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GLYCOLYSIS

medicines

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GLYCOLYSIS

Glucokinase




  • Found in hepatocytes and β cells of pancreas

Hexokinase

  • Also Found in liver and everywhere else
 

AST

 

AST

 

Aspartate

 

AST:ALT RATIO

  • Viruses (Hepatitis) will breakdown only the cell Wall and let AST & alt to spill out
    • AST/ALT < 2:1
  • Alcohol will dissolve both the cell membrane and the mitochonridal membrane and let ↑AST ALT out
    • AST/ALT > 2:1
 

Glycolysis

  • ATP production and Electron Shuttles
    • NADH
      • Malate Shuttle
      • 3 ATP
    • FADH2
      • Glycerol-3P Shuttle
      • 2 ATP
  • ***CLINICAL***
  • Primary Lactose intolerance
    • Hereditary deficiency of LACTASE
    • Symptoms:
      • Vomiting
      • Bloating
      • Explosive/Watery diarrhea
      • Cramps
      • Dehydration
    • Symptoms can be attributed to bacterial fermentation of lactose
    • Dx. based on positive hydrogen breath test after an oral load of lactose
    • Tx.
      • Dietary restriction

GLYCOLYSIS REGULATION

  • PFK -1
    • Rate-limiting Enzyme of Glycolysis
  • Fructose 2,6 – biphosphate
    • Allosteric activator of PFK – 1
      • If there is a build-up of Fructose 6-phosphate F 2,6-biP will make PFK “work harder”
  • Glyceraldehyde 3 – Phosphate
    • Has disulfide bonds which can be disrupted by alcohol
    • Mercury Poisoning
      • Inhibits sulfur group of enzyme
  • Phosphoglycerate kinase
    • Substrate level phosphorylation
      • Potential for energy
  • Enolase
    • Inhibited by Fluoride
    • CLUE = Shiny white teeth
  • 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate
    • With RBC mutase can be converted to 2 – BPG
    • 2 – BPG
      • ↓ Hb Affinity for O2


CONNECTIONS

  • RBC
    • Glycolysis is the only source of energy
    • Relies on Substrate level phophorylation for ATP production and the Cori Cycle
    • The cell can eventually run out of NAD
      • It must be reoxidized in ETC, BUT RBC does not have mitochondria
        • Therefore, can’t replenish NAD
      • What’s the solution?
        • LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
        • Lactate will be turned into pyruvate and sent to the liver to induce Gluconeogenesis and supply more glucose of the RBC

Mr. RBC working hard for the heart to get him more O2

 


  • Lactate Dehydrogenase
    • Anaerobic function
      • May be in a hypoxic state
    • Any enzyme of Glycolysis can be ↑↑↑ during hypoxia
    • Recall that in a MI LDH levels are measured!!!

Pathophysiology Bridge

  • IF there is a loss of ATP production = Na+/K+ pump dysfunction
    • Loss of gradient = Cell will swell

GALACTOSE METABOLISM

PEE

 
Galactose metabolism to glucose

  • Babies need a lot of milk/formula b/c of the baby uncoupling it’s ETC
    • Therefore, baby needs a lot of Energy replacement from milk (glucose resource)
    • Soy is a good source also if lactose intolerant





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