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THE SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF THE REFORMS OF A.I.CUZA IN THE LIGHT OF THE DIPLOMATIC DOCUMENTS

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THE SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF THE REFORMS OF A.I.CUZA IN THE LIGHT OF THE DIPLOMATIC DOCUMENTS




Abstract: This article present the manner in which Cuza reforms, that are important to the foundation of the modern Romanian society, have been aquired by the Italian diplomats from Bucharest and other European cities.

Key words: reforms, diplomacy, statistics, negotiations, recognition

Electing Colonel Alexandru Ioan Cuza as prince at 5 and 24 January 1859 in Moldova and Wallachia expression was putting Europe before the 'fait accompli', words that Romanians made synonymous with reform, with the fulfillment of their national wishes during 1859 - 1866[1].

One of the first reform measures taken by Prince A I Cuza was that of conducting a census of population and economic activities, absolutely necessary for the reform measures which he provided later. Until then, statistical information came from the cartographic investigations, but had emphasized the role of fiscal and military population from the census of 1838, which have the same goals. In this regard, eminent economist of the nineteenth century Dionysius Pop Martian (1829-1865), with studies in Austria, said: ,,seriously believe that statistics is for those who possess a precious national wealth is the only statistics realm sure that a government should be cautious and to base its rationale reforms[2]. '

Dionysius same Pop Martian, along with the founder of the agronomical researches, Ion Ionescu de la Brad (1818-1891), who studied in Germany, offers its services to the prince A I Cuza, who, on 12 July 1859, signed the ordinance establishing the Office of Central Statistics Administration, marking the birth of the official statistics in Romania .

With modest resources and a small number of people, which very few have specialized training required of the statistics, created a new institution able to carry out population census between 1859-1860, and in 1863, Census industrial establishments considered to be among the first Statistical research in Europe. The information was published in the 'Annals of statistical and economic', which came from 1860.

By this action prince A I Cuza walked immediately to the attention of the diplomats from the Powers Warranty mainly, which had interests to protect the interests of their residents that 'submitted' in principle.

On 19/31 August 1859 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Moldova  sent a request to the consul of Sardinia that it seek to provide of the Romanian authorities the situation of the Italian subjects from the country, otherwise the Ministry of Interior will make them mandatory registration and property held .

From Galati, 8 September 1859, Consul of Italy, Durio report early actions census in which all inhabitants were included whether they were subject to foreign or Romanian. This measure was ample commented; the report is even accompanied by a copy of the type of table to be filled. Consul Durio will line the other diplomats who believed that the measure is an abuse which violates the laws of the Turks that Principalities to respect and inviolability of domicile, and the reasons for the protest expressed the need to respect the laws in force[5]. As representatives of the other powers have not received the registration measure is included in the internal organization promoted by the Paris Convention of 19 August 1858, the protest remained no diplomatic effect .

In parallel with the diplomatic recognition of the dual elections, Prince was A I Cuza deeply involved in the cultural life of the country patronizing creation in 1860, the Iasi University.

Also, it sought the creation and strengthening of cultural institutions in Iasi and Bucharest. In this respect, reveals the discovery of the archive Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania, a document of 14 March 1860, the knight Annibal Strambio, diplomatic agent of Italy in Bucharest, answered to the note nr.176 of 16 / 28 January 1860 sent by Minister of Foreign Affairs of Wallachia, none other than the great poet, revolutionary and militant unionist Vasile Alecsandri. It took sending a specialist in the Italian capital, Turin, Carlo Pierrerati to organize and lead the Museum of Natural History in Bucharest, following the address made by the Ministry of Cults and public instruction no. 41 of 8 / 20 January 1860[7].

Italian diplomat tell him that the Romanian minister on his Italian counterpart effectuated steps necessary in addition to Department of public instruction in Italy, under the control of which is Pierrerati Charles, who accepted the offer came from the Romanian state:

'Minister,
I rushed to get to the minister of Foreign Affairs of Her Majesty's, the note you've had the honor to address the 16 / January 28 last under 176.

He communicated the excellence of a Department of public instruction, of which Mr. Charles Pierrerati, procurator at the Zoology Museum in Turin.

Received today from Mr. Minister of Foreign Affairs, the order to inform Your Excellency that Mr. Pierrerati accepted the proposal of the government of Wallachia and conditions.

Italian specialist, a worthy heir of plead scientists Antics, headed by the great Caius Plinius Secundus (Plinius the Elder), author of fundamental work Naturalist History, and has assumed his important mission and will work for five years in Bucharest. In addition, after learning the Romanian language, he would become the holder at the Department of Natural Sciences at the University of Bucharest: 'Mr. Pierrerati pledges through a five-year contract that promises to be renewed to be charged with preparation and organization of the Directorate Museum of Natural History in the capital, with the title of Director, with an allowance of 400 francs per month, in which housing and heating. Travel expenses will be fixed at 90 Ducati or 600 francs and the same for the return of the expiry of the contract. Mr. Pierrerati will combine the powers attached to the chair of natural history whose holder will be, which powers will be exercised only when you learn the language of the country itself'[8].

The Romanian State is obliged to provide 12 000 francs, the amount that an Italian specialist is determined to be sufficient facilities needed at the head of the institution which wanted to install as soon as possible:

'The cost of buying tools, machines and other objects need the museum would raise the calculations that were made, the amount of 12 000 francs. Mr. Pierrerati not insist, however, to have all the right amounts. He will give an exact count since the arrival in Bucharest about the amount that will be spent her about the money that will be sent in advance to Turin. Mr. Pierrerati, finally expects to sign the contract as soon as possible'[9].

The Italian government gesture would be followed by other measures to strengthen bilateral relations Romanian-Italian: 'The government of King quantifying no effort to delegate a prosecutor as distinguished as Mr. Pierrerati, gave the authorization necessary to develop this commitment. His Majesty's Government, with whose insurance are happy to be in charge, will always rush through the means available to meet government intentions of His Highness, Prince ruler in everything that will be profitable for the Romanian nation'[10].

In turn, Minister Vasile Alecsandri communicated affirmative response of the Italian by the bill no. 973 of 16 March 1860, addressed to the Ministry of Cults and public instruction in Bucharest.

During its mission to Turin, Vasile Alecsandri will know Giovenale Vegezzi Ruscalla, an Italian who since 1845 was in touch with the realities of Romania, collaborating on 'Gazeta de Transilvania' led by George Baritiu. Subsequently the peace treaty signing in Paris of 1856, Ruscalla will sign the articles in Italian newspapers 'Lo Spettatore', 'Il Mondo Letterario.

In 1861 he became inspector of the Romanian government for Romanian students who since 1860 could study in Italy. In 1863 was declared honorary citizen of Romania, states that fought the plan for cultural recognition of Romanian independence. Ruscalla his daughter was married to a well-known Italian diplomat, Constantino Nigra[11].

No less important are historical evidence attesting to the existence of the Romanian Greek historical vestiges, which begins systematic research in this period. I discovered during research of Archives Foreign Ministry and a number of documents illustrating the conduct of fruitful relations of friendship between Romania and Greece Principalities.

Thus, 4 / 16 August 1860, Consulate General of Greece in Bucharest, the consul Constantin Haralambie, sending to the Foreign Minister of Wallachia, II Filipescu a letter that he was informed that a Greek citizen, sculptor John Cosse Greek Consulate had sent a petition accompanied by two busts made by him in marble of Paros and Pentelic, expressing their wish to donate the Romanian state.

In your answer, no. 10/22 August 2936 in 1860, the Romanian minister thank the Greek consul and sculptor John Cosse, on behalf of the government Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, expressing “unanimous admiration for the great work forever engraved in our memory of the classic land of Greece' . Also on the same day, he sent the no. In 2937 the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Public Instruction, to take necessary steps regarding the takeover of the assets of the National Museum of the two works of art .



Thus, the Paris Convention of 19 August 1858 created a mechanism slowness of operation of the United principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia to paralyze initiatives in reforming the Assembly, composed of members of liberal and conservative groups. We can consider that the Romanian political life in the early stage was a copy of the scale of the European political scene, and it dominated the 'conservative spirit', in which radical liberalism risked compromising the political-diplomatic support and so fragile security for the Powers -unionist, who at the end of two years of intense diplomatic action to court Austria, France, Sardinia, England, and the Ottoman Empire, managed to persuade the Dec. 3 1861, Gate to issue the Act of Confirmation it recognized the A I Cuza as prince during his life, how an otherwise had and Austria .

As a result, Prince A I Cuza should maneuver with extreme skill Levers principal of state power, initiative and decision, managing to end on January 24 1862, full internal administrative unification of the Romanian State.

In the summer of 1862, when the conservative government and has ceased following the murder of Catargiu Barbu, 'following a sad event, taking the helm of government itself,' Prince Al. I. Cuza took the first step towards authoritarian rule establishment providing helm of government doctor Kretulescu.

Italian diplomacy, faithful to the national principle set out the first minister Italian Camillo Benso di Cavour and regarded as a cornerstone of which was formed Italy, watching with sympathy the way the Romanian state towards the completion of unity and national independence.

The situation of foreign state was uncertain as shown in the letter sent by Prince A I Cuza 29 April/11 king of Italy in May 1863 in which informing him that the principalities borders with Austria and Russia were massed troops.

From the response of King Vittorio Emmanuelle, on 15 July 1863, to break the idea that these deployments of troops were to the Italian government and it would Cuza assurances that no power is not wanted attacking Romania. Terms of the treaty of Paris were seen as a guarantee of peace, and Italy was willing to support Romania with sympathy.

The need to have an electoral law based on social configuration of the Romanian people and to improve the Convention in Paris that is the constitution that was inspired reform initiative.  Count Greppi, Italy's envoy to Constantinople sent a report on September 9 1863 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Italy on surveys made by Costache Negri in addition to the Ambassador of France, on the Prince Cuza on a possible amendment to the Constitution and the need for reforms of principalities.

According to the report, on September 8 1863, Costache Negri has read the draft prince A I Cuza which provides, inter alia, the election of deputies through universal suffrage in two colleges. A second body, the balancing role, the Senate had chosen Prince. In addition, it affirmed the need to constitute the Council of State and the Court of Auditors. Costache Negri said that occasion that Prince Cuza was going to call the old assembly and if it is opposed to be dissolved and be proclaimed the new Constitution[15].

  Italian diplomat concluded: 'pending dictatorship, Prince Cuza will lead the decrees, which will be sanctioned by the Chamber[16].'

Given need a government to support the work of reforming, Prince A I Cuza entrusted with the mission of the Mihail Kogalniceanu at 11/23 October 1863.

Knight Strambio, Italian envoy in Bucharest, send to the Foreign Ministry of Italy, on 23 October 1863, a report in which it informed the following fact: 'The government Kogalniceanu was formed today. And its compliance with the Convention is no solidarity with the outgoing cabinet, reconciliation with the Assembly convened on November 13. In case of failure, not for universal suffrage meeting to ratify the reform desired by Prince Cuza but for reconstitution that would restore everything in question. Little trust and irritation of all patriots. Difficult to provide what will come out of here' .

During the same period, Knight Scorasso, in Belgrade know that the emperor Napoleon III, Prince of A I Cuza supporter, was a very bellicose speech in favor of nationalities and hostile Austria[18].

Thus, the activity of reforming the prince's AI Cuza began with the secularization of the monasteries’ assets. Prepared for a long time, the external negotiations and internal measures, the law has been submitted to the Assembly on 13/25 December 1863. By this law the 'secularization of all monasteries’ assets from Romania entered Nationalization 25.26% of the country. The measure was necessary because the common worship estate agent by the rulers and boyars, monasteries, a good part of which is dedicated Holy places (Athos, Jerusalem, etc.) Return and the revenue generated in the country's heritage was an act of independence, which had significant as such by the powers Warranty.

In Constantinople, on 21 November 1863, Greppi Foreign Ministry said that Italian Ambassador to France introduced on November 20, the audience to the Sultan, the invitation to Congress in Paris.

Italian headquarters of the Agency of Constantinople, located in the neighborhood Pera, 24 November 1863, Greppi information that Turkish Foreign Minister Ali Pasa sent a note Powers Deposit representatives 'without delay asking for a meeting of the Conference shall decide the matter definitively dedicated assets'.

Two days later, on November 26, knight Annibal Strambio telegram sent to Turin as follows: 'Cuza sent a messenger emergency meeting on goods monasteries dedicated to a bill taking goods from monasteries dedicated offering compensation 50 000 000 piastri Turks at the request of the Ministry, said the meeting was and always voted the project. Powers and agency security advisers have informed the governments and their representatives in Constantinople' .

The law passed on 25 December 1863, represented a decisive step which announced land reform. Although protests Greek monks were vehement, Powers Deposit have agreed fait accompli.

Once triggered reform measures initiated by A I Cuza, with the support of Prime Minister Mihail Kogalniceanu, continued with the establishment of schools in Bucharest higher science and higher school of letters which were first specialization of the University of Bucharest, founded in 1864, the second university in the country after the Iasi , founded in 1860.

The agrarian reform need to put in a fiery opposition liberal and conservative groups in the Assembly principalities, starting with the meeting of 10/22 April 1864.
On 13 April 1864 Vasile Boerescu, as the representative of the conservative majority, criticized the government, accepting only the appropriating of 2.5 hectares and requiring payment of damages in seven years with an interest rate of 8% - not in 20 years with a 5% interest, how the government had set. He also called for owners to receive compensation consisting of land from the land fund of the state equal to those expropriated.

Prime Minister M. Kogalniceanu rejected the caretaker draft, but they have a majority in the Assembly have given vote to blame the government Kogalniceanu, which had to resign because the Assembly could be dissolved on the way the law.

Day 2 / 14 May 1864, Mihail Kogalniceanu announced the dissolution of the Assembly and submitted the message A I Cuza prince, leaving the hall, evacuated soldiers. Prince moved the measure as the only way to do the second reforms vital for the future of the country, land reform and the electoral law. A. I. Cuza had to assume such responsibility of Mr. Authoritarian. Italian diplomacy followed with maximum attention from Bucharest and Constantinople situation in Romania .

Day 2 / 14 May 1864, and the consul general of Italy in Bucharest, knight Annibal Strambio was informed by the Italian foreign minister that the British representative at Constantinople, Sir Henry Bulwer wanted the conference to propose a vote of blame regarding the purchase by Cuza French arms. Is required to track such developments in internal principalities (the conflict between the Assembly and Cuza). Also, Strambio had to advise him on Cuza to take care to domestic security suspicions Powers.

The same day, 2 / 14 May 1864, in Turin Strambio wire information on 'coup d'etat of May 2: “Today, convening extraordinary Assembly. Most states that no longer wants to work with the Ministry. He announces he will dissolve the Assembly and asks pre-credit for 3 months. Chamber denies. There was turmoil, ministers and parliamentarians and talking all at the same time shouting and nonsense. Reads the order of dissolution. Deputies refused to leave when entering the gate soldiers. Hall is empty, and everybody depart liability. The city is one-perfect silence. Probably tomorrow, coup d'etat”.

On 9 / 21 May 1864, Strambio know that the situation in the country was good, infirming rumors appeared in newspapers Vienna. Annibal Strambio concluded that 'the opposition will not fix anything, the government obtaining a sure victory.'

Prince made public Statute developer of the Paris Convention and the new electoral law holding a plebiscite planned in the days of 10/22 mai-14/26 May 1864.

This was disclosed its intent to Cuza's Annibal Strambio to 12/24 in May 1864, in confidence:

'After the dissolution of the Assembly, Prince Cuza decided to obey the law of universal suffrage election and the new Constitution known with some modifications, after which His will lead to Constantinople. France is committed to support him, but Prince Cuza resist unwanted air to have a bye and you. Cuza was to address the Sublime Ottoman Empire, of France and England, then Italy and the people to ask under art. VIII and IX of the Convention approved as a means to safeguard the safety of borders threatened by Austria with 30 000 people in Transylvania and Bukovina and Russia with 50 000 people in Bessarabia and neighboring provinces .

On 26 May 1864 in Constantinople, was sent to the count Greppi, the representative of Italy in the Ottoman Empire, by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Count Visconti Venosta-on letter to the vizier Cuza in which Turkey is not recognized Constitutional changes made to it.

On 28 May 1864, Minister of France to Turin, Baron of Malaret received a comprehensive report from his diplomatic Drouyn of Lhuys, who described the situation in Romania after 2 May 1864, when A I Cuza proposed an electoral law, establishment of a Court of Auditors A new constitution, a body-balancing the Senate. The report shows how the powers guarantor and power suzerainty accept those measures which they bound Cuza vote country.

The report makes direct reference to a telegram sent on 28 August 1863 predecessor Baron, who commented Cuza memorandum addressed Powers Deposit weights on governance. Referring to the situation, Drouyn of Lhuys insisted on the need to change the constitutional regime in the country that leaves virtually Assembly in conflict with the ruler. Prince Cuza, considering essential changes, it was agreed 'to prepare the country concentrating in the hands of his dictatorship a few years.' Despite reservations, the sender recognized that 'those measures deserve to be well received.' Convinced himself of the rightness, Drouyn of Lhuys wrote count of Sortiges that 'the program does not have anything that is not acceptable in terms of security Powers.' They have not hidden their weaknesses of the step, counting on experience to correct further imperfections, as expressed by the French consul in Bucharest. It noted that, despite disagreement in principle to the measures taken by Cuza, 'put in front of a fait accompli,' Powers guarantee shall take the path of prudence necessary to maintain peace in the Orient by a calm approach to problems and remove all dangerous elements.



The report invited the Italian consul 'to present to Prince Cuza regret product of the proclamation announced that the new law constitutional and economic publishes it came into force immediately suffrage popular that they will be punished'. Consider that any future action to expose it Cuza blame the governments of Powers Warranty.

Drouyn of Lhuys, concluded that if the Italian government shared the French view, it must notify the representative of Italy to Constantinople to take part in any discussions between them guaranteeing powers.

On May 29 1864, the Italian Foreign Ministry send a telegram representatives of Italy in London, Marquis d'Azeglio, and that the Paris Constantino Nigra, referring to the prince Cuza intention to propose the election law.

On June 3 1864, a circular of the Italian foreign minister, Count Visconti Venosta-Italian Legation was sent from St. Petersburg, Berlin, London, and Constantinople, request them to these ambassadors, as a result of the Imperial French government request to confirm Italian government's attitude towards reforms Cuza before other powers to the Convention of 1858.
On 15 June 1864, Minister Venosta was informed about the visit count Greppi Prince Cuza Constantinople.

On 21 June 1864, Count Greppi of Constantinople wire that Prince Cuza left the evening of June 20 in Bucharest after the audience at the Sultan: 'He (Cuza, n.n.) was agreed with the sublime to the gate of the coup d'etat. The commitment will be subject to the approval of the conference. Details by letter. '

To obtain recognition of its reforms, A. I. Cuza made a visit to Constantinople, with effect from June 8 1864, stating: 'I am leaving - he declared - for a new recognition of the autonomy of Romania'.

Received the distinction chosen by the sultan, Prince, accompanied by his envoy from Constantinople, Costache Negri, the foreign minister DN Roset Balanescu, Carol Davila etc.. held talks with the grand vizier Fuad care, with foreign minister , Ali care, with representatives of Austria (Prockesh-von Osten), England (Sir Henry Bulwer), Prussia (Brassier de Saint Simon), Italy (Greppi), France (Marquis de Moustier), managing to obtain adherence to the Powers reached. In addition, it was decided that Principalities to take action on their own internal development without prior consultation Powers of Deposit, which amount to guarantee the full internal autonomy.

Count Greppi, wire in Constantinople, on 26 June 1864 that on June 28, was to be conducted under the chairmanship of Turkish Foreign Minister, Ali Pasa 'a conference for the settlement arrangements between the gate and Sublime Prince Cuza. Italian diplomat said that 'Russia's representative raises no problems.'

On June 29, Greppi wire protocol signing: 'The conference yesterday was signed the protocol for acceptance of what happened between the gate and Sublime Prince Cuza. The representative of Russia signed reserving the right to return to court, not having enough instructions'[23].

Russia has agreed fully on the decisions of the Conference on June 28 to July 16 1864, as a result of the telegram sent to Turin by count Greppi.

The draft law consists of rural Council of State, headed by the prince was sanctioned on August 14/26 and August 15/26 enacted in 1864, accompanied by a manifesto to the peasants: 'From this day forth vanquisher on a body part of the country. .. Today before you master your arms Today before you have a loved the motherland and defended !'. These words will Cuza place in legend as the gentleman who opened the path to such a future war of independence.

In the years 1864 and 1865, a decision was taken some fundamental reforms aimed at a new voting laws and pensions; law military organization; accounting law, county councils law, criminal code, civil code, the law public instruction. It was also established archives state institution, the school of bridges and roads.

Mihail Kogalniceanu his resignation, during which his government take the opposition and the hate both conservatives and liberals on the radicals, occurred in January 1865 has tempered series of reforms and stressed the erosion image A I Cuza prince. Bucharest merchants revolt against the measures taken by the administration Cuza in the summer of 1865, when Prince was left to Ems to the spa treatment was a discreet attempt to mark the idea of vulnerability of Cuza. Even if opened fire order from General I. Em. Florescu, the minister of defense, Cuza, quickly returned to Bucharest has long calm offering amnesty to those involved.

Italian diplomacy appreciate his attitude Cuza, as shown in the letter sent from Florence, the new capital of Italy, by Foreign Minister Annibal Strambio agent.

Prince A I Cuza, could not have the support of Napoleon III, displeased that attitude Cuza issue in the Danube transportation of weapons from Russia to Serbia, and action to adopt children and recipients of the extra-conjugal relationship with Maria Obrenovici, have in and the abdication in order to give effect to the desire The Assemblies ad hoc in 1857, the completion of the establishment of Romanians under a foreign prince.

When A I Cuza was obliged to resign at 11/23 February 1866, the Italian representative at Constantinople send its colleagues in France and England in a telegram to appreciate the gravity of the situation, inform the proclamation candidacy Philip count of Flanders, from the royal family of Belgium, asking and colleagues to consider the echoes of the resignation of the 'Prince Unification' in the two major European capitals.

  Italian diplomatic correspondence of the season sincere the idea of admiration for Italian prince A I Cuza reforms, and particularly the interests of Italy to the events of the Romanian Principalities, and Italy are in the process of national affirmation.

Bibliography:

Archives:

Arhivele Nationale Istorice Centrale (ANIC), colectia Microfilme, fond Italia

Arhiva Ministerului Afacerilor de Externe, Bucuresti (A.M.A.E.), fond Arhiva Istorica

Direzione Generale degli Archivi dello Stato, Roma (D.G.A.S), fond Visconti Venosta

Articles:

Ciupala, Alin, Giovenale Vegezzi Ruscala between two motherlands-Italy and Romania, in Annuario. Istituto Romeno di cultura e ricerca umanistica 5 (2003), edited by Serban Marin, Rudolf Dinu, Ion Bulei and Cristian Luca, Bucharest, Ed. Enciclopedica, 2004, p. 392-397

Ghetau, Vasile, directorul Centrului de Cercetari Demografice „Vladimir Trebici“ al Academiei Romane, interviu aparut in „Ziarul Lumina”, Centrul de Presa „Basilica” al Patriarhiei Romane, consemnat de Larisa si Constantin Iftime la 25 iunie 2008.

Institutul National de Statistica, 148 de ani de statistica oficiala in Romania, http//www.insse.ro.

Papers:

Bobango,  Gerald J., The Emergence of the Romanian National State, Boulder, 1979.

Giurescu, C. C. Viata si opera lui Cuza Voda, 2nd edition, Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1970.

Isar, Nicolae,  Istoria Romanilor 1774/1874-1918, Editura Universitara, Bucuresti, 2006.



Gerald J. Bobango, The Emergence of the Romanian National State, Boulder, 1979, p.34-35.

Vasile Ghetau, directorul Centrului de Cercetari Demografice „Vladimir Trebici“ al Academiei Romane, interviu aparut in „Ziarul Lumina”, Centrul de Presa „Basilica” al Patriarhiei Romane, consemnat de Larisa si Constantin Iftime, la 25 iunie 2008, p.1.



Institutul National de Statistica, 148 de ani de statistica oficiala in Romania, http//www.insse.ro.

Arhivele Nationale Istorice Centrale (in continuare se va cita ANIC), colectia Microfilme, fond Italia, rola 8, cadrele 469-470.

Ibidem, cadrele 463-465.

C. C. Giurescu Viata si opera lui Cuza Voda, 2nd edition, Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1970, p. 78.

Arhiva Ministerului Afacerilor de Externe, Bucuresti (in continuare se va cita: A.M.A.E.), fond Arhiva Istorica, dosar 46/1860, f.26.

Ibidem.

Ibidem.

Ibidem, f.27.

A.M.A.E., fond Arhiva Istorica, dosar 46/1860,f.29.

Ibidem, f.30.

Ibidem.

Ibidem, f.28.

Nicolae Isar, Istoria Romanilor 1774/1874-1918, Editura Universitara, Bucuresti, 2006, p. 256-257.

Direzione Generale degli Archivi dello Stato, Roma (in continuare se va cita: D.G.A.S), fond Visconti Venosta, Pacco 2, Busta 17.

Ibidem, Busta 30.

Ibidem, Busta 33.

A.N.I.C., colectia Microfilme, fond Italia, rola 10-1, cadrul 70.

Alin Ciupala, Giovenale Vegezzi Ruscala between two motherlands-Italy and Romania, in Annuario. Istituto Romeno di cultura e ricerca umanistica 5 (2003), edited by Serban Marin, Rudolf Dinu, Ion Bulei and Cristian Luca, Bucharest, Ed. Enciclopedica, 2004, p. 392-397.

A.N.I.C., colectia Microfilme, fond Italia, rola 10-1, cadrul 70.

Ibidem Rola 10-1 Cadrul 95

Ibidem, Cadrul 97.



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