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Vorbirea indirecta se foloseste pentru a relata cuvintele unei alte persoane. Principalele categorii ale vorbirii indirecte sunt: afirmatii, interogatii, comenzi.
Vorbirea indirecta poate avea doua forme:
O propozitie principala cu un verb al relatarii + o propozitie subordonata
They say that we will receive the confirmation next week.
o propozitie principala cu un verb al relatarii + un infinitiv cu To
They asked us to send confirmation as soon as possible.
Regula de baza pentru a determina timpul verbal din subordonata este dupa cum urmeaza:
Daca verbul relatarii este la: In vorbirea indirecta:
Viitor nici o schimbare
Daca verbul relatarii este la: In Vorbirea indirecta:
Trecut present . past
Trecut perfect past past / past perfect
present perfect .past perfect
will .. would
Conditionalele de tipul II si III nu se modifica in vorbirea indirecta. Conditionala de tipul I se modifica intr-una de tipul II.
Jo said: If I listen, I will learn.
Jo said that if he listened, he would learn.
Verbele modale se modifica astfel:
Can could; may might; will would; shall should; must must/had to; could could; might might; should should; ought to ought to; would would; used to used to
Pronumele si adjectivele se modifica astfel:
Vorbirea directa Vorbirea indirecta
I / you he / she
We / you they
Me / you him / her
Us / you them
My / mine his her / his hers
Your my his her our their
Yours mine his hers ours theirs
Our / ours their / theirs
This / these that / those
Cand vorbitorul isi relateaza propriul discurs, pronumele si adjectivele raman neschimbate.
I said: I am angry. I said that I was angry.
Adverbele si expresiile adverbiale se modifica astfel:
Vorbirea directa Vorbirea indirecta
Here there, in that place
Now then, at that time
Today that day
Yesterday the day before
The day before yesterday two days before
Tomorrow the day after
The day after tomorrow in two days
An hour/week/month ago an hour/week/month before
Next week/year the following week/year
Last week/month a week/month before
Principalele verbe ale vorbirii indirecte sunt say si tell.
Tell cere persoana cu care se vorbeste
Say poate functiona singur sau poate primi to + persoana cu care se vorbeste:
Tom told us that he was leaving.
Tom said that he was leaving.
Tom said to us that he was leaving.
Alte verbe ale vorbirii indirecte pot fi:
accept, add, admit, affirm, agree, allege, announce, answer, apologieze, argue, assert, claim, comment, communicate, convey, declare, demonstrate, disclose, divulge, emphasise, explain, highlight, imply, indicate, inform, maintain, notify, object, offer, promise, protest, prove, recount, refuse, remark, reply, report, restate, reveal, show, state, stress, suggest, transmit
Topica verbelor interogative in interogatia directa se modifica in interogatia indirecta devenind topica verbelor afirmative
I asked: Who did she go with?
I asked who she had gone with.
Exista doua tipuri de intrebari directe: Wh-questions si yes/no questions.
In vorbirea indirecta se mentin cuvintele interogative cu Wh-
exactly will you be in
He asked when
exactly I would be in
Pentru intrebarile cu yes/no, folosim if si whether:
Does your company provide investment advice?
She asked if/whether our company provided investment advice.
Verbe ale relatarii utilizate pentru intrebari: ask, demand, examine, inquire, investigate, query, question
Comenzi, cerinte, sfaturi
In vorbirea indirecta verbul de la imperativ se tranforma in verb urmat de complement + infinitivul cu TO
He said: Claire, stand up!
He told Claire to stand up.
Pentru o comanda negativa, forma indirecta primeste pe NOT inaintea infinitivului
Barbara said: Dont touch!
Barbara asked me/us not to touch.
Chiar daca in comanda directa nu este mentionat complementul, la forma indirecta este necesar un complement pronominal!
He said: Stand up! He told her/him/us to stand up.
Verbele relatarii folosite pentru comenzi, cerinte, sfaturi sunt: ask, beg, brief, call for, command, direct, implore, instruct, invite, press, request, require, tell, urge
Alte verbe folosite in vorbirea indirecta. Unele dintre aceste verbe cer o propozitie subordonata (1), altele un infinitiv cu To (2), iar altele cer ambele variante(1,2):
convince (1,2), encourage (1,2), entreat (2), indoctrinate (2), invite (2), motivate (2), persuade (1,2), threaten (2), urge (1,2), warn (1,2)
Urmatoarele propozitii sunt in vorbirea directa:
Dont wait for me if Im late.
Will you marry me?
Can you open your bag, please?
Please slow down!
Dont worry, Sue.
Mind your own business.
Could you repeat what you said, please?
Do you think you could give me a hand, Tom?
Alegeti una dintre aceste propozitii pentu a completa propozitiile de mai jos. Folositi vorbirea indirecta:
1. Bill was talking a long time to get ready, so .
2. Sarah was driving too fast, so I asked .
3. Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I told
4. I couldnt move the piano alone, so I
5. The customs officer looked at me suspiciously and
6. I had difficulty understanding him, so I
7. I didnt want to delay Ann, so I
8. John was very much in love with Mary, so he
9. He started asking me personal questions, so
So I told him to hurry up.
So I asked her to slow down.
I told her not to worry.
So I asked Tom to give me a hand.
And asked me to open my bag.
So I asked him to repeat what he had said.
So I told her not to wait for me if I was late.
So he asked her to marry him.
So I told him to mind his own business.
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