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VORBIREA INDIRECTA

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VORBIREA INDIRECTA
The infinitive
VERBE COMPLEXE



VORBIREA INDIRECTA

Vorbirea indirecta se foloseste pentru a relata cuvintele unei alte persoane. Principalele categorii ale vorbirii indirecte sunt: afirmatii, interogatii, comenzi.





Vorbirea indirecta poate avea doua forme:

O propozitie principala cu un verb al relatarii + o propozitie subordonata

They say that we will receive the confirmation next week.

o propozitie principala cu un verb al relatarii + un infinitiv cu To

They asked us to send confirmation as soon as possible.

Regula de baza pentru a determina timpul verbal din subordonata este dupa cum urmeaza:

Daca verbul relatarii este la:    In vorbirea indirecta:

Prezent

Viitor nici o schimbare

Prezent perfect

Daca verbul relatarii este la: In Vorbirea indirecta:

Trecut present ……. past

Trecut perfect past …… past / past perfect

present perfect….past perfect

will ……….. would

Nota

Conditionalele de tipul II si III nu se modifica in vorbirea indirecta. Conditionala de tipul I se modifica intr-una de tipul II.

Jo said: “If I listen, I will learn

Jo said that if he listened, he would learn.

Verbele modale se modifica astfel:

Can – could; may – might; will – would; shall – should; must – must/had to; could – could; might – might; should – should; ought to – ought to; would – would; used to – used to

Pronumele si adjectivele se modifica astfel:

Vorbirea directa Vorbirea indirecta

I / you he / she

We / you they

Me / you him / her

Us / you them

My / mine his – her / his – hers

Your my – his – her – our – their

Yours mine – his – hers – ours – theirs

Our / ours their / theirs

This / these that / those

Nota

Cand vorbitorul isi relateaza propriul discurs, pronumele si adjectivele raman neschimbate.

I said: “I am angry.” I said that I was angry.

Adverbele si expresiile adverbiale se modifica astfel:

Vorbirea directa Vorbirea indirecta

Here there, in that place

Now then, at that time

Today that day

Yesterday the day before

The day before yesterday two days before

Tomorrow the day after

The day after tomorrow in two days

An hour/week/month ago an hour/week/month before

Next week/year the following week/year

Last week/month a week/month before

Nota

Principalele verbe ale vorbirii indirecte sunt say si tell.

Tell cere persoana cu care se vorbeste

Say poate functiona singur sau poate primi to + persoana cu care se vorbeste:

Tom told us that he was leaving.

Tom said that he was leaving.

Tom said to us that he was leaving.



Alte verbe ale vorbirii indirecte pot fi:

accept, add, admit, affirm, agree, allege, announce, answer, apologieze, argue, assert, claim, comment, communicate, convey, declare, demonstrate, disclose, divulge, emphasise, explain, highlight, imply, indicate, inform, maintain, notify, object, offer, promise, protest, prove, recount, refuse, remark, reply, report, restate, reveal, show, state, stress, suggest, transmit

Interogatii

Topica verbelor interogative in interogatia directa se modifica in interogatia indirecta devenind topica verbelor afirmative

I asked: ”Who did she go with?”

I asked who she had gone with.

Exista doua tipuri de intrebari directe: Wh-questions si yes/no questions.

In vorbirea indirecta se mentin cuvintele interogative cu Wh-

When exactly will you be in Poland?

He asked when exactly I would be in Poland.

Pentru intrebarile cu yes/no, folosim if si whether:

Does your company provide investment advice?

She asked if/whether our company provided investment advice.

Nota

Verbe ale relatarii utilizate pentru intrebari: ask, demand, examine, inquire, investigate, query, question

Comenzi, cerinte, sfaturi

In vorbirea indirecta verbul de la imperativ se tranforma in verb urmat de complement + infinitivul cu TO

He said: “Claire, stand up!”

He told Claire to stand up.

Pentru o comanda negativa, forma indirecta primeste pe NOT inaintea infinitivului

Barbara said: “Don’t touch!”

Barbara asked me/us not to touch.

Chiar daca in comanda directa nu este mentionat complementul, la forma indirecta este necesar un complement pronominal!

He said: “Stand up!” He told her/him/us to stand up.

Nota

Verbele relatarii folosite pentru comenzi, cerinte, sfaturi sunt: ask, beg, brief, call for, command, direct, implore, instruct, invite, press, request, require, tell, urge

Nota

Alte verbe folosite in vorbirea indirecta. Unele dintre aceste verbe cer o propozitie subordonata (1), altele un infinitiv cu To (2), iar altele cer ambele variante(1,2):

convince (1,2), encourage (1,2), entreat (2), indoctrinate (2), invite (2), motivate (2), persuade (1,2), threaten (2), urge (1,2), warn (1,2)

Exercitii:

Urmatoarele propozitii sunt in vorbirea directa:

Don’t wait for me if I’m late.

Will you marry me?

Hurry up!

Can you open your bag, please?

Please slow down!

Don’t worry, Sue.

Mind your own business.

Could you repeat what you said, please?

Do you think you could give me a hand, Tom?

Alegeti una dintre aceste propozitii pentu a completa propozitiile de mai jos. Folositi vorbirea indirecta:

1. Bill was talking a long time to get ready, so ….

2. Sarah was driving too fast, so I asked ….

3. Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I told …

4. I couldn’t move the piano alone, so I …

5. The customs officer looked at me suspiciously and …

6. I had difficulty understanding him, so I …

7. I didn’t want to delay Ann, so I …

8. John was very much in love with Mary, so he …

9. He started asking me personal questions, so …

Cheia exercitiilor:

So I told him to hurry up.

So I asked her to slow down.

I told her not to worry.

So I asked Tom to give me a hand.

And asked me to open my bag.

So I asked him to repeat what he had said.

So I told her not to wait for me if I was late.

So he asked her to marry him.

So I told him to mind his own business.







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