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ADVERBUL IN ENGLEZA

Gramatica

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ADVERBUL

ADVERBUL

A. Forma.

  1. unele adverbe sunt cuvinte independente – often, when?, now, very, soon, always:

Marie often sang in the choir.




  1. unele adverbe au aceeasi forma cu adjectivele – daily, early, fast, low, straight, well, back, enough, far, little, long, pretty, near, wrong, still, short, late, high, left, right, hard. Comparati:

The doctor drove fast. Fast food is popular with teenagers.

Julie called daily. Our daily routine is demanding.

Jim works pretty hard. I love her pretty face.

  1. unele adverbe (in special cele de mod si grad) se formeaza adaugand adjectivelor terminatia -ly:

kind, kindly slow, slowly careful, carefully

happy, happily simple, simply automatic, automatically

NOTA: Unele cuvinte terminate in -ly sunt adjective (nu adverbe!): lonely, lovely, likely, friendly, ugly, silly.

This is such an ugly car!

B. Ortografie.

a.       y final se schimba in -i: merry, merrily (EXCEPTIE: shy, shyly)

b.      -e final se pastreaza: wise, wisely (EXCEPTIE: true, truly)

c.       daca se termina in consoana +

le, -e dispare si se adauga -y:    gentle, gently

d.      cuvintelor terminate in -ic li se

adauga -ally: scientific, scientifically

(EXCEPTIE: public, publicly)

C. Topica – topica adverbelor variaza, ea depinzand in primul rand de tipul de adverbe folosit. Exista trei pozitii de baza:

  1. la inceput – inainte de subiect:

Unfortunately, I couldn’t identify the thief.

  1. la sfarsit – dupa complement, sau daca nu exista, imadiat dupa verb:

That young man likes Melanie very much.

Alexandra was working hard.

NOTA: Nu plasati niciodata un adverb intre verb si complement.

I drink coffee slowly.

I drink slowly coffee.

  1. la mijloc:

He usually comes for tea. (inainte de verbul principal)

She is always smiling. (dupa verbul be)

They have rarely come to visit. (dupa primul verb auxiliar)

Jonathan could seldom telephone us. (dupa primul verb modal)

We certainly have to be more careful. (inainte de used to, have to, ought to)

D. Tipuri de adverbe.

  1. Adverbe de mod – kindly, easily, well, happily, fast, carefully, secretly, beautifully, reluctantly, foolishly, badly etc.

Pavarotti sang beautifully.

Terry spoke Spanish slowly.

NOTA: Adverbele referitoare la caracter sau inteligenta (foolishly, generously, sweetly, kindly, stupidly etc.) isi schimba sensul in functie de pozitie.

I stupidly replied. (= It was stupid of me to reply.)

I replied stupidly. (= I gave a stupid reply.)

  1. Adverbe de loc – here, up, abroad, out, outside, in, away, everywhere, somewhere, nowhere, there etc.

They went everywhere.

The Crawfords are sending their daughter abroad.



NOTA: Adverbele de loc functioneaza adesea si ca prepozitii.

Joe ran down the stairs.

  1. Adverbe de timp – yesterday, now, afterward, still, soon, eventually, recently, then, today, at once, till, tomorrow, since then etc.

Tomorrow we will begin the next lesson.

The holiday began yesterday.

NOTA: De obicei, adverbele au urmatoarea ordine: MOD – LOC – TIMP.

The baby slept well yesterday.

We’ll go there tomorrow.

Mark worked hard at school last year.

  1. Adverbe de frecventa – always, usually, never, hardly ever, often, twice, once, continually, seldom, rarely, periodically etc.

Dictators usually live in fear.

Repeatedly, the students made the same mistake.

Our children walk to school every morning.

  1. Adverbe de opinie – personally, obviously, frankly, certainly, luckily, actually, probably, definitely, surely etc.

You obviously like pizza.

Frankly, I don’t like him very much.

  1. Adverbe de grad – fairly, quite, hardly, too, almost, pretty, rather, barely, completely, enough, nearly, really, just, even, very etc.

He is entirely right.

The horses galloped very fast.

My steak isn’t big enough.

I liked him a lot.

  1. Adverbe interogative – when where?, why?, how?

When did they send the letter?

Where is he going?

Why is Cindy crying?

How do you spell your name?

ATENTIE! Farther / farthest se refera numai la distanta.

He ran farther than planned.

Further / furthest se refera la grad.

He inquired further into the matter.

EXERCITII

1. Puneti cuvintele de mai jos in ordinea corecta.

  1. (yesterday, away) Moritz, our cat, ran

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. (last night, the guitar, at the concert, beautifully) Alexandra played

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. (in lab class, a frog, tomorrow) The students will dissect

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. (hard, soon, here) I’m sure it’s going to rain

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. (angrily, him, last night) The speaker answered

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. (since 1977, here) Teresa has been living

………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. Asezati aceste grupuri de adverbe in pozitia corecta.

  1. Sandy glanced around the room. (furtively)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. He knew that Ned had hidden the letter in the room. (somewhere, yesterday)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. She opened the box and looked. (softly, inside)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Jim was predictable. (usually, very)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Ah, it was! (there)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. I would have chosen to hide the letter. (personally, elsewhere)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. But she felt relieved that it had been easy. (actually, so)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. She heard footsteps coming. (suddenly, upstairs)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Christie thought. (quickly, very)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Should she hide? (where)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. Asezati adverbele de mai jos in coloana corespunzatoare.

insistently, quite, surely, usually, silently, always, never, vaguely, overseas, today, well, too, fast, outside, everywhere, recently, enough, so, very, soon, even, carefully, up, almost, fiercely, abroad, angrily, fairly, obviously, seldom, downstairs, yesterday, nowhere, here, foolishly



Manner Place Time Frequency Opinion Degree

APLICATII

GENDER

1. In addition to age, gender is one of the universal dimensions on which status differences are based. Unlike sex, which is a biological concept, gender is a social construct specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow. According to Gerda Lerner, gender is the “costume, a mask, a straitjacket in which men and women dance their unequal dance”. What do you think is gender a result of NATURE or NURTURE?

2. What gender is your brain? Take this test to find out.

1. Looking fashionable is important to you.

a. true

b. false

2. You are better at:

a. explaining things you understand

b. understanding what is being explained to you

3. Do you tend to remember your dreams?

a. yes

b. no

4. If you have a problem, you tend to:

a. ask for help

b. solve it yourself

5. In an argument or heated discussion, you find it most important to:

a. come to an understanding

b. drive your point home

6. Would you ever try an exciting new drug if it were illegal?

a. no - you prefer to obey the law

b. depends on what it did

7. If someone you know is acting strange

a. you try to read between the lines

b. you ask for an explanation

8. You tend to notice when someone has poor etiquette.

a. true

b. false

9. If a friend who's gained weight asks you if she's gotten fat, you:

a. are completely honest

b. would consider sparing her feelings

10. When talking with your friends, you're more likely to discuss:

a. what's going on in your lives and people you know

b. politics, sports, or news

11. Even if you aren't one yourself, you can understand how some people can be vegetarians.

a. true

b. false

12. If a friend has a problem, it becomes your problem as well.

a. frue

b. False

Majority of A – Female Brain

Majority of B – Male Brain

3. Multi-choice quiz on gender. Circle the correct answer:

1. Most sociologists would argue that gender roles are learned, rather than based on biology.

a. True

b. False

2. Which one of these behaviours shows a pattern of role-reversal compared to traditional gender roles in western societies?

a. Women going out to work and men staying at home to look after the children

b. Women and men both going out to work

c. Girls doing better than boys at school

3. What term do sociologists learn to describe those aspects of our behaviour as men and women which are learned, rather than based on biology?

a. Gender

b. Sex

4. If masculine and feminine roles are based on our biology, what will we find when we study other cultures?

a. Men and women's behaviour varies depending on the culture studied.

b. Men and women's behaviour is always the same.

4. In urmatoarea propozitie, puneti semne de punctuatie dupa cum considerati ca este corect. Apoi comentati rezultatul.

A woman without her man is nothing.

5. Fill in the words corresponding to the descriptions below.

Across

2. Judging someone before knowing them.

4. Considering a member of the other gender as being lower than yourself.

5. A perspective interested in sexual inequality.

7. Men are said to be going through one of these now.

9. Children play with these as part of socialization.

10. Sex roles.

Down

1. Criticised recently for encouraging eating disorders among girls.

3. Biologists explain our gender roles by studying what goes on in this.

6. Often presented as oppressors.

8. The biological basis for our gender roles.



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