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THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE - THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS

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THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE - THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE



Formati mai mult ca perfectul cu had + participiul trecut

Forma

Afirmativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they had worked.

Negativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they had not worked.

Interogativ

Had I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they worked?

Interogativ negativ: Had I not (hadn't I) worked?

Forme contrase: I had, you had - I'd, you'd; hadn not - hadn't

Utilizare

Mai mult ca perfectul simplu se foloseste:

ca echivalentul trecut al Prezentului perfect - exprima o actiune care are loc inaintea unei alte actiuni din trecut:

The boy explained that he had seen somebody in the garden.

When father came home, Dick had done his homework.

Observati folosirea adverbelor when, before, now that, as soon as si after in unele propozitii care contin mai mult ca perfectul.

Dick had done his homework before father came home.

pentru a exprima durata pana la un anumit moment in trecut:

By the time the rain started, we had dug the whole garden.

cu just, already, hardly, barely, scarcely si no sooner pentru a arata ca o actiune s-a terminat chiar inaintea unei alte actiuni din trecut:

Mary told us that her brother had just left.

I had hardly/scarcely entered the room when somebody knocked at the door.

cu since si for cand punctul de referinta este in trecut:

In 1980 I had been a teacher for ten years.

I knew she had not seen him since Christmas.

pentru a exprima o actiune viitoare care are loc inaintea unei alte actiuni exprimate de Future-in-the past:

I told my friend that I would lend him the book after I had read it.

cu verbe ca to expect to hope to intend to mean to think pentru a exprima o speranta, intentie, din trecut care nu s-a indeplinit:

I had hoped/ intended/ meant to find tickets for that performance but I wasn't able to.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Formati mai mult ca perfectul continuu cu had been + -ing

Forma

Afirmativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they had been working.

Negativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they had not been working.

Interogativ

Had I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they been working?

Interogativ negativ: Had I not (hadn't I) been working?

Forme contrase

I had, you had - I'd had, you'd had; had not - hadn't

De retinut!

Unele verbe nu pot fi folosite la timpul continuu. (vezi pagina 18-19)

Utilizare

Mai mult ca perfectul continuu se foloseste:

pentru a sublinia continuitatea unei actiuni din trecut pana la un alt moment din trecut sau doar pana foarte aproape de el:

The pupils had been reading the lesson for five minutes when the school master entered the classroom.

Exprimarea unor actiuni obisnuite sau repetate in trecut

Actiunile obisnuite sau repetate legate de o perioada de timp din trecut se pot exprima folosind:

trecutul simplu:

My father always got up at daybreak.

used to + infinitiv:

My father used to get up at daybreak.

would + infinitiv:

My father would get up at daybreak.

mai mult ca perfectul poate exprima o actiune din trecut repetata, care a durat pana la un moment dat:

My father had been getting up at daybreak until his accident.

Atentie! - Nu confundati used to + infinitiv cu to be used to + -ing!

Dr. Nelson used to work late. (obicei in trecut)

Dr. Nelson is used to working late. (obicei in prezent)

Exercitii:

Puneti verbele din paranteza la trecutul simplu, mai mult ca perfectul simplu sau continuu:

1. By the time Helen (reach) the store, she (forget) what she wanted to buy. 2. The ground (be) wet because it (rain) for five days. 3. First the weather (be) fine. Later it (start) to rain. Then we (decide) to go back home. 4. Michael (feel) rather unwell for a few days so he (go) to see his doctor. 5. By the end of last year they (study) English for six years. 6. Yesterday Mary (tell) her mother about a beautiful dress she (see) a few hours earlier. 7. When Stephen the Great (die) in 1504, he (reign) for 47 years. 8. The party was a great success. Tom (feel) happier than he (ever, feel) before. 9. Bill (go) to the police station with a purse he (find) on the pavement. 10. We (wait) for more than half an hour but there was still no sign of Mary. 11. When I (phone) Gerald, he (not finish) his homework yet. 12. He (write) to say that he (just, buy) a car. 13. After they (play) records for an hour they (go out) for a walk. 14. Sally was still singing at noon yesterday. She (sing) all morning. 15. Patricia (design) herself a summer dress yesterday. She (never, design) clothes for herself before. 16. I (see) Alice yesterday afternoon. She (tell) me she (just, come) back from her holiday. 17. The telephone (ring) again a few minutes ago. It (ring) several times during the day. 18. The brass bands (play) ever since the first people (get) into the park. 19. By the time we (get) to the cinema, the film (already, begin). 20. Mr. Wood (drive) a few kilometers before he (realize) that one of his tyres was flat. 21. Alice was reading when her parents (come) home from work. She (read) for two hours. She (read) fifty pages.

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. reached, had forgotten 2. was, had been raining 3. was, started, decided 4. Had been feeling, went 5. had been studying 6. told, had seen 7. died, had reigned 8. felt, had ever felt 9. went, had found 10. had been waiting 11. phoned, hadn't finished 12. wrote, had just bought 13. played, went out 14. had been singing 15. designed, had never designed 16. saw, told, had just come 17. rang, had rung 18. had been playing, got 19. got, had already begun 20. had driven, realized 21. came, had been reading, had read



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