents next month.

Forma contrastata a viitorului este ‘ll+ infinitiv la toate persoanele. Aceasta forma este folosita cu precadere in engleza vorbita, cand subiectul este exprimat printr-un pronume personal.

He’ll go, we’ll talk.

Viitorul simplu nu e de obicei utilizat in propozitiile subordonate, fiind inlocuit de prezentul simplu: he will come when he has time. Viitorul simplu apare doar in completivele directe sau prepozitionale, dupa verbele think, suppose, expect, believe, doubt, assume, hope, wonder, be sure, be afraid, pentru a exprima opiniile sau presupunerile vorbitorului despre o actiune viitoare: I’m sure that you’ll feel better tomorrow.

Forma negativa: won’t

I won’t go there

VIITORUL CONTINUU

future continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

will

be

working

at 10am.

You

will

be

lying

on a beach tomorrow.

She

will

not

be

using

the car.

We

will

not

be

having

dinner at home.

Will

you

be

playing

football?

Will

they

be

watching

TV?

Forma: will+ be+ V-ing

Ex: we will be working, they’ll be running, and she’ll be playing.

Arata:

  1. o actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment viitor, posterior momentului vorbirii:

I will be walking at 2 o’clock tomorrow

You will be reading the newspaper at this time next week.

  1. o actiune in desfasurare in viitor intrerupta de o actiune momentana:##

I’ll be eating when he comes.

  1. o actiune in desfasurare in viitor in paralel cu o alta actiune in desfasurare:##

She will be walking while I am sleeping.

  1. ideea de actiune viitoare care va avea loc in desfasurarea fireasca a evenimentelor.

I’ll be seeing him tomorrow morning. (Because I see him every morning)

VIITORUL PERFECT SIMPLU

future perfect tense

subject

auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

will

have

finished

by 10am.

You

will

have

forgotten

me by then.

She

will

not

have

gone

to school.

We

will

not

have

left.

Will

you

have

arrived?



Will

they

have

received

it?

Forma: will+ have+ forma a III-a a verbului

He will have eaten the apple when I come home= el va fi mancat marul cand voi ajunge eu acasa.

Arata o actiune viitoare dar privita dintr-un moment mai indepartat

Cloud Callout: Si il termina pana cand…


Prezentul el va manca marul eu voi ajunge acasa

VIITORUL PERFECT CONTINUU

future perfect continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

will

have

been

working

for four hours.

You

will

have

been

travelling

for two days.

She

will

not

have

been

using

the car.

We

will

not

have

been

waiting

long.

Will

you

have

been

playing

football?

Will

they

have

been

watching

TV?

Forma : will+ have +been+ V-ing

We will have been watching TV when you come home.

Arata o actiune viitoare in progres privita dintr-un moment mai indepartatDown Arrow Callout: noi ne uitam la TVCloud Callout: Si, intre timp…

The plane lands at 6 o’clock.

The trip ends on the 5th of January.

  1. titluri de ziar

Ship sinks in the Pacific!

President of America meets Ambassador of Jamaica.

  1. instructiuni, retete

You mix the sugar with the eggs and add cocoa.

Open the box. Then, push the red button.

  1. prezentul narativ

This book is about a woman who finds out that her husband is cheating on her.

Well, I open the door, I go in, and what do I see on my bed? Mary’s dog!

  1. citatele

Nietzche says: God is dead. God says: Nietzche is dead.

Shakespeare says: „to be or not to be- that is the question”

  1. comentarii sportive

Hagi passes the ball to Mutu, Mutu hits the ball and. goal!

  1. adevaruri generale

Water boils at 100 oC.

Birds fly. The Earth moves round the sun.

10. dupa viitor, in propozitiile cu „if”

We will be late if we wait for Mary.

If they eat this soup, they will feel sick.

Adverbe utilizate: always, usually, occasionally, rarely, never, seldom, sometimes, every day/week/month/year, from time to time, etc.

EXERCITII

Pentru fiecare propozitie, alege ce arata:

  1. Fish swim.
  2. If you don’t come with me to the cinema, I won’t come with you to the disco.
  1. In this book, a little boy runs away from home and learns about living on his own.
  2. Father likes to watch TV in the evenings.
  3. Just like the mouse says: “ Keep the cheese, I just wanna get out of the trap”
  4. X passes the ball to Y, and Y hits it to the gate.
  5. 12 children die in terrible car accident. Bus driver was drunk.
  6. You put the eggs in a big bowl and mix them with warm milk.
  7. Cuckoos never build nests.
  8. I will tell you to your mother if you don’t clean your room now!
  9. The bus from Cluj arrives in Bucharest at 7 o’clock.
  10. Yesterday I visited Michael. I come in and he tells me that his dog is dead!
  11. Do not expose the film to light before putting it into the camera.
  12. Tom usually wakes up at 8 o’clock, washes and has breakfast, then goes to school.

Tradu:

  1. daca nu imi vei scrie o scrisoare, nu voi vorbi cu prietenii tai.
  2. voi pleca la mare daca voi avea bani.
  3. el isi va cumpara un caine daca mama sa il va lasa.
  4. voi citi toata cartea asta seara daca voi avea timp.
  5. daca tu vei pleca la bunici, atunci eu voi ramane la tine acasa si voi avea grija de pisicile tale.
  6. daca ai avea putina rabdare ai intelege ca nu sunt vinovata.
  7. noi vom veni cu tine daca tu nu il vei vizita pe Radu.
  8. tu nu vei termina emisiunea la timp daca invitatul va incepe sa-ti povesteasca despre copilaria sa.
  9. daca nu vei gasi cartile la biblioteca, eu iti voi da o carte.
  10. el nu ii va scrie    un mail prietenei sale, daca nu va avea timp.
  11. daca noi nu o vom suna, ea nu va sti unde este petrecerea.
  12. ea va cumpara acea masina daca va avea destui bani.

Prezentul continuu

The action is happening now: PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb vb forma continua (ing)

Afirmativ

I

am

speaking

to you.

You

are

reading

this.

Negativ

She

is

not

staying

in London.

We

are

not

playing

football.

Interogativ

Is

he

watching

TV?

Are

they

waiting

for John

Se formeaza din prezentul verbului to be (am, is, are) si verb, la care se adauga terminatia –ing

I’m working; you are singing; she is playing; we are learning; they are washing

Intrebarea

Am I staying?

Are you working?

Is he playing?

Negatia

I’m not staying

You aren’t working

He isn’t playing

Arata:

actiune in progres in momentul vorbirii

She’s singing in the bathroom!

  1. actiune care e in progres in mod general, nu in momentul vorbirii

I’m learning to drive this month.

She’s working in a hospital for a week.

I’m staying in a hotel until I find a flat

  1. planuri neoficiale (care pot fi modificate) -obligatoriu este adverbul de timp

I’m going to the seaside next week.

We’re going to the cinema tomorrow.

  1. arata iritare, enervare din cauza unui obicei prost al cuiva:

You are always complaining about my cooking!

She is always borrowing money from everybody and she never returns it!

Adverbe utilizate: today, /tomorrow, these days, this week/ month/year, now, etc.

Verbe care nu pot fi folosite la prezent continuu:

  1. verbe de activitate non-durativa, care sunt considerate incheiate in momentul in care au fost initiate: kick, slam.

He kicks/ slams the door. He places the cake in the oven.

  1. verbe care exprima o perceptie senzoriala: see, hear, smell, feel, sound, taste

the flower smells nice=floarea are un miros placut.

Daca folosim prezentul continuu, nu ne referim la o calitate ci la o activitate

The soup tastes well vs I’m tasting the soup

The flower smells nice vs I’m smelling the flower

The cloth feels smooth vs I’m feeling the cloth.

Sau verbul are alt sens:

The suitcase weights a ton! Vs I’m weighting the baby.

I hear a noise from the house vs I think I’m paranoid because I’m hearing things.

The lawyer is hearing the criminal. (audiaza)

I can see him now vs I’m seeing my ex-boyfriend tomorrow

We’re seeing the town this week.

I think I’m in love vs I’m thinking about the future.

  1. verbele care exprima o activitate mintala: believe, know, think, imagine, mean, mind, remember, recollect, recall, suppose, forget, suspect, guess, presuppose, realize, understand, wonder
  2. verbe care exprima sentimente, stari sufletesti: love, like, care for, hate, dislike, detest, regret, prefer, wish, admire, doubt, want.
  3. verbe care exprima o relatie: apply to, be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, include, intend, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, promise, have, require, resemble, respect, seem . (implica un CD sau CI)

dar:

it depends on what he says (depinde) vs I’m depending on you(contez pe tine)

EXERCITII :

Alege tipul de actiune:

I’m learning Japanese this year.

He is always talking very quickly and I can’t understand what he’s saying!

My friends are going to the seaside tomorrow.

Look! The dog is eating from your dish!

Alege clasa din care face parte verbul subliniat din propozitiile urmatoare:

He always slams the door when he enters my room!

This problem of yours doesn’t concern me anymore.

I detest men who don’t shave their beard and moustache.

Yes! Now I remember his name! He is Nick!

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

Present perfect tense

Auxiliar have + vb III (Past Participle)

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

have

seen

ET.

You

have

eaten

mine.

She

has

not

been

to Rome.

We

have

not

played

football.

Have

you

finished?

Have

they

done

it?

Reprezinta un eveniment vazut din perspectiva axei prezentului, anterior momentului vorbirii, dar a carui anterioritate nu este fixata, avand un caracter nedefinit.

Forma : has/have+ forma a treia a verbului

I have heard a noise. She has heard a noise.

Se foloseste cu adverbe care exprima o perioada de timp deschisa, nedeterminata: today, this week, this month etc

(trecutul simplu se folosea cu adverbe ce exprima o perioada inchisa, terminata: last week, yesterday.)

arata o actiune abia incheiata, terminata recent sau in momentul vorbirii. Se folosesc adverbe precum: just, already, up to now, so far, lately, recently: He has just phoned. He has already come

arata un eveniment nedefinit (fata de trecutul simplu, care desemneaza un eveniment definit , unic): I’ve seen Mary vs I saw Mary at the conference.

desemneaza un eveniment al carui autor exista in prezent, fata de trecutul simplu care arata ca autorul sau evenimentul nu mai exista in prezent:

Simple past tense PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

Shakespeare wrote many sonnets Ionescu has written a few poems

(Shakespeare is dead) (Ionescu is alive)

Did you see the exhibition? Have you seen the exhibition?

(the exh. is closed now) (the exh. is still open)

John injured his arm. John has injured his arm.

(now it doesn’t hurt him any longer) (it still hurts him)

arata o actiune inceputa in trecut si care continua si in momentul vorbirii. Adverbe folosite:

a)       arata durata: for a long time, for ten minutes, for two days: He has been here for half an hour.

b)       arata inceputul perioadei de timp: since yesterday, since december, since you came: He has studied English since the beginning of the school year.

arata o actiune caracteristica, repetata in trecut, prezent si poate si in viitor. Se folosesc adverbe precum: often, always, never, sometimes: He has often performed in public.

Contrast:

I’ve bought a new car. I bought a new car last week.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

present perfect continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

Auxiliar have + been + vb forma continua (ing)

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

have

been

waiting

for one hour.

You

have

been

talking

too much.

It

has

not

been

raining.

We

have

not

been

playing

football.

Have

you

been

seeing

her?

Have

they

been

doing

their homework

Forma: has/have + been +v-ing

Arata:

O actiune inceputa intr-un moment trecut care continua in prezent si poate si in viitor: they have been playing tennis for half an hour= joaca tenis de o jumatate de ora.

Contrast:

I’ve worked on this song since 5 o’clock I’ve just finished it.

I’ve been working on this song since 5 o’clock I’m still working on it

o actiune repetata frecvent, pe o perioada care se intinde din trecut pana in prezent: I’ve been riding this bike for three years

TRECUTUL SIMPLU (Simple past tense (vb II)

Simple past tense (V 2)

V1

V2

V3

base

past

past participle

regular verb

work

worked

worked

The past form for all regular verbs ends in -ed.

explode

exploded

exploded

like



liked

liked

irregular verb

go

went

gone

The past form for irregular verbs is variable. You need to learn it by heart.

see

saw

seen

sing

sang

sung

You do not need the past participle form to make the simple past tense. It is shown here for completeness only.

Desemneaza un eveniment definit care a avut loc in trecut.

Forma

Verbe regulate: terminatia –ed

I worked in a hospital last year.

Did you work in a hospital last year?

I didn’t work in a hospital last year.

Verbele terminate in consoana+y=ied (voc+y=yed)

Verbele terminate in e primesc –d final: move-moved

In cazul verbelor neregulate, se foloseste forma a doua. Speak-spoke, eat-ate, etc.

Arata:

  1. o actiune incheiata in trecut: I went to the opera last night.
  1. o actiune repetata in trecut (romana=imperfect): I often visited him=il vizitam adesea.
  1. prezentul, pentru a exprima o rugaminte politicoasa: I wondered if you could lend me this book=ma intrebam daca ati putea sa-mi imprumutati aceasta carte.
  1. prezentul in vorbirea indirecta: mi-a spus ca e bolnav= he told me he was ill.

TRECUTUL CONTINUU (past continous tense)

Past continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

Aux be (future form – was) + vb forma continua (ing)

I

was

watching

TV.

You

were

working

hard.

He, she, it

was

not

helping

Mary.

We

were

not

joking.

Were

you

being

silly?

Were

they

playing

football

Forma: be+vb-ing

Arata:

  1. o actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment trecut: I was walking at 2 o’clock yesterday. A big fire was burning in the fireplace.
  1. o actiune durative in desfasurare, intrerupta de o actiune non-durativa, momentana : he came in when I was eating= a intrat in timp ce eu mancam.
  1. o actiune repetata in trecut, iritanta pentru ceilalti: he was always coming late to the English lessons.
  1. plan neoficial in trecut: I was leaving to the seaside the next month= plecam la mare luna urmatoare.

Atentie: ramane valabila lista de verbe care nu pot aparea la forma continua, sau isi schimba sensul! Vezi prezentul continuu.

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE (past perfect tense)

past perfect tense

subject

auxiliary verb

Aux be (vb II) + vb (ing)

main verb

I

had

finished

my work.

You

had

stopped

before me.

She

had

not

gone

to school.

We

had

not

left.

Had

you

arrived?

Had

they

eaten

dinner?

Desemneaza un eveniment anterior unui moment sau unui eveniment trecut.

I had worked in a hospital before I started my own business.

He had visited me twice before Christmas.

Se foloseste si in vorbirea indirecta: he told me he had seen her the day before.

Forma : had+ forma a treia a verbului

I had finished the book by ten o’clock yesterday, by the time you came.

Traducere: mai mult ca perfect= terminasem cartea…

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

past perfect continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

Aux be (vb II)+ been + vb (ing)

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

had

been

working.

You

had

been

playing

tennis.

It

had

not

been

working

well.

We

had

not

been

expecting

her.

Had

you

been

drinking?

Had

they

been

waiting

long?

Forma: had + been+ v-ing

Arata:

  1. o actiune trecuta, inceputa inaintea unei actiuni trecute si continuand pana la ea. I had been waiting for my friend since 2 o’clock when he finally arrived.
  2. a actiune trecuta, inceputa inaintea unei actiuni trecute si continuand pana la ea si poate si dupa aceea They had been playing football since ten o’clock.
  3. o actiune repetata in trecut, anterioara unui alt eveniment. He had been writing poems for two years when I met him.

!!! ramane valabila lista de verbe care nu pot fi utilizate la forma continua sau isi schimba sensul

compara :

i had tried three times to get you on the phone.

I had been trying to get you on the phone.

Atentie:

Daca cele doua evenimente sunt legate prin adverbele before, after, nu mai e obligatorie folosirea timpului past perfect, pentru ca ordinea evenimentelor devine clara the train left five minutes before I got to the station.

VIITORUL SIMPLU future simple

future simple

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

will

open

the door.

You

will

finish

before me.

She

will

not

be

at school tomorrow.

We

will

not

leave

yet.

Will

you

arrive

on time?

Will

they

want

dinner?

Desemneaza un eveniment posterior fata de momentul vorbirii. Este un viitor pur, indicand doar ca actiunea are loc intr-un moment viitor, mai apropiat sau adeseori mai indepartat de momentul vorbirii.

Ex:

I will go to the seaside tomorrow.

He will write postcards to his parents next month.

Forma contrastata a viitorului este ‘ll+ infinitiv la toate persoanele. Aceasta forma este folosita cu precadere in engleza vorbita, cand subiectul este exprimat printr-un pronume personal.

He’ll go, we’ll talk.

Viitorul simplu nu e de obicei utilizat in propozitiile subordonate, fiind inlocuit de prezentul simplu: he will come when he has time. Viitorul simplu apare doar in completivele directe sau prepozitionale, dupa verbele think, suppose, expect, believe, doubt, assume, hope, wonder, be sure, be afraid, pentru a exprima opiniile sau presupunerile vorbitorului despre o actiune viitoare: I’m sure that you’ll feel better tomorrow.

Forma negativa: won’t

I won’t go there

VIITORUL CONTINUU

future continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

will

be

working

at 10am.

You

will

be

lying

on a beach tomorrow.

She

will

not

be

using

the car.

We

will

not

be

having

dinner at home.

Will

you

be

playing

football?

Will

they

be

watching

TV?

Forma: will+ be+ V-ing

Ex: we will be working, they’ll be running, and she’ll be playing.

Arata:

  1. o actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment viitor, posterior momentului vorbirii:

I will be walking at 2 o’clock tomorrow

You will be reading the newspaper at this time next week.

  1. o actiune in desfasurare in viitor intrerupta de o actiune momentana:##

I’ll be eating when he comes.

  1. o actiune in desfasurare in viitor in paralel cu o alta actiune in desfasurare:##

She will be walking while I am sleeping.

  1. ideea de actiune viitoare care va avea loc in desfasurarea fireasca a evenimentelor.

I’ll be seeing him tomorrow morning. (Because I see him every morning)

VIITORUL PERFECT SIMPLU

future perfect tense

subject

auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

will

have

finished

by 10am.

You

will

have

forgotten

me by then.

She

will

not

have

gone

to school.

We

will

not

have

left.

Will

you

have

arrived?

Will

they

have

received

it?

Forma: will+ have+ forma a III-a a verbului

He will have eaten the apple when I come home= el va fi mancat marul cand voi ajunge eu acasa.

Arata o actiune viitoare dar privita dintr-un moment mai indepartat

Cloud Callout: Si il termina pana cand…


Prezentul el va manca marul eu voi ajunge acasa

VIITORUL PERFECT CONTINUU

future perfect continous tense

subject

auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

main verb

I

will

have

been

working

for four hours.

You

will

have

been

travelling

for two days.

She

will

not

have

been

using

the car.

We

will

not

have

been

waiting

long.

Will

you

have

been

playing

football?

Will

they

have

been

watching

TV?

Forma : will+ have +been+ V-ing

We will have been watching TV when you come home.

Arata o actiune viitoare in progres privita dintr-un moment mai indepartat.






Politica de confidentialitate



DISTRIBUIE DOCUMENTUL

Comentarii


Vizualizari: 1279
Importanta: rank

Comenteaza documentul:

Te rugam sa te autentifici sau sa iti faci cont pentru a putea comenta

Creaza cont nou

Termeni si conditii de utilizare | Contact
© SCRIGROUP 2021 . All rights reserved

Distribuie URL

Adauga cod HTML in site