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THE PAST TENSE SIMPLE – THE PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS

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THE PAST TENSE SIMPLE – THE PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS




THE PAST TENSE SIMPLE

In functie de modalitatea de formare a trecutului si a participiului trecut, verbele engleze se impart in regulate si neregulate (vezi pagina 11).

Reguli de ortografie

cand infinitivul scurt se termina in –e mut, se adauga numai –d (to dance – danced; to recite – recited).

cand verbele dintr-o silaba se termina in consoana (cu exceptia lui c, w sau x) precedata de o vocala, consoana finala este dublata si se adauga –ed (to drop – dropped; to pat – patted).

verbele care se termina in –c, primesc un k inainte de sufixul –ed (to panic – panicked; to picnic – picnicked).

cand un verb format din mai multe silabe se termina intr-o singura consoana precedata de o vocala, consoana finala se dubleaza daca silaba finala este accentuata (to omit – omitted; to occur – occurred). Exceptii: to kidnap – kidnapped; to handicap – handicapped.

cand infinitivul scurt se termina in –y precedat de o vocala, -y nu se schimba. Daca –y este precedat de o consoana, se schimba in –i si se adauga –ed (to play – played; to try – tried).

Forma

Formati afirmativul trecutului simplu al verbelor regulate adaugand terminatia –ed infinitivului fara to.

Infinitiv: Trecutul simplu regulat:

To work worked (work + ed)

Negativul se formeaza cu did not + infinitiv

Interogativul se formeaza cu did + subiect + infinitiv

Afirmativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they worked

Negativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they did not work

Interogativ

Did I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they work ?

Se foloseste aceeasi forma pentru toate persoanele.

Forma contrasa a lui did not este didn’t.

Interogativ negativ: did they not (didn’t they) work?

Formarea afirmativului verbelor neregulate nu urmeaza nici o regula. Verbele neregulate trebuie memorate.

Infinitiv Trecutul simplu neregulat

To go went

To speak spoke

To bring brought

Utilizare

Trecutul simplu se foloseste:

pentru o actiune finalizata in trecut cand este mentionat momentul actiunii:

Tom arrived yesterday.

Colombus discovered America in 1492.

Adverbele sau expresiile de timp pot fi o marca a trecutului simplu: yesterday, last week, two years ago, last summer, a month ago etc.



pentru o actiune finalizata sigur in trecut chiar daca timpul nu este mentionat:

Brutus assassinated Julius Caesar.

Did you ever see Winston Churchill in person?

pentru o obisnuinta din trecut:

She always woke up early on school days.

Sarah never ate liver as a child.

pentru o naratiune in trecut:

I stopped to buy a newspaper and then sat down on a bench to read it. The news was quite depressing. So I got up and took a walk and tried to think happy thoughts.

Nota

Trecutul simplu folosit pentru actiuni obisnuite din trecut este adesea insotit de adverbe de frecventa: sometimes, always, often, usually, rarely, seldom etc.

Nota

Traducerea lui Past Tense Simple in limba romana:

perfectul simplu; perfectul compus:

When he opened the door, he saw the dog.

Cand a deschis usa, vazu cainele.

imperfect:

The little boy was very tired.

Baietelul era foarte obosit.

conjunctiv prezent:

Helen said she felt lonely before she met him.

Elena a spus ca se simtea singura inainte sa-l fi intalnit.

conditional prezent:

I would read that book if he gave it to me.

As citi cartea aceea daca el mi-ar da-o.

prezent:

I didn’t know she loved music.

Nu stiam ca-i place muzica.

viitor:

The girl said that she would come here when she was free.

Fata a spus ca va veni aici cand va fi libera.

THE PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS

Forma

Formati trecutul continuu cu forma de trecut a lui to be + -ing

Afirmativ

I / he / she / it was working

You / we / you / they were working

Negativ

I / he / she / it was not working

You / we / you / they were not working

Interogativ

Was I / he / she / it working?

Were You / we / you / they working?



Interogativ-negativ: Was he not (wasn’t he) working? Were they not (weren’t they) working?

De retinut !

Unele verbe nu pot fi folosite la timpurile continue. (vezi pagina 18-19)

Utilizare

Trecutul continuu se foloseste:

pentru actiuni trecute cu o anumita durata, dar ale caror limite precise in timp nu sunt cunoscute:

It was raining and getting colder.

pentru actiuni trecute care au inceput si au continuat probabil dupa un anumit moment dat:

At noon the sun was shining.

At ten o’clock at night Jerry was studying.

Momentul dat poate fi exprimat si de o expresie de timp la trecutul simplu:

When Tom arrived, the sun was shining.

pentru descrieri in trecut:

The flowers were blooming, the birds were singing and the breeze was blowing softly.

pentru a indica o actiune care se desfasoara ca fundal (backgorund) in momentul in care o alta actiune, scurta, mai importanta (foreground), are loc:

While Mary was crossing (backgorund) the road yesterday, she saw (foreground) a flying saucer in the sky.

pentru a indica doua sau mai multe actiuni care se desfasoara simultan, in trecut:

While mother was cooking, father was reading a newspaper and the children were playing in the garden.

pentru a indica o actiune repetata, care il irita pe vorbitor, se foloseste impreuna cu adverbul always

The two pupils were always laughing during my classes.

Nota:

Observati diferenta:

* When the bell rang, Sam was having breakfast. (Sam was in the middle of breakfast when the bell started to ring).

* When the door bell rang, Sam ran to open the door. (Sam ran to the door as soon as the door bell rang).

Exercitii:

Puneti verbele din paranteza la trecutul simplu sau continuu:

1. He (go) to school by bicycle last year. 2. My friends (watch) television when I phoned them. 3. They (invite) me to see the film when I phoned them. 4. Bob (write) the letter in ten minutes. 5. Father (read) the newspaper when I came home. 6. While he (write) the letter, his sister laid the table. 7. She (ask) me about my holidays when we met. 8. I (read) a travel brochure when we met. 9. We (see) a very good film yesterday. 10. The sun (shine) when we arrived. 11. He (drive) all the way to London. 12. I saw Mary just as she (get) into the classroom. 13. They (spend) a beautiful holiday at the seaside last year. 14. She (run) to the door the moment she heard the bell. 15. When she reached the door, the bell (ring) still. 16. They (fly) to Constantza last night. 17. Michael missed the flight. The plane (take off) when he arrived at the airport. 18. The house (burn) when we came out. 19. Mary (talk) always about fashion and this annoyed her friends. 20. The Grants (live) in Brasov when I met them.

21. Fire at Grand Hotel last night. William Barnes (see) it as he (walk) past. 22. He (wake) the porter and then (phone) the fire brigade. 23. After that they (wake) the hotel guests who (sleep) in their rooms. 24. Margaret Davidson who (stay) in a room on the first floor, (get) frightened and (jump) out of a window. 25. Mary Stevens, from the same room, (get) badly burnt while she (run) down the stairs and (be) taken to hospital. 26. Soon the fire brigade (arrive). 27. One fireman (break) his leg when he (try) to get into the building. Nobody else was hurt. 28. Finally they (put) out the fire. 29. George and Harry (play) tennis yesterday when it started to rain. 30. George went home, but Harry (decide) to go out in the car. 31. He was driving along the street when he (see) Margaret, a friend from work. 32. While Margaret (look) at a shop window, Harry called her name. 33. Margaret (get) into the car and they talked for a long time. 34. They (still, talk) when a policeman arrived and showed Harry the “No Parking” sign. 35. Just as the policeman (write) down the number of Harry’s car he (hear) a scream. 36. He looked up and (see) an old lady who (cross) the road. 37. A big dog (bark) at her fiercely. 38. As the policeman (cross) the road to chase the dog away, Harry and Margaret (drive) away in the car!

39. What … you (do) yesterday afternoon when I (phone) you? 40. What time … you (phone) me?

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. went 2. were watching 3. invited 4. wrote 5. was reading 6. was writing 7. asked 8. was reading 9. saw 10. was shining 11. drove 12. was getting 13. spent 14. ran 15. was still ringing 16. flew 17. Was taking off 18. was burning 19. was always talking 20. were living 21. saw, was walking 22. woke, phoned 23. woke, were sleeping 24. was staying, got, jumped 25. got, was running, was 26. arrived 27. broke, was trying 28. put 29. were playing 30. decided 31. saw 32. was looking 33. got 34. were still talking 35. was writing, heard 36. saw, was crossing 37. was barking 38. was crossing, drove 39. were you doing, phoned 40. did you phone



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