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Limba engleza in afaceri - Manual pentru uzul studentilor

Gramatica

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Limba engleza in afaceri




Manual pentru uzul studentilor

Introducere

Manualul de fata se adreseaza studentilor de la Inginerie I.D.D., in vederea studiului individual si a pregatirii pentru evaluarile semestriale la disciplina Limba engleza in afaceri.

Materialul de studiu cuprins in manual este impartit in 8 capitole, care acopera diferite aspecte ale activitatilor din domeniul afacerilor. Sunt abordate principalele probleme gramaticale, cum ar fi folosirea timpurilor in limba engleza, gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor etc., cu exemple din lumea afacerilor. Fiecare capitol cuprinde exercitii care urmaresc punerea in practica, imbogatirea si verificarea cunostintelor de gramatica si de vocabular. Este indicata rezolvarea cu atentie a acestor exercitii deoarece acestea faciliteaza rezolvarea sarcinilor propuse in temele de casa. Se recomanda totodata consultarea dictionarelor mentionate in bibliografia pentru temele de casa sau a altor dictionare de proportii mai mari decat dictionarele de buzunar. Textele cuprinse in manual au fost preluate si prelucrate conform cerintelor programei disciplinei. O atentie deosebita este acordata exprimarii in scris in limba engleza, cu accent pe redactarea scrisorilor de afaceri.

Parcurgerea manualului impune un nivel mediu de cunoastere a limbii engleze.

Anexele 1 si 2 de la sfarsitul manualului contin temele de casa propuse pentru rezolvare

Tematica disciplinei

Semestrul I

Titlul capitolului

Elemente de gramatica

Tematica

1. Face to face

questions (types of questions: direct yes/no questions; direct wh-questions; indirect questions; statement questions)

-meeting and greeting people

-asking questions

2. On the phone

use of present simple and present continuous

-using the phone

-taking messages

-requesting, offering help

3. Letters, telexes and memos

(written communication)

joining sentences by means of conjunctions, adverbial connectors and prepositions

-layout of a business letter and envelope

-planning and writing letters, telexes and memos

4. Reports and summaries

passive voice

-planning, writing and summarising reports

-taking notes of conversations and discussions

Semestrul al II-lea

Titlul capitolului

Elemente de gramatica

Tematica

1. The place of work

referring to the past: present perfect, past simple and past perfect

-talking about where you work

-agreeing and disagreeing

-describing a company's activities, organisation and history

2. Import and export

ways of expressing future time

-ordering and supplying goods and services

-making and answering enquiries

-getting and giving information

3. Marketing and sales

-modality: means of expressing permission, possibility, probability and certainty

-comparing and contrasting

-marketing a product: market research and promotion

4. A new job

relative clauses

-reading advertisements

-applying for a job

Continutul succint al temelor de casa:

Semestrul I

I

1. Intocmirea unei scrisori comerciale.

2. Cererea de informatii prin telefon, folosind tipuri de intrebari adecvate.

3. Traducerea unui text din limba engleza in limba romana.

4. Traducerea unui text din limba romana in limba engleza.

II

1. Realizarea unei convorbiri telefonice bazata pe un scenariu.

2. Intocmirea unui 'memo' pe o tema la alegere.

3. Traducerea unui text din limba engleza in limba romana

4. Exercitiu de traducere din limba romana in limba engleza.

Semestrul al II-lea

I

1. Intocmirea unei cereri de angajare si a unui curriculum vitae.

2. Descrierea organizarii si activitatii unei companii.

3. Traducerea unui text din limba engleza in limba romana.

4. Exercitiu de traducere din limba romana in limba engleza.

II

1. Intocmirea unui chestionar pentru un studiu de piata.

2. Compararea unor produse, folosind gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor.

3. Traducerea unui text din limba engleza in limba romana.

4. Exercitiu de traducere din limba romana in limba engleza.

5. Comentarea pe larg a unei afirmatii.

Continutul detaliat al temelor de casa se afla anexat la sfarsitul manualului. Toate temele de casa mentionte sunt obligatorii.

FACE TO FACE

Asking questions. Meeting and greeting people. Countries and nationalities.

Asking questions    Grammar

A Sample sentences

A: Who approved this order

B: I'm afraid I really have no idea.

A: It was Jim, wasn't it?

B: Jim, you approved this order?

C: Yes, I did. Why? Is there a problem?

A: Yes, half of the goods haven't been delivered.

C: Yes, I know. But could you just look at the accompanying note? It explains everything.

B Form

There are three forms of question:

-direct questions

-indirect questions

-statement questions (+ question tag)

1. Direct questions

There are two types of direct questions:

-wh-questions, which start with a wh-question word (including how):

Who approved this order?

-yes/no questions, where the answer is yes or no:

Is there a problem? -Yes.

The basic word orders in a question are:

question word (+ noun) + verb phrase

Who saw you? (who is the subject: John saw me.)

Which plant will be closed down?

question word + auxiliary (or auxiliaries) + subject + verb + other elements of verb phrase

Who(m) did you see? (who is the object: I saw John.)

What can you do about it?

2. Indirect questions

Indirect questions comprise:

-a question word (wh-, if or whether)

-a clause with the verb in statement word order:

I don't know which results you are talking about. (not: are you talking about)

But could you tell me where I can find the book? (not: can I find)

3. Statement questions

There are two types of statement questions:

-a statement with rising intonation:

Jim, you approved this order?

-a statement + question tag

Jim, you didn't approve this order, did you?

C Uses

1. Direct questions

Below are the main wh-questions according to question word:

a Asking about people -who, whom:

Who approved this order? (who asks about the subject.)

Who(m) are you going to visit in Japan? (In normal speech we use who to ask about the object as well; in formal speech and writing we use whom.)

Who(m) did you place the order with? (In normal speech we use who to ask about the prepositional object; in formal speech and writing we use whom.)

With whom did you go to France? (whom asks about the prepositional object. This structure is more formal than the previous one.)

b Asking about things -which, what:

Which agency are you going to use? (which + noun asks about the subject.)

What did you decide in the last meeting? (what asks about the object.)

c Asking about the time -when, (at) what time:

When do you plan to be in Paris?

(At) what time/when did you leave the office?

d Asking about the place -where:

Where did you hold the conference last year?

e Asking for the reason -why:

Why are you so concerned about the quality?

f Asking about the length of time -how long:

How long does it take you to get home in the evening? (not: how long time?)

g Asking about the distance -how far:

How far do you have to travel each day?

h Asking about the frequency -how often:

How often do you travel abroad?

i Asking about the manner -how:

How are you going to persuade your staff to accept the new contracts?

j Asking about quantity and amount -how many, how much:

How many subsidiaries do you have in Europe?

How much did you pay for the address list? (not: how much money?)

k Asking about dimensions and specifications -how long/small, etc.

How big/long/wide/deep/high/small will the cabinet be?

2. Indirect questions

We use indirect questions in:

-Reported questions

She asked which order Jim had approved.

-Polite requests

Could you tell me which order you approved?

3. Statement questions (+ question tag)

We use these to ask for confirmation.

-Asking for confirmation of a positive statement:

Jim, you approved this order?

Jim, you approved this order, didn't you?

-Asking for confirmation of a negative statement:

Jim, you didn't approve this order?

Jim, you didn't approve this order, did you?

Exercises

Exercise 1: Read the following list of questions. Classify them according to the question types

(A. Direct yes/no questions; B. Direct wh-questions; C. Indirect questions; D. Statement questions with rising intonation; E. Statement questions + tag)

1. Are you agents for Fisher equipment?   

2. Where can I find this type of product?

3. You're not serious?

4. Fisher are market leaders, aren't they?

5. So you believe they're expensive?

6. Do you think there are better goods available?

7. Can you tell me how reliable they are?

Exercise 2: Imagine that you're talking to someone who talks rather unclearly, and that you can't catch some of the information he gives you. Write down the questions you'd ask this person to find out the missing (- - -) information. The first has been done for you.

1. 'I work for - - -.'

Who do you work for?

2. 'I live in - - -.'

Where ………………?

3. 'I've been working here for - - - years.'

How ………………………………..?

4. 'We keep our sales files in the - - - room.'

Which …………………………………?

5. 'We never phone in the morning because - - -.'

Why …………………………………………?

6. 'I started working for this firm in 19- -.'

When ………………………………..?

7. 'I'd like a - - - room for two nights, please.'

What kind of ………………………….?

8. 'I heard about this product from Mr - - -.'

Who ……………………………?

9. 'The complete package costs only $ - - -'

How much …………………………..?

10. 'They printed - - - thousand copies of the company report.'

How many ………………………..?

Exercise 3: Complete these sentences, using question tags. The first has been done for you.

Note: A question tag is a short clause added to a statement to turn it into a question, e.g. 'don't you' or 'isn't it?'. The main function of a tag question is to cue a response from the listener or obtain his or her agreement to the original statement.

1. They don't normally pay their account late, do they?

2. The phone number is 518361, …….?

3. They'll let us know before the end of the month, …….?

4. We can send the catalogues by surface mail, …….?

5. They can't provide the information we need,……?

6. She isn't in the office today, ……?

7. This machine doesn't operate automatically, ……..?

8. You know a great deal about economics, ……….?

9. You've studied this subject for some time, ……..?

10. We shouldn't interrupt the meeting, ………?

11. You're waiting to see Miss Weber, ……..?

12. It must be quite difficult to sound efficient and friendly towards the end of a long hard day, ….?

Meeting and greeting people

Exercise 4: What would you say in these situations? Write down the exact words you'd use. The first has been done for you as an example.

1. The customer services manager, Mrs Hanson, doesn't know Linda Morris, the new export clerk.

'Mrs Hanson, I'd like you to meet Linda Morris. She's our new export clerk.'

2. Your boss says to you, 'This is Tony Watson. He's visiting us from Canada.'

3. Tony Watson says, 'Hi. I think you know one of my colleagues: Ann Scott.'

4. You've been introduced to someone by name, but later in the conversation you can't remember the person's name.

5. You enter an office full of strangers one morning. Someone asks if they can help you.

6. A visitor arrives after travelling a long distance to see you.

7. Your visitor looks thirsty.

8. It's time for you to leave. You look at your watch and see that it's later than you thought.

Countries and nationalities

Exercise 5: Complete each sentence with the appropriate nationality word. Remember to use Capital Letters. The first one has been done for you.

1. If he comes from Cairo, he must be Egyptian.

2. If she lives in Paris, she must be ………

3. If they live in Brussels, my guess is that they are ……………

4. If she comes from Geneva, she's …………, I suppose.

5. He works in Vienna, so I think he's …………

6. As she's from Copenhagen, I presume she's ……………

7. If she lives in Sofia, she may well be ………….

8. As they live in Athens, I think they're …………

9. Her home town is Amsterdam, so I guess she's ……………

10. Their head office is in Stockholm: they're a ………… firm.

11. If they work in Lisbon, I expect they're ………….

12. If they come from Edinburgh and Cardiff, they're both ……………

13. He lives in Rome, so I suppose he's ……………..

ON THE PHONE

Using the phone. The present simple and the present continuous. Making different kind of calls; taking and leaving messages.

Using the phone    Vocabulary

Exercise 1: Decide which of the verbs fit best in the following sentences. What other verbs could you use instead?

be over call back/ring back cut off give up hang up hold on

look up pick up put on put through get through

1. The phone 's ringing. Why don't you …………… the receiver?

2. Mrs Scott isn't available at the moment. Can you …………later?

3. Can you ………….. Mr Dumas's number in the directory please?

4. I'm afraid she's with a client, shall I …….. you ………… to her secretary?

5. I'm sorry about that. I'm glad you're still there. We must have been …………. for a moment.

6. Mr Green never seems to be in his office. I've been trying to ………….. to him all morning.

7. Could you …………… for a moment, I'll just find out for you.

8. Is Graham there? If so, could you …………….. him please?

9. If the telephonist says 'Thank you so much for calling' and plays me that electronic music again, I'll ……

10. You'll never get New York at this time of day. If I were you, I'd ……………

11. If an American telephonist asks 'Are you through?', she wants to know if your call ………..

Present Tenses    Grammar

The Simple Present

A Form

The present simple comprises:

one part in the positive, i.e. V1 (s) ( the infinitive without to + s in the third person singular)

two parts in the negative and interrogative, i.e. do/does + V1

1 Positive form    2 Negative form 3 Interrogative form

I work in different departments. I don't produce a monthly Do I need more information?

report.

We/you/they work    We/you/they don't produce Do we/you/they need?

He/she/it works    He/she/it doesn't produce Does he/she/it need?

B Uses

We use the present simple to talk about:

general or permanent states or situations:

The company manufactures a wide range of products.

regular habits or happenings:

He spends every other week in New York.

officially programmed future actions:

The plane takes off at 5 p.m.

a truth or current belief:

Company cultures evolve and develop.

These adverbs are typically used with the present simple:

always generally occasionally frequently sometimes often usually normally on a regular basis regularly twice a year once a week every year every two weeks every other month once in a while from time to time never rarely hardly ever seldom

The Present Continuous

A Form

The present continuous comprises two parts:

the present tense of to be + V1ing ( the infinitive without to + ing)

1 Positive form    2 Negative form 3 Interrogative form

I am/'m checking the figures. I am not/'m not expecting Am I doing it correctly?

a reply today.

We/you/they are/'re checking We/you/they are not/ Are we/you/they doing?

aren't expecting

He/she/it is/'s checking    He/she/it is not/isn't Is he/she/it doing?

expecting

B Uses

We use the present continuous to talk about:

1 actions in progress at the moment of speaking:

I'm phoning to my manager now.

2 temporary actions not necessarily in progress at the moment of speaking:

While she's looking for accommodation, she's staying with us.

3 planned future actions:

We're having a meeting tomorrow.

Some typical adverbs used with the present continuous:

at the moment now just now right now this morning today presently (US)

for the moment

Some verbs (known as 'stative verbs') are not normally used with the present continuous.

e.g. I realise that their product costs less than ours, but…

I believe he still owes us quite a lot of money.

Do you remember how much each parcel weighs?

Each package that we are sending contains 12 items.

Our rate of discount depends on the quantity you order.

Typical 'stative verbs':

like believe belong deserve matter own prefer fit remember realise possess understand owe contain measure weigh cost consist of depend on lack appear

Some 'stative' verbs can be used in a 'dynamic' way, with a change in meaning.

e.g. I'm seeing my manager today. (I'm meeting him)

The judge is hearing the witness. (He is listening to him)

I'm thinking of my holidays. (compare: I think you're right.)

He 's a good boy but today he's being naughty. (temporary state as opposed to the usual characteristic)

My boss is always complaining about everything. (an action that annoys the speaker)

Exercise 2: Fill the gaps with a suitable verb from the list and (if possible) a suitable adverb too. The first has been done for you as an example.

analyse block depend look pay prefer require sound speak specialise take try

1. Her secretary generally takes all her calls when she's out.

2. We …………….. a 10% deposit for orders of this kind.

3. He ……………. to be self-employed, rather than have a permanent job.

4. The switchboard ………………… outside calls from this extension.

5. I ………………….. the statistics so I can't give you a decision yet.

6. We ………………. to boost our sales in the Japanese market.

7. He …………… rudely to me whenever I call him on the intercom.

8. He …………….. strange on the phone, but really he's very nice.

9. We ……………. our agents 12.5% commission.

10. Our firm ………….. in acquiring real estate in Southern California.

11. I know it ………. like our original model, but we've updated it.

12. I can't give you a definite date: it ………… on our own supplies.

Exercise 3: Fill the gaps in the sentences, using the verbs in this list. Choose between the present simple and present continuous.

assist attend call back deserve get through look up make pick up print out put through

1. Normally she …………. straight away.

2. His secretary always ……….. the phone first.

3. This year we ……….. to get a pay rise.

4. This week he …………. the Personnel Director with the interviews.

5. She ……………. the number in the phone book at the moment.

6. Today I …………. a training session on quality control.

7. Once a week the computer ………. the sales figures.

8. Please hold on. I………. you………. to the Sales Department.

9. I ………….. some notes now and I'll make the call in a few minutes.

Making different types of calls; taking messages

Useful expressions:

Requesting (when you want somebody to do various things for you):

I'd like you/him to, please.    Sure/Certainly.

Could you, please? I'm sorry, but

Do you think you could?    Unfortunately,

Would you mind doing? I'm afraid I can't, because

Offering help

Would you like/Can I give you a hand/lift?

Would you like me to

Shall I/

Perhaps I can help? Can I help at all?

If you need any help, just let me/us know.

Thanks very much -if you're sure it's no trouble.

That's very kind of you, yes. Could you?

No thanks, I can manage.

That's very kind of you, but

No thank you, I'm just having a look/waiting for someone.

Asking permission

May I? Yes, go ahead/Sure.

Do you mind if I? Certainly.

Do you think I could? No, I'm afraid not, because

Is it all right if I? No, I'm afraid we aren't allowed to

Exercise 4: Imagine you're writing a letter to a client. Write down the words you would write in

place of the words given, which you might use if you were on the phone.

1. 'Oh, do you think you could call me about this next week?'

Could …………….

2. 'Do you think you could confirm this by telex?'

Would……………….

3. 'Sorry, but we can't give you a special discount.'

I regret to say that ………….

4. 'If you like, we can send you a sample of this product.'

Please let us know if ……………

5. 'Will it be OK to ship the order in two separate consignments?'

With your permission, we propose…………….

6. 'Thanks a lot for all your help. It was very kind of you.'

Thank you ……………..

7. 'Terribly sorry, but we can't amend an order over the phone.'

Unfortunately, we …………..

Exercise 5: Write a telephone conversation based on the diagram below:

Note: When you're talking on the phone, don't forget that the other person

a. wants to understand you easily, so try to speak CLEARLY

b. can't see your reactions, so always CONFIRM that you have (or have not) understood each point that's been made.

c. can't see you and doesn't know what a nice person you are, so make sure you sound POLITE and AGREEABLE

d. hasn't got all day, so make sure your call is BRIEF

e. is getting an impression of your firm while talking with you, so make sure that you sound EFFICIENT.

A

Answer the phone.

B

Ask to speak to X.

You don't know any X.

Apologise. (Try again.)

C

Answer the phone.

Ask to speak to X.

X is busy. Suggest B calls back



You can't call back.

Leave a message.

Take the message.


Thank C.

Useful expressions:

Hello, is that.? Can I speak to.., please? Good morning, I'd like to speak to.

Is .. available, please? My name's. I'm sorry, I've got the wrong number.

Speaking. Oh hello,., this is .. speaking. What is your extension number? I'll put you through to. Hold on a moment, please.

Exercise 6: Read the following recorded message and then leave your message on the answering machine.

RECORDED MESSAGE

'This is ABC International, we are sorry that there is no one available to answer your call at the moment; if you would like to leave a message please speak after the tone and we will contact you as soon as possible.'

3 LETTERS, TELEXES AND MEMOS

How to lay out a business letter and envelope. Practice in planning and writing letters, memos, and telexes. Joining sentences. Abbreviations.

Background information

International business correspondence can take various forms: not only letters and telexes, but also fax and electronic mail ('email') are being used more and more. Within a company, memos are commonly sent to convey information in writing.

Letters

In a letter, the emphasis is on a high quality appearance. Letters have to be typed accurately with a smart, clear layout. A typical 'standard' business letter in English consists of 8 parts, though many firms use a different 'house style' that their staff are expected to follow.

1. Sender's address

2. Date

3. Receiver's name and address

4. The opening salutation:

Dear Sirs/ Gentlemen/ Mr/Mrs Green/Jim

5. The body of the letter

6. The closing salutation:

(Yours) sincerely/ faithfully/ Best wishes/Best regards

7. The sender's signature

8. The sender's name and position

Exercise 1: Complete the following letter using these key phrases:

1. to contact us 2. Yours sincerely 3. look forward to receiving 4. the first time 5. in due course 6. as requested 7. to assist 8. to draw your attention 9. further information 10. personal assistant 11. price list and catalogue

Sunshine Flavours Ltd.

44 Emerald Drive

Ireland

17 November 2000

Mme Susanne Dufrais,

Les Gourmets du Poitu S.A.

44000 Poitiers

France

Dear Madam,

__________, we enclose for your attention our 1999 _______ . I would like ________ to the fact that all our products are made from completely natural ingredients and that we do not use any artificial additives.

There are 213 different items in the catalogue and our prices are reasonable and our quality is good. This is ______ that we have included Scratch 'n' Sniff samples of our ten most popular aromas.

Should you require ________ , please do not hesitate ________ . If the undersigned is unavailable, the Sales Manager's ___________ will be delighted _________ you.

We ________ your esteemed order _________ .

J. G. O'Reilly

J.G. O'Reilly

Sales manager

Exercise 2: The previous letter is the answer to a letter of request. Try to draw up this letter! You may find the following phrases useful:

Your firm has been recommended to us by…

We have seen your advertisement in…

We are interested in…

We are considering buying…

Will you please send us your price list/catalogue/ further details…

Joining sentences    Grammar

Ideas in writing can be connected in three different ways:

By using a conjunction:

TIME: and, before, after, while, when

REASON, CAUSE, OR CONSEQUENCE: and, because, so that, sothat, such athat

CONTRAST: but, although

e.g. I called her back so that I could confirm one or two details.

The consignment was delivered while we were very busy.

The goods were repacked so quickly that we had no time to inspect them.

By using a linking adverbial phrase (often starting a new sentence):

TIME: Before that, After that, And then, During this time

REASON, CAUSE OR CONSEQUENCE: Because of this, This is why, As a result, Consequently

CONTRAST: Nevertheless, However

e.g. I wanted to confirm one or two details. That is why I called her back.

The consignment was delivered. During this time we were very busy.

The goods were repacked at once. Consequently, there was no time to inspect them.

By using a preposition:

TIME: before, after, during

REASON, CAUSE OR CONSEQUENCE: because of, due to

CONTRAST: in spite of

e.g. I called her back because of the need to confirm one or two details.

The consignment was delivered during a very busy time.

Due to our prompt repacking procedure, the goods were not inspected.

To show PURPOSE, an infinitive clause can also be used:

Billing has been computerised in order to save time and money.

Exercise 3: Join the two halves of these sentences so that they make sense:

1. I never sign a letter although a phone call is quicker

2. I often prefer to write    after I have checked our stock position

3. I usually telephone before I have read it through

4. Please check my in-tray    because we do not have sufficient stocks

5. I will be able to confirm this in order to save time

6. I will be able to confirm this until we have checked our stock position.

7. We cannot confirm the order while I am away at the conference.

8. Please reply at once so that we can order the supplies we need

9. Please reply as soon as possible when I have consulted our manager

Exercise 4: Use a prepositional phrase instead of the conjunctions in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence using the phrase on the right. The first has been done for you as an example.

1. Who is dealing with your correspondence while you are away? during

Who is dealing with your correspondence during your absence?

2. I went to see the factory after I had looked round the offices.     after

3. I'll have to see the shipping manager before I confirm the order. before

4. There was a delay because we had some technical problems. because of

5. It was completed on time although some of the staff were ill. in spite of

6. The visitors arrived while you were having your lunch break. during

7. As the number of orders had fallen, the works closed down. due to

8. He is on holiday now. Then he will be in touch with you. after

Exercise 5: In the following sentences 'and' is used with different meanings. Rewrite each sentence, beginning with the words below.

1. First we will check our inventory and then let you know our delivery date.

After…………..

2. Please send us another copy of your invoice and we will pay it at once.

If …………….

3. The consignment was packed for export and loaded on the truck.

Before ………….

4. Each order is manufactured and the packaging is printed at the same time.

While …………..

5. Please inform us of your telex number and we will be able to reply to your query at once.

So that ……………..

Exercise 6: Now complete these sentences in the same way:

1. The reason why he applied for the job abroad was to earn more money.

So that he ………..

2. A single man couldn't lift the package because it was very heavy.

The package was so ……….

3. The order arrived late but we were able to supply the goods on time.

Although …………

4. There was fog at the airport, but our plane landed safely.

In spite of………..

5. As there was a mistake in the hotel booking, I had to find another hotel.

Because of ………

6. The reason why I sent a telex was that I wanted to avoid any mistakes.

In order to ………..

Abbreviations

Exercise 7: Complete these sentences by explaining what the abbreviations printed in bold type mean:

1. Rd., St. and Sq. are short for ………….

2. #24 in the USA and No. 24 in Britain both mean …………….

3. On an envelope the abbreviations c/o, Attn. and P.O.B. mean…….

4. You may see these on a report or textbook: e.g. or eg, i.e. or ie, etc. or etc and P.T.O. They stand for ………..

5. An American firm's name may be followed by Corp. or Inc., meaning……….

6. A British firm's name may be followed by plc or PLC, Ltd, Bros or &Co. These are short for…….

7. In a printed text you may see this abbreviation: Macintosh TM. It means ………….

8. At the end of an informal letter, you might add a P.S., in other words a …………

9. At the end of a formal business letter it is common to use the abbreviations c.c. and enc. or encl., which stand for……….

Exercise 8: Fill the gaps in these sentences with words from the list:

carbon copy courier duplicate general delivery (US) /poste restante (GB)

photocopy postage and packing mail (US)/post (GB) registered return mail (US)/ return of post (GB) RSVP separate cover stationery

1. A package can be delivered by the mailman (US) or the postman (GB) or by a private …….. service.

2. Purchases usually carry an extra charge for ………….. if they're sent by ……..

3. An important or valuable document is best sent by ………… mail.

4. It shows that you are efficient if you reply to a letter by ………..

5. If you want people to reply to an invitation, put …………. at the bottom.

6. If you send some documents in a separate envelope from your letter, these documents are sent under ……..

7. If you're sending someone a letter, you should keep a …………… or a …………., so that you can keep a …………. for your files.

8. Envelopes, ball-points, felt tips and paper clips are all items of …………

9. A letter can be collected from a post office if it is addressed to …………

Exercise 9: Note the use of abbreviations in telex language. Match the abbreviations on the left to the full forms on the right:

1.PLS A. with reference to

2. RQD B. payment

3. YR C. as soon as possible

4. TLX D. letter of credit

5. ASAP E. your

6. ATTN F. bill of lading

7. REF/RE G. required

8. PYT H. request

9. RQST I. for the attention of

10. L/C J. telex

11. B/L K. please

12. CNTR L. received

13. RCVD M. container

14. DISCNT N. apologies

15. DSPTCH O. discount

16. APOLS P. despatch

Exercise 10: Expand the following telexes into full messages:

1. PLS CONFIRM DOCS TO BE RELEASED AGAINST PYT OFFF20M OR FF22M AND ADVISE SUN LTD ACCORDINGLY

2. DELIVERY ORDER 47/92 RQD URGENTLY. PLS SEND

3. APOLS DELAY ORDER.WILL DSPTCH.

Exercise 11: Now use the following messages to send telexes:

1. We are pleased to inform you that we have sent delivery order 47/92 today.

2. We regret to inform you we cannot despatch the goods today because of the dock strike.

3. For orders over 250 items we can offer a 10% discount.

Look at the following memo:

FROM : A. Peters TO: Accounts/ Billing

DATE 24-10

SUBJECT Sun Ltd.

Would you let us know whether the import documents should be released against payment of 20 or 22m. francs? Then let Sun Ltd. know.

Thanks.

COPIES TO: - INITIALS: AP

Now write an answering memo to the one above.

4 REPORTS AND SUMMARIES

Planning and writing reports. Practice in writing reports. Using the passive. Punctuation. Note-taking. Summarising reports.

Background information

It is important to remember that there are several types of report. Reports can be transmitted in the form of:

- conversations

- letters

- memos

- special forms

- separate documents of several pages.

Reports can serve various purposes. There are reports which inform, reports which provide background information to help someone make up their mind about something and there are reports which in themselves make recommendations or indicate the course of action.

Any report has 3 main parts:

Introduction

Facts

Conclusions

It is important in any writing -and especially in business- to be clear about the aims and purposes of your writing. In order that your reader can make sense of what you have written, follow these 'Golden Rules':

be accurate be brief be clear

Exercise 1: Read the following memo and imagine you are one of the divisional personnel managers to whom the memo is addressed:

MEMORANDUM

From: The Managing Director To: Divisional Personnel Managers

Subject: Coffee-Making Facilities Date: 27/4/-

There have been a number of comments about the amount of coffee consumed in our company. I do not want to sound as though I am against coffee-drinking; indeed our personnel consultants have emphasised how important coffee can be if you want an efficient and motivated office staff. But time-saving machines for making coffee do exist.

We can expect a little opposition to the idea if we are not careful. You can never be sure how the office staff will react. They might well take it badly. In any case, we're thinking of putting in coffee machines. Please send me a report.

1. What do you think the managing director's aims were in writing the memo?

2. What, if anything, are you expected to do as a result of reading the memo?

Exercise 2: Look at the following report which was written after receiving the above memo from the MD. Do you think the report is what the MD asked for? How effective do you think the report is? Describe what you find good and what you find bad about it.

REPORT ON COFFEE-MAKING AND BREAKS

It is very interesting that the coffee-making habits of our employees have been noticed by other people in the company. It appears as if the time taken up by the making of coffee could be put to more productive use. We have also known for several years that there have been a number of problems connected with the motivation of our workforce, but the role played by coffee-drinking has so far not been clarified.

In one or two departments, staff seems to talk about nothing else but coffee breaks: how long it is till the break, whose turn it is to make it, etc. This unfortunate development has been discussed with the heads of department in my division on several occasions. They believe the subject of automated coffee machines, one for each department e.g., is not very popular with a large number of staff. The staff think that the company would be trying to make money out of them. So I think that there is a serious danger that the actions of the management could be misunderstood.

Nonetheless, I feel that we should try and limit the coffee-breaks. We should try to prevent the staff from gathering round the coffee-making area and chatting for so long. I wonder if you have heard of the experience of our American sister company. They have a central coffee-making facility for all the divisional offices. This is then brought to the staff at their desks. In this way there is no need for a break. In theory this is surely one way of making working time more efficient.

Exercise 3: You probably agree that the MD's intentions were unclear. What kind of report you write depends on how you interpret the memo.

1. Look at the following memo for a clearer specification of what the MD really wanted:

MEMORANDUM

From: The Managing Director for please

To: Personnel Manager    ACTION DISPLAY

Division A COMMENT FILE

Date: 27 April 19-    INFORMATION RETURN

DISCUSSION PASS TO:…………..

Subject: Installation of coffee machines

The Board is thinking of installing automatic coffee machines in the offices of each division. Before we do this we need to know:

1 how much use our staff will make of them

2 how many we would need

3 whether time now used for making coffee would be saved.

Can you provide us with your views on:

- how the staff will react to the idea and

- how we can deal with the union on the matter.

If possible, I would like to receive your report before the next Board Meeting on June 1st.

2. Draft a report on the subject of the installation of coffee machines.

3. Compare your report with the one above.

Now look at the 'model' report below. Consider some of the things you find good about it.

From: Personnel Manager Division A

To: Managing Director

Date: 16 May 19-

Subject: Proposed Installation of automatic coffee machines

1. Following your memorandum of 27 April we carried out a small study of staff views in 3 selected departments.

2. My personnel officer informally asked a representative sample of office workers a number of questions. He asked whether

they drank coffee during their break

they made it themselves or brought it with them from home

they would be in favour of a short coffee-break

they would use an automatic coffee-machine if available.

3. We can summarise the results as follows:

65% said they enjoy a good cup of coffee

Only 5% brought their own coffee with them from home

25% would be in favour of a shorter coffee-break and finishing earlier

15% said they would use the automatic coffee-machine.

But most added: if the coffee was not expensive.

4. On 30 April, during a routine meeting with the chief union representative, I mentioned that in some departments the coffee-break was lasting a lot longer than is actually allowed. The representative's answer was not very helpful. She said the union would always insist on the coffee-break being left as it is. There is a point beyond which no negotiation would be possible without asking all the union members in the company their opinion.

In conclusion, it seems important to draw the Board's attention to possible difficulties which the rapid installation of coffee-machines could bring. We need to discuss the problem a little longer and with more people before taking any action, it would seem.

Ronald Greenfield

Using the passive    Grammar

A Sample sentences

Finished products are stored in the warehouse.

The new plant will be opened by the Corporation President.

Staff have been recruited by the Human Resources Department.

B Form

ACTIVE VOICE

TENSE

PASSIVE VOICE

This bank usually grants such loans.

Present Simple

am/is/are + V3 (Past Participle)

Such loans are usually granted by this bank.

This bank is currently granting such loans.

Present Continuous

am/is/are + being + V3 (Past Participle)

Such loans are currently being granted by this bank.

This bank granted such loans last year.

Past Simple

was/were + V3 (Past Participle)

Such loans were granted by this bank last year.

This bank was granting such loans when I worked there.

Past Continuous

was/were + being + V3 (Past Participle)

Such loans were being granted by this bank.

This bank has never granted such loans.

Present Perfect Simple

have/has + been + V3 (Past Participle)

Such loans have never been granted by this bank.

They said that bank had granted such loans.

Past Perfect Simple

had + been + V3 (Past Participle)

They said that such loans had been granted by that bank.

This bank will grant such loans.

Future Simple

will + be + V3 (Past Participle)

Such loans will be granted by this bank.

They said that bank would grant such loans.

Future in the Past

would + be + V3 (Past Participle)

They said such loans would be granted by that bank.

This bank can grant such loans.

Modals

modal + be + V3 (Past Participle)

Such loans can be granted by this bank.

C Uses

We use the passive:

-to avoid mentioning the person who performs the action

-to emphasise the person who performs the action with a 'by' phrase

-in process description

-in impersonal language

a. Avoiding mentioning the person who performs the action:

The accounts have been prepared.

(We are not interested in who prepared the accounts.)

b. Emphasising the person who performs the action:

The figures have been prepared by our new accountants.

(In speech, we usually put the information to be emphasised at the end of a clause. We call this

'end-weight'. So here 'our new accountants' gets more focus than 'the figures'.)

c. In process descriptions:

At the final stage, the finished products are packed into boxes.

(We are not interested in the agent, but in the action.)

d. In impersonal language:

Hard hats must be worn on the building sites at all times.

(The passive is widely used in formal written announcements.)

Exercise 4: Consider what the difference in emphasis between each of these pairs of sentences is:

A room has been reserved for you at the Grand Hotel.

We have booked a room for you at the Grand Hotel.

The consignment was sent last week, so you should receive it soon.

We sent the consignment last week, so you should get it soon.

No capital is required if your company is well known.

You don't need any capital if your company is well known.

Exercise 5: Rewrite each sentence, starting with the words given, so that it has the same meaning:

1. Six out of seven of the world's largest corporations se IBM computers.

IBM computers…..

2. We enclose payment together with our order.

Payment…..

3. We will send the report as soon as it has been completed.

The report……

4. The customer should receive the delivery by Friday.

The delivery………

5. They may have notified him before the invoice arrived.

He…….

6. The partners paid the staff every Friday evening.

The staff……

7. When he came back from lunch, the secretary had corrected and retyped the report.

The report…….

8. They have enlarged the premises since my last visit.

The premises……..

9. According to a recent report the group is making similar investments in other parts of the world.

Similar investments…….

Exercise 7: Rewrite these passive sentences in the active form. Begin with the words given.

1. The first automatic coffee machine was installed in 1982.

The firm……

2. Further modifications will be made to this service for other customers.

The suppliers……..

3. The machines can be easily operated by ordinary office staff.

Ordinary office staff……

4. The new generation of PCs can be placed comfortably on your desk.

You……..

5. Better results can be achieved only if you work harder.

You……..

6. All relevant information about the meeting will be supplied in advance.

The organisers……..

Exercise 8: Look at the following sentences which might be found in a report.

1. It is suggested that the coffee machines should be installed so that the maximum time can be used for more productive work.

2. It is felt that Mr Brown is too old to continue in his present position.

3. It is regretted that the board of directors failed to inform the shareholders of the risks of investing in South Africa.

Why do you think the passive forms are used in these sentences? Would you like to receive letters or to read reports written like this? Who do you think is making the suggesting, regretting and feeling in each case? How would you rewrite the sentences?

Note: The style of writing has undergone some changes in recent years. Traditionally, there has been a tendency to over-use the passive voice in business writing, particularly in reports. The habit was probably connected with the mistaken idea that reports need to be 'objective'. This led to a style of writing which was cold, lifeless. If the impersonal passive is used a lot, it makes it difficult to read letters or reports. There is a trend now towards using the active form.

Punctuation

Exercise 9: What are the names of these punctuation marks in English?

1. comma 2. stroke/ slash 3. brackets/parentheses 4. semi-colon 5. double quotes/ quotation marks/ inverted commas 6. hyphen 7. exclamation mark 8. full stop/ period 9. colon

10. question mark 11. single quotes 12. apostrophe

Exercise 10: Look at the following text. Decide where to add punctuation. You'll also need to add some Capital Letters.

memo from the md to all staff date 25th november 19- as a result of the productivity survey carried out in the factory more rapid and efficient ways of operating are now being applied in the factory productivity has been increased by over 50 per cent the management intends to apply these same methods to office staff in order to reduce costs our company must adapt in a competitive world we aim to find ways of avoiding unnecessary actions by all staff we therefore propose to pay a months extra salary to any person who in the managements opinion has put forward the most practical suggestions to improve a particular office routine all suggestions should be sent to the mds office before the end of next month

Writing reports and summaries    Vocabulary

Exercise 11: Fill the gaps with words from the list:

circular classify clarify cover essentials observe recipient submit topic transmit

1. The purpose of writing letters, memos and reports is usually to…………… information from one person to another.

2. But before you begin writing a report about anything at all, you need to………….the purpose for which you are writing it.

3. Before writing a report about a complicated process, you will find it helpful to……………. it first for a period of time.

4. You will also need to………….. all the data you have collected.

5. At the top of the memo or report don't forget to name the……………… .

6. You should start a new paragraph for each new………………. .

7. When you finally do write a report, the pieces of information you should never forget are the…………… .

8. The deadline is the latest time you can………………….a report.

9. When you are writing a summary of what has happened, you should always try to…………… the main points.

10. A letter that is sent to any different people in a company is called a ………….. (letter).

Telephone notes

Exercise 12: Look at the following set of telephone notes. Then read the message:


TELEPHONE NOTES

DATE: 17/5/-- TIME: 2.45 p.m.

MESSAGE FOR: Ron Black

Dispatch Department

FROM: Mr Akombo, Lagos

MESSAGE: Components not on overnight

flight from Stansted. Telex with longer instructions coming

Please contact when telex arrives

TAKEN BY: Pauline Frazer

'A Mr Akombo called on long-distance from Lagos. They've still not received those components we sent. They weren't on the overnight flight from Stansted and he's getting a bit impatient. He said he's sending a telex with longer instructions. He wants you to contact him when it arrives.'

Now you'll read another phone call -this time you'll have to make notes yourself.

'Hello! This is Jonathan Shelley calling from Offshore Products. I'd like to leave a message for Jeremy Spencer. It's about the meeting tomorrow at 10 am. I'm afraid I won't be able to make it until later. I suggest 12 noon instead. If it's possible could you ask him to call me later today before 5 p.m. And my number is 021 563 2427. That's right. Bye.'


TELEPHONE NOTES

DATE: ………… TIME: ………….

MESSAGE FOR:………………………………………

………………………………………………………………

FROM: …………………………………………………

MESSAGE: ……………………………………………

……………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………

TAKEN BY:…………………………………………

5 THE PLACE OF WORK



Talking about where you work. Agreeing and disagreeing. Referring to the past.

Describing a company's activities, organisation and history.

Background information:

In business there are many occasions on which you can be expected to talk about the place of work. This may include showing someone around the office or premises. But it may also involve referring to the way in which the company is organised and run.

Businesses come in every shape and size. While the great majority of the world's businesses are small, large firms often dominate the economy in some countries. Large businesses differ very much from small ones in a wide variety of ways. In many countries there are both private firms and nationalised firms belonging to the government. A small private firm may have just one owner but a very large firm has thousands of shareholders.

In very large firms the owners have very little to do with the day-to-day running of the firm. This is left to the management. Very large companies may be organised into several large departments, or sometimes even divisions. The organisational structure of some companies is very hierarchical with the board of directors at the top and the various departmental heads reporting to them.

Many large firms have manufacturing plants and trading locations in several different countries spread around the world. The physical surroundings of most modern places of work, especially offices, are becoming more and more similar. Although there may be differences from country to country, offices do not vary very widely. Office furniture tends to be similar -desks, chairs, filing cabinets, office equipment such as typewriters and personal computers or computer terminals on many desks.

Agreeing and disagreeing

There are different ways of reacting to other people's opinions, depending on how well you know the person and whether you agree or disagree.

We can use the following scale to show the range:

agreement    partial agreement disagreement.

We can also distinguish between agreeing with someone and agreeing to something.

Agreeing with someone

Agreeing to something

agreement

I totally agree with you.

I fully/completely agree.

I'm in total agreement with you there.

I couldn't agree more.

I totally accept that.

I fully/completely agree.

I'm all in favour of that

That's exactly what I think.

That's a good point. I agree entirely.

partial agreement

Up to a point/To a certain extent I'd agree with you, but.

You may have something there but

You could/may be right, but

I suppose you're right, but

I see your point, but

Up to a point/To a certain extent I'd accept that, but

That may be so, but

disagreement

(I'm afraid) I can't agree with you.

I don't agree.

I disagree completely.

I think you're wrong.

(I'm afraid) I can't accept that.

That's not how I see it

That's out of the question.

Note

Agree and accept:

I agree with you. (with someone; not: I am agree with you)

I agree with Alan's suggestion. (with something; = I have the same opinion as)

I agree with you about/on the need for change. (= to share the same opinion about/on something)

I agree to your credit terms. (agree to something = to be willing to accept/allow something)

I agree to review your credit position in a few months. (agree to do something; not: accept to do something)

I accept your suggestion. (to accept something; not: to agree something)

Exercise 1: Look at these rather extreme positions:

All companies should offer their employees free lunches.

Smoking should be forbidden in offices.

All offices should have flowers in them.

Overtime should be obligatory if the day's work is not done.

Provide responses to each topic using the expressions above. For example:

'I can see what you mean, but it would be a difficult thing to introduce.' or 'I agree entirely.'

Exercise 2: Match the phrase on the left with an acceptable continuation from the list on the right. The first has been done as an example.

You may be right up to one point. There's just one detail I would question.

I can't agree with you. But I can't agree with your conclusion

I'm in complete agreement. But we need to consider another question, too.

I agree with the first part of what you say. I see it totally differently.

I agree with most of your analysis. As you say, there's clearly no alternative.

Exercise 3: Provide one word in each space to complete the following sentences.

1 I can't _________ that. It's quite untrue.

2 I agree _________ provide more support.

3 I agree _________ to a point.

4 You're mainly right, _________ I'm not sure about the last part of your argument.

5 I' m sorry, I disagree _________ you. It's not quite like that.

6 Okay, I agree _________ your request.

Describing the company organisation

A Sample sentences

The company is headed by the Managing Director.

The sales director is supported by a sales team.

The R & D Department is responsible for new product development.

The parent company is based in Brussels, with subsidiaries in Frankfurt and Milan.

B Form and uses

We can describe an organisation in terms of:

- hierarchy    -affiliates

- responsibilities/functions -structures

- titles

  1 Hierarchy   

The company is headed by the MD.

The Sales Director reports to the MD. (not: depends on)

The Sales Director is under the MD.

The Sales Director is supported by a sales team.

The Sales Director is assisted by a Sales Assistant.

2 Responsibilities/functions

The Controller is responsible for accounting throughout the company.

The Production Department takes care of product manufacturing.

The Factory Manager is in charge of plant and equipment.

3 Titles

Below are the main managerial titles with common US equivalents in brackets:

Chairman/Chairperson (President)

Managing Director (Chief Executive Officer/Senior Vice-President)

Finance Director (Vice-President Finance)

Sales Manager (Sales Director)

Note: The directors and chairman of a company usually sit on the board of directors (executive board).

4 Affiliates

Rossomon International is the parent company.

Rossomon France, Rossomon Germany and Rossomon Japan are subsidiaries.

5 Structure

Exercise 4: This exercise is concerned with describing corporate organisation. Complete the following paragraph, using the correct form of the words in the box.

The DSA Corporation consists of three _______________ , Building Materials, Construction and Civil engineering, DSA _______________ in New York and comprises four _____________ , KAF Inc., Halcon, Conway and RoadCo. Each of these is ______________ a Senior Vice-President who ___________ the ___________ .

subsidiary division be based in parent company be headed by report to

Exercise 5: This exercise is concerned with describing management hierarchy. Complete the following paragraph, using the correct form of an appropriate word or phrase from the box.

KAF Inc. is a building materials manufacturing company in Detroit. KAF ________________ the CEO, _____________ the Board of Directors, which ____________ four people. The staff in each of the four departments are ______________ a Vice-President who is also on the Board. In each department, a managerial team of directors _________ the Vice-President. In the Sales Department, one director _______________ exports, the other ____________ domestic sales.

be responsible for be in charge of be supported by support

be accountable to consist of be headed by

Referring to the past    Grammar

There are different ways of speaking about past events and actions in English:

The Past Simple

A Form

The past simple comprises:

one part in the positive, i.e. V2

two parts in the negative and interrogative, i.e. did + V1

1 Positive form    2 Negative form 3 Interrogative form

Last year I/you/he/she/they    At that time I/you/he/she/they Did I/you/he/she/they fill in the

worked in personnel. didn't know the forecast. form correctly?

B Uses

We use the past simple:

To indicate an activity at a specific time in the past:

I heard about the takeover last week.

To ask when an activity happened:

When did you retire?

Notes

1 Once we have explicitly mentioned a specific time in the past, all the following activities are understood to happen within that time frame, i.e. in the past:

Last year we introduced a new quality control system. After the system came into force, we reduced the number of rejects by 10 per cent.

2 Typical past time markers include:

yesterday on + day/date, e.g. on Monday, on 21 January

ago in + month/year, e.g. in July, in 1983

last at that time

The Past Continuous

A Form

The past continuous comprises two parts:

the past tense of to be + V1 ing

1 Positive form    2 Negative form 3 Interrogative form

I/He/She was checking I/He/She was not/wasn't What was I/he/she doing at this

the stock.    expecting a delivery. time last year?

We/you/they were checking We/you/they were not/weren't What were we/you/they doing..?

expecting

B Uses

We use the past continuous to describe:

actions in progress at some time in the past:

This time last year we were trying to cut fuel costs.

actions which began before something else happened:

Just as I was leaving the house, the phone rang.

parallel actions:

While we were seeking a solution, they were doing everything to oppose us.

The Present Perfect Simple

A Form

The present perfect simple comprises two parts:

has/have + V3 (Past Participle of the verb)

1 Positive form 2 Negative form 3 Interrogative form

I/you/we/they have/'ve finished I/you/we/they have not/ Have I/we/you/they finished?

the project.    haven't finished

He/she has/'s finished the project. He/she has not/ Has he/she finished?

hasn't finished

B Uses

The present perfect simple tense is used:

To indicate a recent activity:

I've just returned from the meeting.

He's recently arrived from New York.

I've already typed the letter.

Have you passed your driving test yet?

I haven't passed my driving test yet.

To indicate an activity at some non-specific time in the past with an impact or result in the present or future:

The government has reduced interests rates. (present result = rates are now lower)

but The government reduced interest rates last week. (specific time in the past)

We have recruited six new workers. (present result = six new employees)

but We recruited six new workers at the beginning of May. (specific time in the past)

To indicate an activity within a period of time which is not yet finished, i.e. unfinished time:

Quality has improved this year. (The year is not yet finished.)

but Quality improved last year. (Last year is finished.)

To indicate an activity which started in the past and continues up to the present:

So far/ Up to now we have purchased three companies. (in the period between then and now)

She has worked as Purchasing Manager since 1989. (She started in 1989 and she is still Purchasing Manager today.)

The company has operated from this site for five years. (It started operations here five years ago and is still operating here today.)

The Present Perfect Continuous

A Form

The present perfect continuous comprises two parts:

the present perfect of to be + V1 ing

1 Positive form    2 Negative form 3 Interrogative form

I/you/we/they have/ 've been I/you/we/they have not/ Have I/you/we/they been using?

using the agency.    haven't been using

He/she has/'s been using He/she has not/hasn't Has he/she been using?

the agency. been using

2 Uses

The present perfect continuous tense is used:

To indicate an activity at some non-specific time in the past with an impact or result in the present or future:

We have been reviewing our software development programme.

Here, the verb phrase 'have been reviewing' indicates an action over a period of time.

but We've just finished reviewing our software development programme.

Here, the verb phrase 'have finished reviewing' indicates an action at a point of time ('to finish' cannot happen over a period of time).

To indicate an activity which started in the past and continuous to the present:

We have been developing quality toys since 1953.

Again, the verb phrase 'have been developing' indicates an action over a period of time; in this case the period of time is specified.

Compare the following sentences:

Since the beginning of the year we have tested three new applications.

We have been testing three new applications since the beginning of the year.

In the first sentence we are interested in the fact that the tests are now finished and that we can now come to some conclusions, or move on to a new stage in the development cycle; in the second sentence we are interested in the action itself -the testing- and its duration.

The Past Perfect Simple

A Form

The past perfect comprises two parts:

had + V3

1 Positive form    2 Negative form 3 Interrogative form

I/you/he/she/we/they had/'d I/you/he/she/we/they had Had I/you/he/she/they finished?

finished the project. not/hadn't finished

B Uses

We use the past perfect tense with reference to an 'earlier past', i.e. to describe the first of two or more actions:

When we installed the new software, it had already become obsolete. (First the software became obsolete. Then they installed it.)

Before we appointed the new chairman, out share prices had been very low.

Exercise 6: Complete the following extract by choosing the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use either the past simple or the present perfect simple.

Last year our company ____________ (report) a small increase in profits. This year we _________ (see) continued improvement and our turnover __________ (rise) by 15 percent. This is very good news in a difficult world market. In fact internationally, the market _________ (fall). Naturally, our costs _________ (go up) and so the rise in profits is not so great. It is true that our domestic performance ___________ (be helped) by the collapse of our competitor, Capra & Pecora, which ___________ (go out of business) in January.

Exercise 7: Fill in the gaps with a suitable verb from the list using the correct form of the verb. The first sentence has been done for you.

go have open post receive search

start stop use visit work send

1. She's been trying to get through to head office all morning.

2. Our company . computers in its offices now for a long time.

3. We're very busy today. The phone .. hardly ringing since I arrived in the office this morning.

4. . you. Madrid before? Yes, I there last year on business.

5. In 1986 our enterprise .. a factory in South America.

6. I working here when I left school.

7. 'Is your secretary still looking for the file?' /Yes, she . for it for the past twenty minutes.'

8. While you .. lunch, Mr Casagrande phoned.

9. We .. the letter to our parent company a week ago, but we a reply yet.

10. His firm him to their New York office and he .. there ever since.

Company world    Vocabulary

Exercise 8: Fill in the gaps with words from the list.

administration commerce corporate involve launch merge phase prosper take over white-collar

1. How many people are . in marketing the new product?

2. The latest model of our electric car will be . on 1 January 2000.

3. When a firm begins to do badly on the stock market, plans are often made to change its structure.

4. The management of the contemporary corporations requires people who know how to .

5. Despite the problems in our sector our company expects to continue to in the next twelve months.

6. Hong Kong has always been a centre of .

7. Giant companies which have been successful in the past have normally with their closest rivals.

8. In the course of the history of our company we have gone through several .. of development.

9. After a brief slump in annual growth they were .. by a major competition.

10. In order to deal with all the additional paper-work we need to expand the . staff by several hundred.

A firm's history

Exercise 9: Read the following passage about the history of a company.

'Over the decades, the name of Siemens has become synonymous with progress Since 1847,when Werner Siemens and Johann Georg Halske founded the Siemens & Halske Telegraph Construction Company in Berlin, the history of Siemens has been closely linked with the development of electrical engineering. While still a fledgling firm, Siemens & Halske spearheaded the evolution of the telegraphy with the first pointer telegraph and the construction of an extensive telegraph network. In 1866 Werner Siemens invented the dynamo machine, laying the cornerstone of power engineering.

New ideas are an old tradition at Siemens. The company that grew out of the original Siemens & Halske is today a highly innovative leader in the world electrical and electronics market. Composed of Siemens AG and an array of domestic and foreign subsidiaries, the contemporary Siemens organisation continues to set milestones on the road of progress.

Siemens maintains its own production facilities in 35 countries and operates a world-wide sales network. With more than 300,000 employees, it is one of the largest companies in the world electrical/electronics industry, having recorded annual sales of DM 54 billion in the 198687 fiscal year. Reliable and farsighted management is united with the youthful dynamism and zest for innovation that typify the company.'

(adapted from Jones, Leo. International Business English. Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 52)

Now complete the information missing in this table:

Dates

What happened?

Who did what?

invention of the dynamo machine

recorded annual sales of .

6 IMPORT AND EXPORT

Ordering and supplying goods or services. Making and answering enquiries. Getting and giving information. Talking about the future.

Getting and giving information

Take a look at these expressions:

If you require some information you can say:

Or you can write:

We require the following information

Please let us know whether/when/how much

When someone gives you information, you can reply:

If someone asks you for information, you can reply:


If you want to give someone some information you can say:

Or you can write:

We should like to inform you that

Here is the information you required

If someone hasn't given you enough information you can say:

Exercise 1: Using the expressions above, ask questions to find out information about :

- a company where someone works

- someone's home town

- someone's career

- someone's family

Sales and delivery    Vocabulary

Exercise 2 : Fill the gaps with suitable words from the list below.

backlog    bill of lading bulky cash on delivery

cash with order crates grade hold-up inventory control (US)/stock control (GB) margin premium retail

special delivery surcharge value added tax volume wholesale

1. The profits made on a product vary according to the of sales and there is not normally a fixed profit .. on the unit price.

2. The price of this product (the price the consumer pays) is $ 8.99 incl. VAT() -about 60% more than the . price.

3. As we have been carrying out a(n) .. , there is a in processing orders. We apologise for any inconvenience caused by this . .

4. As part of the consignment is very urgent, we'll be making a . of two of the twenty you have ordered.

5. We only supply .. one products of quality. Very . consignments are shipped by sea. There is no . for small orders.

6. If you buy something by mail order it's normal to pay C.W.O. (), rather than C.O.D. (.).

7. A B/L (..) is a list of goods being transported, especially by ship, together with the conditions that apply to their transportation.

Making enquiries

Exercise 3: Draft a short letter of enquiry explaining your needs, to be sent by airmail or fax to a battery company.

Your letter should be written in a formal style and include this information:

Introduce your firm and its products to the reader:

We are

State the purpose of your letter:

We are seeking a supplier of

Give an exact description or specification of goods you require -size, weight, material, quantity, delivery, special features:

This is the specification of the goods we require

Explain what you want the reader to do:

Please quote to us your best delivered price and shipping date.

Before placing an order we would need to examine samples of the product.

State the terms, methods of payment, discounts you expect:

We usually pay by confirmed 60-day irrevocable letter of credit.

End requesting an early reply:

We look forward to receiving an early reply.

Expressing future time Grammar

Different ways of talking or writing about future events in English have different meanings:

Tense

Meaning/circumstance

Example

Present Simple

an official plan or arrangement according to a schedule

in conditional and temporal clauses

The shareholders' meeting starts at 8 o'clock tomorrow.

This agreement will be signed if/when the merged companies' management meets.

Present Continuous

a future event which is planned by the speaker/subject (the decision is all his)

I am flying to London in order to attend the matches of the national football team.

Future Simple

(will/'ll + V1)

a neutral future event; a prediction about future

Next year our company will issue a new series of shares.

Future Continuous

the future simple of to be + Ving)

an action in progress at a future given time

We'll be discussing this issue at the 10 o'clock meeting next Monday.

Future Perfect Simple (will/'ll have + V3)

a future action completed before a future moment (+ by/before/until)

They will have taken the decision by next week.

Future Perfect Continuous (will/'ll have been + Ving)

a future action in progress up to (and including) a certain future time

It's Tuesday. Until lunch time our experts will have been debating on the next year's budgeting.

Future in the Past

(would + V1)

the future of a subordinate clause whose main clause contains one of the past tenses

We were said that the price of food would decrease sooner than it had expected.

BE GOING TO

an intention regarding the future

The shareholders' meeting is going to take place next month.

BE ABOUT TO

in reference to the immediate/imminent future

He is about to be elected chairman of the merged company.

Exercise 4: Fill the gaps in these sentences, using the correct form of the verbs below. The first is done for you as an example.

arrive ask fly leave phone put

see sneeze work write

1. Will you be able to find out when the first plane to Paris leaves?

2. Tomorrow, I . the boss for a rise and that's definite!

3. By the time I retire, I . here for 10,000 working days.

4. She to Spain on Tuesday to meet our clients in Seville.

5. I. the documents in the post to you first thing tomorrow.

6. Please don't disturb me for the next half hour, I.. Tokyo.

7. Excuse me Mr Grey, when. you to our Norwegian clients?

8. While you . in Stockholm, . you Mr Olsson?

9. Stand back, everyone, it looks as if he !

10. Don't worry, I/m sure the spare parts . soon.

Exercise 5: Write sentences indicating:

- an action in progress at a given future time;

- an action that is going to happen very soon;

- a future event planned by the speaker;



- a neutral event in the future;

- an intention regarding the future.

7 MARKETING AND SALES

Marketing a product: market research and promotion. Comparing and contrasting. Expressing permission, possibility, probability and certainty.

Local products   

Think of eight products (goods and services) that are produced or provided in your city or region and answer the questions below:

1. a brand of beer or a soft drink

2. a grocery product (breakfast cereal, health food, etc)

3. an industrial product (machines, consumer goods, vehicles, etc)

4. a service (e.g. cleaning)

5. a place of entertainment (theatre, cinema, etc)

6. a public service (telephones, mail, transport, etc)

7. an educational service

8. a financial service (bank, insurance company, etc)

9. another well-known local product: .

-What competition does each product face? (This may not be another brand, but another type of product.)    - What is the image of each product?

- What is the image of the company that produces it?

- How strongly or weakly is each product marketed?

- Where is each product advertised?

What is marketing?    Vocabulary

Exercise 1: Fill the gaps in these sentences, using the words from the list.

creative process design distribution end-users first

hire purchase image labels mail order need opportunities

outlets patterns place posters price product

production-oriented profitably promotion range rival

satisfy strengths threats weaknesses

1. What is marketing? Marketing is the .. of satisfying customer needs .

2. What is 'the marketing mix'? It consists of 'the four P's': providing the customer with the right P . at the right P.., presented in the most attractive way (.) and available in the easiest way (P).

3. What is a 'product'? A product is not just an assembled set of components: it is something customers buy to . a they feel they have. The .. and the of the product are as important as its specification.

4. What is 'price'? The product must be priced so that it competes effectively with .. products in the same market.

5. What is 'promotion'? The product is presented to customers through advertising (TV commercials, .., etc.), packaging (design, .., etc.), publicity, P.R. and personal selling.

6. What is 'place'? Your product must be available to customers through the most cost-effective channels of . . A consumer product must be offered to in suitable retail .., or available on .. or by . .

7. What is meant by 'S.W.O.T.'? A firm should be aware of its S and W. and the O and T.. it faces in the market place.

8. Why are the firms becoming more customer-oriented and less .. ? Because new products must be created to meet the changing of customers' needs -a firm can't rely on the success of its existing .. of products. The customer and his or her needs must come .!

Promotion    Vocabulary

Exercise 2: There are many ways of attracting customers to your product and of keeping your name in the public eye.

Fill the gaps with suitable words from the list.

brochures catalogues contribute direct mail display effective extent

hands-on image impact key accounts leaflets packaging

point of sale press conference press releases public relations publicity

recommend representatives reputation showrooms specific

stand toll-free trade fairs and exhibitions trademark word of mouth

1. Sales literature -., . and .. can describe your product in more detail and give more information than an advertisement. Potential customers can be sent literature by post.

2. advertising -displays in retail outlets (supermarkets, chain store, etc.) can attract the attention of potential customers.

3. . -labels and presentation increase the . of your product.

4. Sponsorship -you can . to the cost of a sporting or artistic event, where the brand name or .. of your product is displayed prominently.

5. -potential customers can come to your premises and see a or a demonstration of your products and get .. experience.

6. -your company takes a .. or mounts an exhibit to enable customers in the same trade to see your products and talk to your . .

7. -the public are informed of a new development through newspaper articles. You can inform the press by issuing .. or by holding a , so that reporters can question your spokesperson.

8. . -PR can ensure that your firm keeps a high profile, and that people are aware of your good .. and attractive .. .

9. -existing customers tell their friends or colleagues about your product and hopefully .. it to them, so that they want to buy it.

10. Telephone selling -your staff can call customers, or customers can call a .. to request sales literature or to ask for information.

11. Personal selling -your rep can visit customers: this is the most .. method of promotion, but also the most expensive. Travelling to meet a prospect may not always pay off. Your . would be visited frequently.

12. If you are marketing a service it must be 'visible' -your prospective customers must be fully aware of the .. of your services and its benefits.

Exercise 3: Consider these products. Which methods are used to promote them? Which methods would probably not be suitable?

new houses coal computers cheese

an airline a magazine rail travel bicycles

an exhibition cigarettes a circus medicines

Comparing and contrasting Grammar

Look at these rules:

ONE SYLLABLE Adjectives with one syllable form their comparatives and superlatives like this:

cheap - cheaper - the cheapest big - bigger - the biggest

large - larger - the largest low -lower - the lowest

bright - brighter - the brightest

TWO OR MORE SYLLABLES

T  Adjectives with two syllables ending in -y, -ow, and -le form their comparatives and superlatives like this:

easy - easier - the easiest

narrow - narrower - the narrowest

simple - simpler - the simplest

T  Other two-syllable adjectives and longer adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives like this:

expensive - more expensive - the most expensive

reliable - more reliable - the most reliable

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

good - better - the best

bad - worse - the worst

much/many - more - the most

little - less - the least

far - farther/further - the farthest/furthest

Exercise 4: What are the comparative and superlative forms of these adjectives?

correct, accurate, precise, reliable new, modern, up-to-date

convenient, economical, flexible    warm, friendly, kind

optimistic, happy, cheerful    pessimistic, unhappy, gloomy

funny, amusing, lively, witty    possible, likely, probable, certain

Exercise 5: Complete the following table:

slow _______________ ______________

____________ more difficult ______________

modern _______________ ______________

____________ _______________ the easiest

capable _______________ ______________

drier ______________

quick _______________ ______________

_______________ the worst

far _______________ ______________

more ______________

a little _______________ ______________

_______________ the most advanced

Read the following sentences describing UK car sales by colour:

White is the most popular colour for cars in Britain.

Red is the second most popular colour for cars in Britain.

White is a (much/far) more popular colour than blue.

or Blue is a (much/far) less popular colour than white.

or Blue isn't as popular a colour as white.

Gold cars are not (quite) as popular as yellow ones.

or Yellow cars are a bit/little more popular than gold ones.

Yellow cars are (just) as popular as brown ones.

Green seems to be the least popular colour for cars in Britain.

or Green is the most unpopular colour for cars in Britain.

About twice as many brown cars are sold as black cars in Britain.

or Half as many black cars are sold as brown cars.

More/far more red cars are sold than green cars.

or Fewer/far fewer green cars are sold than red ones.

or Not as many green cars are sold as red ones.

Most British people would never dream of buying a green car.

Exercise 6: Read the two descriptions of computer systems. Write 5 sentences which explain differences between the 2 machines.

Example: The Carro XT has a more powerful processor.

The Carro XS 386 X    The Carro XT 486 X

20 MHz Processor    33 MHz Processor

2 MB RAM memory-expandable to 32 MB    4 MB RAM memory-expandable to 64 MB

20 MHz high speed processor    33 MHz processor- ultra high speed

1.44 MB 3.5'' floppy disk drive    1.44 MB 3.5'' floppy disk drive

14'' super VGA 1024/ 768 colour monitor 17'' super VGA 1280/ 1024 colour monitor

3 years on-site warranty plan    4 years on-site warranty plan

Price 749 pounds    Price 1149 pounds

Exercise 7: Rewrite each of these sentences, using the words given. The first is done for you as an example.

1. Our product is the cheapest on the market.

No other product on the market is as cheap as ours.

2. Our product is the least expensive on the market.

All the other . .

3. There are fewer competing brands on the market nowadays than ten years ago.

There aren't as many .

4. Our product costs slightly less than theirs does.

Their product costs a little .. .

5. Their product is not as reliable as ours.

Our product is .

6. One third of consumers prefer their product to ours.

Three times . .

Expressing permission, possibility, probability and certainty Grammar

Permission is expressed by:

T  can: Only employees with protective clothing can enter the building site.

(Present permission: only employees with protective clothing are permitted to enter.)

T  could: When I worked there, only the site manager could authorise outside visits.

(Past permission: only the site manager was permitted)

T  may/might: May/might I just interrupt here? (Request of permission: Is it permitted for me to

interrupt here?)

Yes, of course you may/might. (It is permitted for you to interrupt)

Notes

1 May/might are used to express formal permission.

2 In the negative, these modal verbs express prohibition:

e.g. It's a company rule -personnel can't take more than half an hour for lunch. (Present prohibition: personnel are not permitted to take more than half an hour for lunch.)

When I worked there, personnel couldn't take more than half an hour for lunch.

(Past prohibition: personnel couldn't take more than half an hour for lunch.)

Confidential documents may not be photocopied without prior approval.

(Confidential documents are not permitted to be photocopied without prior approval.)

Possibility/impossibility is expressed by:

T  can/could (can expresses stronger possibility than could):

A large range of options can/could be identified for this company's future.

(Present possibility: it is possible to identify a large range of options.)

So, we have no idea what can/could happen to our positions next week. (Future possibility)

You can't be serious. (Present impossibility)

The meeting has been going on for two hours, so they could have decided by now. (Present

possibility in relation to earlier action: it is possible that they have decided.)

T  may/might (may expresses stronger possibility than might):

I think the meeting may/might be over now. (Present possibility: It is possible that the meeting is over now.)

Next year we may/might use that supplier. (Future possibility: It is possible that we will use that supplier.)

Probability/certainty are expressed by:

T  should (or ought to):

The meeting should/ought to be over now. (Present probability: it is probable that the meeting is over now.)

The relocation should/ought to take place at the beginning of the next month. (Future probability: it is probable that the relocation will take place.)

They sent the payment yesterday; so it should/ought to have arrived by now. (Present probability in relation to an earlier action: it is probable that it has arrived by now.)

T  will:

People will always say the things you want to hear. (certainty)

Exercise 8: Write sentences expressing:

- present possibility;

- past prohibition;

- request for permission;

- certainty;

- future probability;

- present impossibility;

- past permission.

8 A NEW JOB

Applying for a new job and seeking promotion. Relative clauses.

Letters of application

The following is a letter of application written by someone who read a job advertisement in the newspaper and decided to apply for it.

26 Falcon Street,

London WCID 5TG

18th July, 2000

Mr Lyle Emerson

Personnel Director

18 Baker Street

London W1J 9PQ

Dear Sir,

With reference to your advertisement in the Sunday Times of July 16th, I would like to apply for the post of graduate trainee in Pensions Management.

I am 21 years old and have recently graduated from Pleasantville College with an honours degree in Economics.

I would be grateful if you could send me further details and arrange an appointment in order to discuss my qualifications and the role I might play in this function.

Yours faithfully,

SHaver

Susan Haver (Miss)   

Exercise 1: Read the following job advertisement and write a letter of application for the position it advertises.

JOIN OUR PR TEAM -TOP SALARY

We need someone to join our team who can mange to do ten things at once, while remaining cool and calm in a crisis!

We are a leading PR Company [Public Relations Company] and we can offer you a fulfilling and challenging role with out Director of Travel.

You will need to be hard-working, flexible, well-organised and energetic. You'll be attending presentations, arranging meetings, travel and lunches, and liaising with executives of major international companies.

This is an excellent opportunity for the right kind of person and we'll pay you a top salary with bonuses.

Call or write today and tell us about yourself!

Jim Brown, Anglo-European PR, 99A Old St, London, W7K 7GF

tel. 01 684 5201

A Curriculum Vitae

A job advertisement will usually ask you to send in a CV. Conventions as to how to write one have been changing. Read the following fragment of an interview with a British personnel manager giving advice about writing a CV.

'A good CV these days should begin by saying what it is: a CV. So the person's name should be prominent. Then there should be a brief section on personal details: address, telephone number, nationality and marital status. And when you are applying for a post with a company in another country, or for a job that requires travel or use of one or more foreign languages, you should add here your proficiency in those languages: 'fluent', if you speak a language well; 'intermediate' if it's OK, and 'basic' if you can just about get by. Incidentally, if you have nationally or internationally recognised examination demonstrating your proficiency, it's a good idea to mention that here, too -you know, for English: the Cambridge First Certificate or the London Chamber of Commerce level 2 or 3, etc.

This should be followed by a section on qualifications and training, beginning with the most recent and moving back, so that I can see what you've been up to since your initial training. One of the most difficult things for us in personnel when evaluating applications from abroad is the problem of equivalencies. It is of no help to put down diploma which only exist in your country, unless you also put in brackets afterwards an approximate British equivalent I can relate to. Another bad habit I've noticed is to put down the name of what it is, presumably, some highly prestigious establishment within their own country, on the assumption that everybody in the world knows about it.

A related difficulty is candidates who just put the English equivalent. I had this problem recently with a young man who claimed that he had an MBA. At interview, however, we discovered he had simply translated Studii Aprofundate de Management (literally, a masters degree in management science), so the excellent level of English we were expecting from someone who had studied in the UK or the States didn't materialise. This brings me to another point: it is important to state when and where you got the qualification.

The next section -and the most important- is the one on work experience. Again, this should be in order of most recent first, so that I can see what you are doing at present and have been doing recently. For those who are applying for their first job, it is useful to mention any periods of occupational training you may have undertaken in a company or companies, or any relevant summer jobs you may have had. In this section, too, just briefly, in almost note form, main responsibilities and successes, and so on.

Finally, we in Britain like to know something about a candidate's life outside work, so a short final section on outside interests is always useful. Again, for those applying for a first job, this can sometimes be a crucial section. If you have been secretary of your local tennis club or something, it may be the only opportunity you have had to demonstrate that you are fit for positions of responsibility'

(adapted from Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Teora. 1998. pp.192-3)

Exercise 2: Now look at the following CV and decide whether the person who wrote it has followed the personnel manager's advice.

CURRICULUM VITAE

NAME: George Michaelides

PRESENT ADDRESS: 45 Richmond Road, Colchester,

Essex CO4 2JK

TELEPHONE NUMBER: 0453 25982 (home) 0453 87967 (daytime)

DATE OF BIRTH: 7th April 1960

NATIONALITY: British

MARITAL STATUS: Married, 2 children

EDUCATION AND QUALIFICATIONS:

University of London BSc Mechanical Engineering

1971 - 80 Northgate Grammar School, Ipswich,

GCE 8 '0' levels; 4 'A' levels (French, Maths, Chemistry, Physics)

EXPERIENCE:

1994 - to date: Neptune Engineering Ltd, Quay Road, Poole

(manufacturers of marine engines and equipment)

Export Sales Manager responsible to Managing Director for sales of engines to over 40 countries in Europe and overseas. Also responsible for budgeting, recruitment and training of staff.

1987 - 94: Poseidon Shipping S.A., Piraeus, Greece (manufacturers and repairers of cargo vessels)

Sales Manager responsible to owners for contracts with shipowners in all countries outside Greece. Researched and established new markets in Britain, Japan and over 20 other countries.

1984 - 87: Trident Engines, Manchester Road, Salford (manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines and transmissions)

Trainee sales engineer/Assistant Export Sales Manager responsible to Sales Manager for sales to France, Germany and Greece.

OTHER INFORMATION:

1995 - to date: Presentations at trade exhibitions in EEC countries

Technical articles in journals and conference papers

Fluent French and Greek (both spoken and written); good spoken German; reasonable spoken Italian and Spanish

Relative clauses     Grammar

Relative clauses are subordinate clauses which provide information about a noun or noun phrase. There are two types of relative clause in English:

- defining relative clauses

- non-defining relative clauses

We can distinguish them by punctuation. Non-defining clauses are enclosed by commas; defining clauses are not.

e.g. The machine which produced this printout has been withdrawn. (defining: no commas)

Pat Smith, who leads the Administration Department, will meet you on your next visit. (non-defining: commas)

Defining and non-defining

Personal Non-personal

Defining only

Personal and non-personal

subjective

objective

genitive

locative

temporal

who which

who(m) which

whose of which/whose

where

when

that

that, zero (no pronoun)

Defining relative clauses provide essential information which restricts or clarifies the meaning of the preceding noun or noun phrase by specifying its meaning more clearly.

e.g. The only person who can give you this information is out of the office at the moment.

The clause 'who ca give you this information' identifies the person; without this essential information, the sentence has a very different meaning.

Non-defining relative clauses provide additional, non-essential information.

e.g. The INJ300, which produced reasonable copy quality, has been replaced by the INJ400.

The clause 'which produced reasonable copy quality' provides additional, non-essential information; without this information the basic meaning of the sentence remains the same.

Exercise 3: Fill the gaps in these sentences with a suitable relative pronoun. Adds any commas that are missing. The first has been done for you as an example.

1. The person who impressed me most was Mr Wright. (no commas)

2. Mr Wright .. application form we received yesterday is a very promising candidate.

3. His CV . you showed me yesterday is most impressive.

4. He has excellent references from his present employers .. are ACME Engineering.

5. He was working in Norwich . they have their headquarters.

6. His qualifications .. you commented on are excellent.

7. The personnel officer .. interviewed him says that he's available at once.

8. The thing impressed her most is his personality.

Exercise 4: Make each of the following sentences into a single sentence, using a relative pronoun. The first is done for you as an example.

1. He told us about his experiences in India. This was interesting.

He told us about his experiences in India, which was interesting.

2. I heard about the vacancy from a friend. This friend works in Personnel.

3. He gave me some information. This information was supposed to be confidential.

4. I heard about this from a colleague. This colleague assured me it was true.

5. You gave a person's name as a reference. This person is unwilling to comment on you.

6. I applied for a job. I saw this job advertised in the newspaper.

7. Apparently, we sent the forms to an address. This address was wrong.

Anexa 1

Teme de casa pentru semestrul I:

(Refer to chapters 1, 2, 3, 4)

I

1. Draw up a letter of request to a supplier, requiring information regarding a product you would like to order. The letter should include the main parts of a standard business letter.

Note Pay attention to the layout of the letter (i.e. the way the main parts are arranged on the page).

2. Think of a situation where you might telephone an organisation and request information. Write 10 examples of questions you might ask, using as many types of questions as possible.

3. Translate into Romanian:

'For the modern business organisation, developing goods or services is not enough. Goods must also be available in the right quantity at the right location in order to reach the consumer. For the organisations themselves, distribution strategies should never be underrated. Developing an effective way of reaching customers may be the cornerstone upon which their successes are founded. Take Reader's Digest and the unique way in which it sells products to its customers. One reason for its success is that it reaches its customers in a better and more appropriate way than their competitors.'

(adapted from Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tanasescu. English for Business Purposes. Teora, 1998,

p. 16)

4. Translate into English:

'Mobile World Trading SRL este o companie cu renume pe plan national, al carei principal obiectiv este furnizarea telefoanelor mobile in sistem GSM si a accesoriilor aferente lor, si a aparut ca rezultat al potentialului economic pe care Romania poate sa-l asigure pentru aceasta ramura a industriei de telecomunicatii.

Mobile Trading SRL devine prima companie romaneasca dedicata exclusiv telefoanelor mobile in sistem GSM. Ea este specializata in distribuirea telefoanelor celulare. Intr-un timp foarte scurt, compania a reusit sa intre pe pietele nationale, servind o gama larga de clienti, de la utilizatorii particulari la principalii dealeri ai operatorilor de retea.

Azi Mobile World, care are deja o mare retea de dealeri pe plan international, dispune de una din cele mai mari retele pe plan national, datorita unui colectiv care asigura toata gama de servicii si produse.

Mobile World Trading nu se multumeste numai cu livrarea de produse de calitate la preturi competitive, ci se angajeaza sa asigure de fiecare data servicii de calitate clientilor sai.''

(adapted from Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tanasescu. English for Business Purposes. Teora, 1998,

pp. 16-7)

II

2. Imagine that you work for a small transport company. Write a memo to one of your colleagues complaining about a problem you have encountered and asking him to solve it.

3. Translate into Romanian:

'Since economics deal with human behaviour, economists cannot test their theories in laboratory experiments; these can only be tested against events as they unfold. The fact that the behaviour of any individual is highly unpredictable does not invalidate the formulation of economic theories because the subject is concerned with the behaviour of large groups (workers in an industry, the consumers of a particular product, or the members of a trade union). It is possible to make successful predictions about behaviour of large groups.'

(adapted from Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tanasescu. English for Business Purposes. Teora, 1998,

p. 62)

4. Translate into English using the passive voice:

1) O mare parte din aceasta lucrare a fost intocmita de specialistii institutiei noastre.

2) Se emit diverse tipuri de carti de credit in fiecare an.

3) La ultima sedinta de consiliu s-a decis schimbarea echipei manageriale.

4) Seful de departament era suparat ca nu i se aduc rapoartele la timp.

5) Ni s-a spus ca aceasta firma nu acorda garantii.

6) Clientii ar trebui informati referitor la avantajele noilor metode de plata.

7) Acum e randul meu sa fiu interogat.

8) S-au luat toate masurile necesare pentru introducerea noii contabilitati asistate pe calculator.

Recommended bibliography:

1. Bantas, Andrei, Dictionar roman-englez, Ed. Teora

Brieger, Nick and Simon Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar and

Functions. Prentice Hall, 1994

3. Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Ed. Teora, 1998

4. Jones, Leo and Richard Alexander. International Business English. Cambridge

University Press, 1990

5. Levitchi, Leon si Andrei Bantas, Dictionar englez-roman, Ed. Teora

Anexa 2

Teme de casa pentru semestrul al II-lea:

(Refer to chapters 5, 6, 7, 8)

I

1. Write your CV and a letter of application for a position you are interested in.

2. Describe in 20-25 lines the structure and activity of a company you know well.

3. Translate into Romanian:

'A sole proprietorship is a one-man business in which one person is alone responsible for decision-making and the raising of capital, though there may be several other people working in the firm. It is in this type of business that the entrepreneur, the organiser of the production, can be most easily identified as it is here that the functions of the entrepreneur are united in one person -those of innovation, risk-taking and profit-earning. Not all sole proprietors are innovators, many take over established business, but they all risk their own capital. Though the sole proprietor enjoys the unity of purpose and flexibility of a small organisation, the price of failure can be very high.'

(adapted from Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tanasescu. English for Business Purposes. Teora, 1998,

p. 80)

4. Translate into English, paying attention to the use of tenses:

1) Lucrez la aceasta firma de patru ani, dar nu am mai intalnit niciodata o asemenea situatie.

2) Am studiat cu atentie concluziile departamentului de marketing si cred ca nu putem lansa inca noul nostru produs.

3) Din analizele financiare rezulta ca aceasta firma a cheltuit luna trecuta mai mult decat isi putea permite.

4) Firma lui a dat faliment si el nu si-a gasit inca un alt post de contabil.

5) Suntem pe punctul de a lua o masura deosebit de importanta referitoare la strategia de dezvoltare a departamentului de marketing.

6) Vom consulta baza de date pentru a obtine aceste informatii. Pana lunea viitoare vom gasi varianta optima pentru rezolvarea acestei probleme.

II

1. Develop a short questionnaire (maximum 10 questions) for the following research project.

Definition of problem and objectives

A holiday company wants to assess the potential sales of a new adventure holiday in Scotland. The research objectives are descriptive -to describe/quantify the potential in the male adult population for a one-week adventure holiday involving climbing, canoeing, walking, sailing, etc.

Research plan

To carry out a survey by mail targeted at a sample of adult males between 25 and 40 years old, using a questionnaire, testing the market for a product (specify) or service (specify).

2. Compare a product you know well with two other similar products from different manufacturers. Write at least 10 sentences.

3. Translate into Romanian:

'Marketing has been very much in vogue since the sixties. But it is not a fashion, it is a basic need. Indeed, since the fifties, we have evolved from the economy of production that prevailed until then to the market economy that has become worldwide.

In a producer's economy, if one wants to sell a product, one manufactures it one's way and offers it for sale as such: it will normally sell, since it is 'good'. In a market economy, this no longer works. One must first ascertain what the buyers want, expect, desire, before manufacturing the relevant product, and then advertise it to prompt them to buy. This is the marketing approach, which can be said to be 'a series of techniques organised into a method and implemented with a view to meeting natural or generated needs, under the best psychological conditions for the customers, and the best financial ones for producer and distributor'.

To have the proper marketing attitude is to always seek, analyse, question, never to take things for granted, to be aware of the constant renewal of the social and business environment, and thus to be permanently on the alert to adjust to changes and, even better, to anticipate them if possible.'

(adapted from Engleza pentru marketing si publicitate. Teora, 2000, pp. 6-8)

4. Translate into English, paying attention to the ways of expressing permission, possibility, probability and certainty:

1) N-am putut niciodata intelege ce ii facea sa respinga acest proiect. S-ar fi putut asocia cu cine ar fi vrut.

2) S-ar putea sa nu fiu prea indemanatic, dar macar stiu ce vreau.

3) Pot sa ma uit putin prin documentele ce urmeaza sa fie analizate in sedinta de maine?

4) Ma gandesc ca s-ar fi putut sa-ti spuna ceva despre registrele companiei.

5) Ne-ai facut un mare serviciu. Stiam ca ne putem increde in tine.

5. Comment on the following statement (25-30 lines):

'Marketing is the creation and delivery of a standard of living.'

Recommended bibliography:

1. Bantas, Andrei, Dictionar roman-englez, Ed. Teora

Brieger, Nick and Simon Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar and

Functions. Prentice Hall, 1994

3. Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Ed. Teora, 1998

4. Jones, Leo and Richard Alexander. International Business English. Cambridge

University Press, 1990

5. Levitchi, Leon si Andrei Bantas, Dictionar englez-roman, Ed. Teora

Cuprins

Introducere . 5

1 Face to face 7

2 On the phone .. 12

3 Letters, telexes and memos . 18

4 Reports and summaries . 24

5 The place of work 33

6 Import and export 44

7 Marketing and sales 48

8 A new job 54

Anexa 1 . 60

Anexa 2 . 62

Bibliografie:

Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. Longman, 1996

Brieger, Nick and Simon Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar and

Functions. Prentice Hall, 1994

Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Teora, 1998

Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tanasescu. English for Business Purposes. Teora, 1998

Engleza pentru marketing si publicitate. Metoda Larousse. Teora, 2000

Jones, Leo and Richard Alexander. International Business English. Cambridge

University Press, 1990






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