THE SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF THE REFORMS OF A.I.CUZA IN THE LIGHT OF THE DIPLOMATIC DOCUMENTS
This article present the manner in which Cuza reforms, that are important to
the foundation of the modern Romanian society, have been aquired by the Italian
Key words: reforms, diplomacy, statistics, negotiations, recognition
Colonel Alexandru Ioan Cuza as prince at 5 and 24 January 1859 in
of the first reform measures taken by Prince A I Cuza was that of conducting a
census of population and economic activities, absolutely necessary for the
reform measures which he provided later. Until then, statistical information
came from the cartographic investigations, but had emphasized the role of
fiscal and military population from the census of 1838, which have the same
goals. In this regard, eminent economist of the nineteenth century Dionysius
Pop Martian (1829-1865), with studies in
Dionysius same Pop Martian, along with the founder of the agronomical researches, Ion Ionescu de la Brad (1818-1891), who studied in Germany, offers its services to the prince A I Cuza, who, on 12 July 1859, signed the ordinance establishing the Office of Central Statistics Administration, marking the birth of the official statistics in Romania .
With modest resources and a small number of people, which very few have specialized training required of the statistics, created a new institution able to carry out population census between 1859-1860, and in 1863, Census industrial establishments considered to be among the first Statistical research in Europe. The information was published in the 'Annals of statistical and economic', which came from 1860.
By this action prince A I Cuza walked immediately to the attention of the diplomats from the Powers Warranty mainly, which had interests to protect the interests of their residents that 'submitted' in principle.
On 19/31 August 1859 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Moldova sent a request to the consul of Sardinia that it seek to provide of the Romanian authorities the situation of the Italian subjects from the country, otherwise the Ministry of Interior will make them mandatory registration and property held .
parallel with the diplomatic recognition of the dual elections, Prince was A I
Cuza deeply involved in the cultural life of the country patronizing creation
in 1860, the
it sought the creation and strengthening of cultural institutions in
diplomat tell him that the Romanian minister on his Italian counterpart
effectuated steps necessary in addition to Department of public instruction in
I rushed to get to the minister of Foreign Affairs of Her Majesty's, the note you've had the honor to address the 16 / January 28 last under 176.
He communicated the excellence of a
Department of public instruction, of which Mr. Charles Pierrerati, procurator
Received today from Mr. Minister of
Foreign Affairs, the order to inform Your Excellency that Mr. Pierrerati
accepted the proposal of the government of
Italian specialist, a worthy heir of plead scientists Antics, headed by the great Caius Plinius Secundus (Plinius the Elder), author of fundamental work Naturalist History, and has assumed his important mission and will work for five years in Bucharest. In addition, after learning the Romanian language, he would become the holder at the Department of Natural Sciences at the University of Bucharest: 'Mr. Pierrerati pledges through a five-year contract that promises to be renewed to be charged with preparation and organization of the Directorate Museum of Natural History in the capital, with the title of Director, with an allowance of 400 francs per month, in which housing and heating. Travel expenses will be fixed at 90 Ducati or 600 francs and the same for the return of the expiry of the contract. Mr. Pierrerati will combine the powers attached to the chair of natural history whose holder will be, which powers will be exercised only when you learn the language of the country itself'.
The Romanian State is obliged to provide 12 000 francs, the amount that an Italian specialist is determined to be sufficient facilities needed at the head of the institution which wanted to install as soon as possible:
'The cost of buying tools, machines and other
objects need the museum would raise the calculations that were made, the amount
of 12 000 francs. Mr. Pierrerati not insist, however, to have all the right
amounts. He will give an exact count since the arrival in
The Italian government gesture would be followed by other measures to strengthen bilateral relations Romanian-Italian: 'The government of King quantifying no effort to delegate a prosecutor as distinguished as Mr. Pierrerati, gave the authorization necessary to develop this commitment. His Majesty's Government, with whose insurance are happy to be in charge, will always rush through the means available to meet government intentions of His Highness, Prince ruler in everything that will be profitable for the Romanian nation'.
turn, Minister Vasile Alecsandri communicated affirmative response of the
Italian by the bill no. 973 of 16 March 1860, addressed to the Ministry of
Cults and public instruction in
its mission to
1861 he became inspector of the Romanian government for Romanian students who
since 1860 could study in
less important are historical evidence attesting to the existence of the
Romanian Greek historical vestiges, which begins systematic research in this
period. I discovered during research of Archives Foreign Ministry and a number
of documents illustrating the conduct of fruitful relations of friendship
Thus, 4 / 16 August 1860, Consulate General of Greece in Bucharest, the consul Constantin Haralambie, sending to the Foreign Minister of Wallachia, II Filipescu a letter that he was informed that a Greek citizen, sculptor John Cosse Greek Consulate had sent a petition accompanied by two busts made by him in marble of Paros and Pentelic, expressing their wish to donate the Romanian state.
In your answer, no. 10/22 August 2936 in 1860,
the Romanian minister thank the Greek consul and sculptor John Cosse, on behalf
of the government Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, expressing “unanimous admiration
for the great work forever engraved in our memory of the classic land of
Also on the same day, he sent the no. In 2937 the Ministry of Religious Affairs
and Public Instruction, to take necessary steps regarding the takeover of the
assets of the
Thus, the Paris Convention of 19 August 1858
created a mechanism slowness of operation of the United principalities of
a result, Prince A I Cuza should maneuver with extreme skill Levers principal
of state power, initiative and decision, managing to end on January 24 1862,
full internal administrative unification of the
In the summer of 1862, when the conservative government and has ceased following the murder of Catargiu Barbu, 'following a sad event, taking the helm of government itself,' Prince Al. I. Cuza took the first step towards authoritarian rule establishment providing helm of government doctor Kretulescu.
Italian diplomacy, faithful to the national principle set out the first minister Italian Camillo Benso di Cavour and regarded as a cornerstone of which was formed Italy, watching with sympathy the way the Romanian state towards the completion of unity and national independence.
The situation of foreign state was uncertain as shown in the letter sent by Prince A I Cuza 29 April/11 king of Italy in May 1863 in which informing him that the principalities borders with Austria and Russia were massed troops.
the response of King Vittorio Emmanuelle, on 15 July 1863, to break the idea
that these deployments of troops were to the Italian government and it would
Cuza assurances that no power is not wanted attacking
need to have an electoral law based on social configuration of the Romanian
people and to improve the Convention in
According to the report, on September 8 1863, Costache Negri has read the draft prince A I Cuza which provides, inter alia, the election of deputies through universal suffrage in two colleges. A second body, the balancing role, the Senate had chosen Prince. In addition, it affirmed the need to constitute the Council of State and the Court of Auditors. Costache Negri said that occasion that Prince Cuza was going to call the old assembly and if it is opposed to be dissolved and be proclaimed the new Constitution.
Italian diplomat concluded: 'pending dictatorship, Prince Cuza will lead the decrees, which will be sanctioned by the Chamber.'
Given need a government to support the work of reforming, Prince A I Cuza entrusted with the mission of the Mihail Kogalniceanu at 11/23 October 1863.
Knight Strambio, Italian envoy in
the same period, Knight Scorasso, in
the activity of reforming the prince's AI Cuza began with the secularization of
the monasteries’ assets. Prepared for a long time, the external negotiations
and internal measures, the law has been submitted to the Assembly on 13/25
December 1863. By this law the 'secularization of all monasteries’ assets
Constantinople, on 21 November 1863, Greppi Foreign Ministry said that Italian
Italian headquarters of the Agency of Constantinople, located in the neighborhood Pera, 24 November 1863, Greppi information that Turkish Foreign Minister Ali Pasa sent a note Powers Deposit representatives 'without delay asking for a meeting of the Conference shall decide the matter definitively dedicated assets'.
Two days later, on November 26, knight Annibal
Strambio telegram sent to Turin as follows: 'Cuza sent a messenger emergency meeting on goods monasteries dedicated
to a bill taking goods from monasteries dedicated offering compensation 50 000
000 piastri Turks at the request of the Ministry, said the meeting was and
always voted the project. Powers and agency security advisers have informed the
governments and their representatives in
The law passed on 25 December 1863, represented a decisive step which announced land reform. Although protests Greek monks were vehement, Powers Deposit have agreed fait accompli.
Once triggered reform measures initiated by A I Cuza, with the support of Prime Minister Mihail Kogalniceanu, continued with the establishment of schools in Bucharest higher science and higher school of letters which were first specialization of the University of Bucharest, founded in 1864, the second university in the country after the Iasi , founded in 1860.
The agrarian reform need to put in a fiery
opposition liberal and conservative groups in the Assembly principalities,
starting with the meeting of 10/22 April 1864.
On 13 April 1864 Vasile Boerescu, as the representative of the conservative majority, criticized the government, accepting only the appropriating of 2.5 hectares and requiring payment of damages in seven years with an interest rate of 8% - not in 20 years with a 5% interest, how the government had set. He also called for owners to receive compensation consisting of land from the land fund of the state equal to those expropriated.
Prime Minister M. Kogalniceanu rejected the caretaker draft, but they have a majority in the Assembly have given vote to blame the government Kogalniceanu, which had to resign because the Assembly could be dissolved on the way the law.
Day 2 / 14 May 1864, Mihail Kogalniceanu
announced the dissolution of the Assembly and submitted the message A I Cuza
prince, leaving the hall, evacuated soldiers. Prince moved the measure as the
only way to do the second reforms vital for the future of the country, land
reform and the electoral law. A. I. Cuza had to assume such responsibility of
Mr. Authoritarian. Italian diplomacy
followed with maximum attention from
Day 2 / 14 May 1864, and the consul general of Italy in Bucharest, knight Annibal Strambio was informed by the Italian foreign minister that the British representative at Constantinople, Sir Henry Bulwer wanted the conference to propose a vote of blame regarding the purchase by Cuza French arms. Is required to track such developments in internal principalities (the conflict between the Assembly and Cuza). Also, Strambio had to advise him on Cuza to take care to domestic security suspicions Powers.
The same day, 2 / 14 May 1864, in Turin Strambio wire information on 'coup d'etat of May 2: “Today, convening extraordinary Assembly. Most states that no longer wants to work with the Ministry. He announces he will dissolve the Assembly and asks pre-credit for 3 months. Chamber denies. There was turmoil, ministers and parliamentarians and talking all at the same time shouting and nonsense. Reads the order of dissolution. Deputies refused to leave when entering the gate soldiers. Hall is empty, and everybody depart liability. The city is one-perfect silence. Probably tomorrow, coup d'etat”.
9 / 21 May 1864, Strambio know that the situation in the country was good,
infirming rumors appeared in newspapers
Prince made public Statute developer of the Paris Convention and the new electoral law holding a plebiscite planned in the days of 10/22 mai-14/26 May 1864.
This was disclosed its intent to Cuza's Annibal Strambio to 12/24 in May 1864, in confidence:
the dissolution of the Assembly, Prince Cuza decided to obey the law of
universal suffrage election and the new Constitution known with some
modifications, after which His will lead to Constantinople. France is committed
to support him, but Prince Cuza resist unwanted air to have a bye and you. Cuza
was to address the Sublime Ottoman Empire, of France and England, then
26 May 1864 in Constantinople, was sent to the count Greppi, the representative
On 28 May 1864, Minister of France to Turin, Baron of Malaret received a comprehensive report from his diplomatic Drouyn of Lhuys, who described the situation in Romania after 2 May 1864, when A I Cuza proposed an electoral law, establishment of a Court of Auditors A new constitution, a body-balancing the Senate. The report shows how the powers guarantor and power suzerainty accept those measures which they bound Cuza vote country.
report makes direct reference to a telegram sent on 28 August 1863 predecessor
Baron, who commented Cuza memorandum addressed Powers Deposit weights on
governance. Referring to the situation, Drouyn of Lhuys insisted on the need to
change the constitutional regime in the country that leaves virtually Assembly
in conflict with the ruler. Prince Cuza, considering essential changes, it was
agreed 'to prepare the country
concentrating in the hands of his dictatorship a few years.' Despite
reservations, the sender recognized that 'those measures deserve to be well received.' Convinced himself
of the rightness, Drouyn of Lhuys wrote count of Sortiges that 'the program does not have anything that is
not acceptable in terms of security Powers.' They have not hidden
their weaknesses of the step, counting on experience to correct further imperfections,
as expressed by the French consul in
The report invited the Italian consul 'to present to Prince Cuza regret product of the proclamation announced that the new law constitutional and economic publishes it came into force immediately suffrage popular that they will be punished'. Consider that any future action to expose it Cuza blame the governments of Powers Warranty.
Drouyn of Lhuys, concluded that if the Italian
government shared the French view, it must notify the representative of
On May 29 1864, the Italian Foreign Ministry
send a telegram representatives of
June 3 1864, a circular of the Italian foreign minister, Count Visconti
Venosta-Italian Legation was sent from
On 15 June 1864, Minister Venosta was informed about the visit count Greppi Prince Cuza Constantinople.
On 21 June 1864, Count Greppi of
Constantinople wire that Prince Cuza left the evening of June 20 in
obtain recognition of its reforms, A. I. Cuza made a visit to Constantinople,
with effect from June 8 1864, stating:
'I am leaving - he declared - for a new recognition of the autonomy of
the distinction chosen by the sultan, Prince, accompanied by his envoy from
Greppi, wire in
June 29, Greppi wire protocol signing: 'The conference yesterday was signed the protocol for acceptance of what
happened between the gate and Sublime Prince Cuza. The representative of
The draft law consists of rural Council of State, headed by the prince was sanctioned on August 14/26 and August 15/26 enacted in 1864, accompanied by a manifesto to the peasants: 'From this day forth vanquisher on a body part of the country. .. Today before you master your arms Today before you have a loved the motherland and defended !'. These words will Cuza place in legend as the gentleman who opened the path to such a future war of independence.
In the years 1864 and 1865, a decision was taken some fundamental reforms aimed at a new voting laws and pensions; law military organization; accounting law, county councils law, criminal code, civil code, the law public instruction. It was also established archives state institution, the school of bridges and roads.
Kogalniceanu his resignation, during which his government take the opposition
and the hate both conservatives and liberals on the radicals, occurred in
January 1865 has tempered series of reforms and stressed the erosion image A I
Italian diplomacy appreciate his attitude Cuza, as shown in the letter sent from Florence, the new capital of Italy, by Foreign Minister Annibal Strambio agent.
Prince A I Cuza, could not have the support of Napoleon III, displeased that attitude Cuza issue in the Danube transportation of weapons from Russia to Serbia, and action to adopt children and recipients of the extra-conjugal relationship with Maria Obrenovici, have in and the abdication in order to give effect to the desire The Assemblies ad hoc in 1857, the completion of the establishment of Romanians under a foreign prince.
When A I Cuza was obliged to resign at 11/23 February 1866, the Italian representative at Constantinople send its colleagues in France and England in a telegram to appreciate the gravity of the situation, inform the proclamation candidacy Philip count of Flanders, from the royal family of Belgium, asking and colleagues to consider the echoes of the resignation of the 'Prince Unification' in the two major European capitals.
Italian diplomatic correspondence of the season sincere the idea of admiration
for Italian prince A I Cuza reforms, and particularly the interests of
Arhivele Nationale Istorice Centrale (ANIC), colectia Microfilme, fond Italia
Arhiva Ministerului Afacerilor de Externe, Bucuresti (A.M.A.E.), fond Arhiva Istorica
Direzione Generale degli Archivi dello Stato, Roma (D.G.A.S), fond Visconti Venosta
Ciupala, Alin, Giovenale Vegezzi Ruscala between two
Ghetau, Vasile, directorul Centrului de Cercetari Demografice „Vladimir Trebici“ al Academiei Romane, interviu aparut in „Ziarul Lumina”, Centrul de Presa „Basilica” al Patriarhiei Romane, consemnat de Larisa si Constantin Iftime la 25 iunie 2008.
Institutul National de Statistica, 148 de ani de statistica oficiala in Romania, http//www.insse.ro.
Bobango, Gerald J., The Emergence of the
Giurescu, C. C. Viata si opera lui Cuza Voda, 2nd edition, Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1970.
Isar, Nicolae, Istoria Romanilor 1774/1874-1918, Editura Universitara, Bucuresti, 2006.
Vasile Ghetau, directorul Centrului de Cercetari Demografice „Vladimir Trebici“ al Academiei Romane, interviu aparut in „Ziarul Lumina”, Centrul de Presa „Basilica” al Patriarhiei Romane, consemnat de Larisa si Constantin Iftime, la 25 iunie 2008, p.1.
Alin Ciupala, Giovenale Vegezzi Ruscala between two
Adauga cod HTML in site