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MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE - ENGLEZA

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MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE - ENGLEZA

    In limba engleza, modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul, forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut.
    Infinitivul poate avea aspect, diateza si timpuri.
    Diateza activa

o        infinitiv prezent simplu: to call





o        infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling

o        infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called

o        infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling

    Diateza pasiva

o        infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called

o        infinitiv perfect: to have been called

    Forma -ing. Atat participiul prezent cat si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza.
    Diateza activa

o        nedefinit: calling

o        perfect: having called

    Diateza pasiva

o        nedefinit: being called

o        perfect: having been called

    Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate; in cazul verbelor neregulate, el reprezinta forma a III-a:

o        to call – calledcalled

o        to go – wentgone

Constructii cu infinitivul

Acuzativ cu infinitiv

    Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.
    Ex. I want you to go now.
    (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum.)
    Exista cateva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii:

a.       Adverbe exprimand dorinta sau vointa: to want, to wish, to like, to dislike, to hate.
Ex. I’d like him to come with me.
(As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine.)
I want John to do this.
(Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta.)

b.      verbe exprimand perceptia senzoriala: to see, to hear, to feel, to watch. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to).
Ex. I saw him leave the room.
(L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera.)

c.       verbe exprimand un ordin, o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make, to cause, to allow, to order. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to).
Ex. I made him study English.
(L-am facut sa invete engleza.)
I let him go out and play.
(L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal.)
He ordered the door to be locked.
(El a ordonat sa se incuie usa.)

d.      verbe exprimand perceptia mentala: to think, to suppose, to expect, to consider, to understand, to know, to believe.
Ex. I consider him to be a good student.
(Consider ca el este un bun student.)
I expected him to come in time.
(M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp.)

e.       verbe declarative: to state, to declare, to admit.
Ex. He admitted the news to be false.
(El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false.)
They declared him to be the man of the year.
(Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului.)

f.        cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on, to count upon/on .

    Ex. I rely on you to do this.
    (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta.)

Nominativ cu infinitiv

    Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv.

a.       folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see, to hear, to know, to say, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to make, to consider.


Ex. He is said to be a good writer.
(Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor.)
Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv:
Ex. I made him study English.
He was made to study English.
I consider him to be a good student.
He is considered to be a good student.
He considered the news to be false.
The news was considered to be false.
They declared him to be the man of the year.
He was declared to be the man of the year.

b.      cu verbele: to happen, to prove, to turn out, to seem, to appear

o        la diateza activa:

    Ex. He proved to be a good journalist.
    (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist.)
    I happened to meet him in the street.
    (S-a intamplat sa-l intalnesc pe strada.)
    If I happen to meet him, I will tell him where you are.
    (Daca se va intampla sa-l intalnesc, ii voi spune unde esti.)



Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba romana se intampla sa este, de obicei, tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza.

a.       cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain

    Ex. She is sure to come in time.
    (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp.)

Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in romaneste cu o expresie impersonala. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp' o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time'.

For – phrase

    Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.
    Ex. It is easy for me to do this.
    (E usor sa fac asta.)
    This remains for him to decide.
    (Aceasta ramane sa o decida el.)
    It is impossible for him to come.
    (Este imposibil ca el sa vina.)
    It is necessary for me to go there.
    (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo.)

Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului.

    Ex. It is impossible that I (should) come.
    It is necessary that I (should) go there.

Constructii cu participiul prezent

Acuzativ cu participiu
Se foloseste cu verbe exprimand perceptie senzorial: to see, to hear, to watch, to smell, precum si cu verbele to find, to leave.
Ex. I saw him leaving
(L-am vazut plecand.)
I heard her singing.
(Am auzit-o cantand.)
I left / found her crying.
(Am lasat-o / gasit-o plangand.)
In cazul verbelor de perceptie, aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriu-zisa, in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare.
Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecand. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecand.
 

Nominativ cu Participiu
Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu:
Ex: He was seen leaving.
(El a fost vazut plecand.)
She was heard singing.
(Ea a fost auzita cantand.)
 

Nominativul absolut

    Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu.
    Ex: The classes being over, we went home.
    (Orele fiind terminate, am mers acasa.)
    Weather permitting, we shall go to the beach.
    (Daca vremea va permite, vom merge la plaja.)

Constructie cu participiul trecut

    Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut.
    Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired.
    (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat.)
    I will have my hair done.
    (Voi merge sa ma coafez.)
    Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect.
    Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect.
    Ex. She had two sons killed in the war.
    I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi.
    I had my bedroom window broken.
    Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor.

Exercitii cu constructiile verbale

    1. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu:

M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme.

El voia ca eu sa-l ajut.

Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intamplase.

Cred ca el e un sot bun.

Am auzit-o certandu-si copilul.

John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui.

Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani.

I-am privit jucand fotbal.

L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui.

Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor.

Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna.

Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat.

Am vazut cativa copii jucandu-se in parc.

Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina.

El m-a facut sa pierd trenul.

    2. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase':

    Model:
    This translation is easy. I cam make it.
    This translation is easy for me to make.

This problem is too difficult. I can’t solve it.

This is a good book. You should read it.



This fact is important. You should bear it in mind.

This is a valuable piece of advice. You should take it.

The time has come. We should have a heart to heart talk.

The people were impatient. The match was about to begin.

I have closed the window. I don’t want you to catch a cold.

This is the main thing. We should do it now.

I ordered a taxi. I didn’t want her to miss the train.

This is a strange thing. I can’t believe she said that.

    3. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase':

    Model:
    It is important that I should know the truth.
    It is important to know the truth.

It is necessary that he be present.

It is recommendable that you should read this book.

It’s time we met again.

It’s time you started learning foreign languages.

It is possible that the plane might be delayed.

It is impossible that he should have said that.

It is possible that I might buy a car.

It is advisable that you should resign.

It is important that you should come to the office, at once.

It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously.

    4. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate:

    Model:
    Her parents thought she was a gifted child.
    She was thought to be a gifted child.

It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock.

They heard him repeat it several times.

It seemed that she was satisfied with me.

Everybody. Expected that he would resign.

It was proved that she was a liar.

They said she was ill.

People believed he was a brilliant surgeon.

I thought she was unable to win the contest.

It is sure they have had an argument.

It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter.

    5. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu, transformandu-le in Nominativ cu Participiu:

    Model:
    I heard the dog barking.
    The dog was heard barking.
    l. I saw the plane landing.
    2. She heard the baby crying.
    3. I found the boy breaking the window.
    4. I could hear her typing.
    5. I saw her lying on the beach.
    6. I saw her fainting.
    7. I saw the peasants working in the field.
    8. I heard the child breaking the vase.
    9. I found her digging in the garden.
    10. She heard the hunters shooting.

    6. Traduceti in limba romana urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut:

    1. Weather permitting, we shall climb to the top of the mountain.
    2. The rain having stopped, I went shopping.
    3. The concert being over, the audience left the hali.
    4. The plane having taken off, I stopped smoking.
    5. The decision being taken in my favour, I went home relaxed.
    6. The river having risen in the night, we were seared about having floods.
    7. Everybody being at home, we sat down to dinner.
    8. The mud having ruined my shoes, I had to change them.
    9. The letter being written, I went to post it.
    10. The sun having risen, we hurried to the beach.







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