TERMENI importanti pentru acest document
Possible (probable) kinds of influence on an environment.
The degree project on a theme ' Lyceum on 432 pupils in regional settlement Mokrous
of Fyodorovski region of the
The graphic part consists of 11 sheets of drawings of format
The explanatory note contains 186 pages, 43 tables, 18 figures, 54 used sources of the literature.
Designs are developed: a covering of a sports hall, the pile base; technological cards (maps): on the device of the pile base, on the device monolithic ðiñòaaðêà on finish of of surfaces of walls by decorative plaster 'Danish'.
The schedule diagram of manufacture of works, the building general plan is developed; questions of material support of building manufacture are solved.
Marketing research, economic substantiation of erection of object is executed, estimates on iáùañòðièòaëüíûa, sanitary-engineering, installation works and the objective estimate are made.
Calculation of technical and economic parameters is made, ecological examination is executed, and engineering decisions on a safety of technological process are developed.
Necessity of designing and construction of new general educational establishments is connected to acceptance of ' the Program of designing of modern general educational establishments '. This program bases on authorized by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation ' the Concept of social - functional requirements to the organization of system and designing of comprehensive school I, II and III steps of training '. According to the concept general and secondary education cardinal change of the contents and methods of training of the general education, making school in old conditions a little susceptible to innovations is supposed. The concept general demands revision of the material environment of school - by principles of the organization of a network and types of buildings, on the organization of structure, structure and the areas of premises.
At the usual material environment,
on 1 pupil in the
Problem of the given degree project
is to develop a building of liceum on 432 pupils for regional settlement
Mokrous of the
Lyceum - the general educational establishment realizing general educational programs of full general education, giving the pupil the profound studying of some subjects and vocational training, and providing a continuity of average and higher education. The lyceum is organized as establishment basically III step.
The space-planning structure of a building should meet to purpose of establishment, its specificity and comfortable conditions of operation, including connection with a site of school, which contains pedagogical, hygienic, architectural - typological and town-planning aspects of designing. By development of the project it is necessary to apply modern constructive decisions, materials, ways of manufacture of works.
In the degree project for the chosen area of construction it is more expedient to include in structure of lyceum an elementary school, with preservation of prevailing amount of learning senior classes.
Modern general educational establishments are projected as the multipurpose universal centers - for service of pupils and the population in free time from study and in days off. The given circumstance also is taken into account by development of the project.
The general plan is developed in view of existing and perspective building micro district.
The building of lyceum on 432 pupils will be located in a southwest part of regional settlement Mokrous on a free site from building. The site is located between streets Kolcevaya and Stepnaya, along street Sovhoznaya.
The building is placed on a site so that to provide optimum orientation of classrooms (to the east, a southeast). The attention especially is paid to the device of access roads, an accomplishment on the part of the main facade and street Sovhoznaya. The accomplishment of territory is executed on the basis of the composite decision of a building and functional çiíèðiaàíèÿ
Along the street Kolcevaya on the part of the main facade the bus route and stopping pavilion is planned. On the part of lateral facade « », along the street Sovhoznaya the parking place on 20 automobiles is projected.
The site is protected on all perimeters by a decorative forged fencing in height of 2 m, with the device of 6 entrances on territory of lyceum. On the part of the main facade from the main gate up to steps of an entrance the covering from stone tiles is executed, flowerbeds are equipped. Also the covering tile is provided on the part of lateral facades at an entrance in a building.
In territory of a site of lyceum are stipulated:
1) A sports zone:
School stadium with a racetrack;
A platform for basketball;
A platform for volleyball;
2 platforms for gymnastics of initial classes (for girls and boys separately);
2 platforms for gymnastics of the senior classes;
Summer pool 11,5õ25,0 m.
2) A zone of initial military preparation, including an obstacle course.
3) An educational skilled zone, (without a hothouse);.
4) A zone of rest.
The underground Group of zones and sites, and also various constructions is resulted in an explication of buildings and constructions on the drawing of the general plan (the Sheet ¹ 1).
On platforms small architectural forms are placed according to functional purpose. All free from building, asphalt coverings and platforms territory is as much as possible planted trees and shrubs by landing of trees, decorative bushes and the device of a lawn and flowerbeds a landing material of local nurseries.
Functional process. The building besides educational functions is designed for service is sports.
Mode of operation of lyceum:
Duration of working process per one year - 210 days;
Quantity (amount) of changes - 1;
Duration of change - 8 hours;
Volume of an academic load to teachers - under the plan;
Amount of pupils - 432 person (18 classes on 24 pupils in everyone);
Total of the personnel in lyceum - 187 person.
Pupils of initial classes are trained in the educational rooms fixed behind everyone class, training of learning senior classes is carried out on room system, use of educational studies on 2 disciplines is supposed.
In lyceum a 2-single hot feed for children of initial classes and hot breakfasts for other children is organized. A feed is organized in a dining room working on raw material, the process equipment works on electricity. In free time from employment and in days off the dining room will function as cafe - club.
In lyceum a 2-single hot feed for children of initial classes and hot breakfasts for other children is organized. A feed is organized in a dining room working on raw material, the process equipment works on electricity. In free time from educational occupations and in days off the dining room will function as cafe - club.
For vocational training in lyceum the autoclass is provided. The autoclass is blocked with school garage. The group of the prolonged day for initial classes is not stipulated. The shooting gallery is not stipulated.
In an assembly hall of lyceum film-display is stipulated, and the separate video hall is stipulated.
Studies of physics and chemistry are equipped with special demonstration tables where control panels are stipulated by the design equipment. For maintenance of the best visibility of visual aids the demonstration table is established on a podium in height of 150 mm. In a zone of pupils double student's laboratory tables with ïiäaiäêié waters, the electric power, compressed air (laboratory of physics) and ïiäaiäêié waters (laboratory of chemistry) are established. The laboratory of chemistry is equipped with the exhaust cases located at an external wall near a table of the teacher.
Studies of foreign language include the following equipment: a table of the teacher with a control panel and a curbstone for projectors; a support under the tape recorder and a player; section cases for storage of visual aids; linguaphone installations.
The space-planning decision of a
building is according to requirements ÌAÑÍ 4.06-96
The building of lyceum has 3 floors and a cellar. Height of a floor is 3,3 m.
For a conditional mark 0,000 the mark of a clean floor of 1-st floor of a building that meets to an absolute mark on district of 105,60 m is accepted.
In a cellar the study of the deputy director, ventilating chambers, a room of water-purifying station with unit of management, a room settles down additional rooms of a book-depository of library.
On 1-st floor are placed a front entrance in the educational case with a lobby - wardrobe; a dining room; group of rooms for an elementary school, the specialized groups of rooms on natural sciences and the technological groups of rooms connected hardly and profile training.
Wardrobes with the equipment of cells are for each class. Wardrobes are equipped with hangers for clothes and cells for footwear. For initial classes the separate wardrobe is stipulated. On a ground floor are stipulated: a medical study, electropanelboard, a room of the younger attendants, studies of an elementary school and game rooms, laboratories of physics, chemistry (with laboratories); bathrooms for girls and boys of grown-ups and elementary grades, office, a lecture audience. The separate block allocates group of premises of a dining room.
The dining room has the following set of the equipment and rooms: hot shop, cold shop, meat - fish shop, confectionery shop, vegetable shop; washing for a dining room and kitchen utensils; pantries for dry products and vegetables; cooled and íèçêiòaìïaðàòóðíûa chambers for storage meat and perishable food; household premises for the personnel of easting establishment; loading - tare; washing for container; the refrigerating chamber for food waste products; a bathroom for employees of a dining room. A lunch hall area is 130,8 m2. From an economic courtyard in rooms of a dining room there is a separate entrance through tambour. For convenience of unloading the unloading platform with a ladder and a ramp is stipulated.
The medical aid station includes the following rooms: a study of the doctor in length of 7 m (for definition of sensory acuity and sight of pupils); the study of the dentist equipped with an exhaust case; a procedural study. At a first-aid post the independent bathroom with shower bath is equipped.
The second floor includes the following rooms: workshop of manual skills, studies of an elementary school, a room of storage of manuals on geography, studies of geography, singing of drawing and plotting, the literature, Russian, biology, linguaphone studies, laboratories, inventory rooms, library and a book-depository. In library the following zones are provided: reader's places, information item (point) (distribution and reception of the literature), places for work with catalogues, funds of open access, funds of the closed storage, a zone with for individual employment and a place for storage of mobile carriages.
Separate bathrooms for boys and girls, a room of personal hygiene for women, the common bathrooms are stipulated. On the second floor the sports hall 12 24 m is placed, at height of a ceiling of 6 m, in axes 6-18. At a sports hall cloakrooms for boys and girls separately are stipulated . In everyone cloakroom are 2-shower bath, 1 bathroom, and room for the instructor. The structure of rooms of gymnastic-sports purpose includes the room equipped with training devices.
Besides on 2 floors there is a hall - foyer and an assembly hall on 192 places with a platform. The sizes of an assembly hall are 9 18 m. At an assembly hall two are provided artistic; inventory.
On the third floor there is a small sports hall 9 18 m, height of a ceiling - 5,7 m. At this hall also there are all necessary premises of gymnastic-sports assignment. Also on the third floor there are bathrooms, pantries of harvest stock; workshop of manual skills, studies of mathematics, computer science, a history, the psychologist, the logaoedics, a military study with a room of storage of the weapon, a study of the director, the secretary; a teacher's room, a photo laboratory, a video hall, a broadcasting center and other rooms.
In initial classes, laboratories, educational studies, workshops, rooms of medical purpose, a teacher's room, a room of technician’s washstands are established.
The constructive decision of a building. As the basic materials of bearing (carrying) and protecting designs the silicate brick and precast concrete is applied.
External walls are projected by thickness of 510 mm from a silicate brick. Internal bearing (carrying) walls from a ceramic brick.
The bricklaying of walls is reinforced by grids from armature through three lines of a laying on height. Sites of walls with ventilating channels are reinforced on a contour of channels through four lines of a laying on height. In a level of top of plates of overlapping (blocking) of all floors are carried out continuous armature seams on all external and internal walls. Grids from the armature, stacked in three top horizontal seams, reinforce basic sites.
Internal partitions are carried out from cellular concrete blocks.
Crosspieces window and doorways Ferro-concrete for buildings with brick walls.
Warming of external walls and a roof - elastic plates from fiberglass ISOVER O-LA.
Plates of overlapping (blockings) combined teams concrete-concrete multihollow. Plates of a covering and overlapping (blocking) are stacked on a cement mortal.
Overlapping (blocking) of a sports hall by flight of 12 m - ridge two-console plates of a flat outline such as '2
The bases - pile. Piles Ferro-concrete marks 4-30 in length of 4 m. Raft is ferro-concrete monolithic from concrete of class A15, W6 on to crushed stone preparation. On raft base blocks for walls of cellars are stacked.
Windows – wood-aluminum with threefold glass. Window blocks of the European standard from glue pine bar it agrees are equipped with rotary-folding system of opening in 2 planes and have double rubber condensation on all perimeter of opening. The design of windows provides full tightness, sound insulation, and protection against a dust. Protection against rotting and good appearance is provided high-quality acryl with paint.
Doors - wooden external in accordance with AIÑÒ 24698-81, internal - in accordance with AIÑÒ 6629-88 for inhabited and public buildings.
Stained-glass windows of staircases are aluminum on a metal skeleton with three-layer glass.
Technical and economic parameters of object:
Building volume of a building - 31 960 m3;
Including a underground part - 6 432 m3;
The area of building - 2 172 m2;
The general area - 7 188,12 m2;
The useful area - 6 972,48 m2;
The settlement area - 6 109,90 m2.
The given project of lyceum on 432 pupils in Mokrous it is developed for the following conditions:
settlement winter temperature of external air --30 °
a normative high-speed pressure of a wind - 0,38 kPa;
normative snow loading - 1,0 kPa;
normative depth freezing of a ground - 1,5 m;
the Class of the responsibility of a building - I;
the Category on fire danger - A
the Degree of fire resistance of a building - II;
The architecture of facades is solved on a basis plastic, incorporated in a brick wall and warm light-beige tones. Feature of facades is, that they are no conventional for typical general educational establishments.
The system of communications, as against traditional corridor decisions, is offered as curvilinear outlines in a combination with hall and light 'glasses' of ladders. They can be used for exhibitions of children's figures.
By development of the architectural decision of a building the improved furnish of facades is stipulated:
Fibrocement plates 'Minerit-OPAL' from white cement have a relief - glossy surface and natural - white color.
Decorative mineral plaster of surfaces of walls of the facades, which have been not closed by concrete plates, on plates of a heater.
Socle of a building is finished by plates under natural hew stone.
High-quality finishing materials are applied to furnish of internal rooms of lyceum. Internal furnish of rooms meets to sanitary-and-hygienic and fire-prevention requirements depending on their purpose. Walls of basements are plastered, painted by glutinous structures, the bottom of walls - is painted by an oil paint.
The tambour of a front entrance, bottom of walls of a ground floor in a lobby, a wardrobe, halls (on all floors) is reveted with a marble of light tones. In furnish of walls are applied: glutinous coloring on high-quality plaster or covering liquid wallpaper, facing tiles.
Floors have a covering: board - in sports halls; mosaic-concrete - staircases, halls, a lobby, a wardrobe; parquet in assembly and video halls, linoleum multilayered on the warmed basis - in studies, class rooms; ceramic tile - bathrooms, shower-bath.
Water supply of lyceum is projected by uniform system of economic drinking and fire-prevention purpose from an external network of a water pipe. In a cellar of lyceum the water-purifying station with a control system is established.
On perimeter of a building the device of external cranes for watering adjoining territory is stipulated. Internal fire extinguishing is accepted from fire hydrants of an existing water pipe.
It is provided water pipes to the bowls established in educational studies.
Systems of internal networks of cold and hot water supply are projected from the steel zinced pipes. Trumpet distributing is executed latent. For pipelines thermal isolation is stipulated.
In a building the forced-air and exhaust ventilation with an air conditioning with mechanical and, in some cases, with natural prompting air exchange is accepted, assimilation of surpluses of heat in rooms is carried out also by devices such as 'Fancoil' in a mode 'cold' together with the central airs. All installations of forced ventilation and an air conditioning - from unified ñaêöèé AIRCHAL YORK.
The ventilating equipment is executed in the execution protected from noise. Soundproof materials stipulate sound isolation of walls and a floor of ventilating chambers.
Supply of central airs of air is carried out from the central installation consisting of two refrigerating machines YORK YCAM, established on a roof of a building.
Heating and hot water supply.
The two-trumpet deadlock system of heating with the bottom distributing, from individual modular boiler-house is projected.
As heating devices radiators steel such as 'Korad', in rooms with increased requirements to comfort - four trumpets 'Fancoil' are accepted.
Gas supply is projected from a gas main of a high pressure. Connection of boiler-house is arranged through gas distributive point. The basic fuel is gas natural. In boiler-house it is established 2 boilers. Smoke gases are deduced in a chimney in height of 32 m.
Electrosupply and illumination.
Power consumption - 400 kW, 72 kW - preparation peep in a dining room. The basic electro supply is from existing high-voltage network AË 10 kV. A reserve feed- from new line AË 10 kV, stipulated for clearing devices.
The project provides the following kinds of illumination: working, emergency (evacuation), security, repair.
For illumination of rooms fixtures with luminescent lamps with mirror reflectors on 2 inputs 220 are accepted in.
For maintenance of light exposure not less than 10 lk the sides of a building, on walls on rotary arms fixtures of security illumination are established.
Installation of electronic hours such as ' Electronika 7-06 ' on an entrance in a hall and hours such as ' Electronika 7-06 ' - in halls on floors is provided.
TV. For reproduction of television signals installation of the television shared aerial and installation of TVs in classes, educational studies, laboratories, workshops, auditorium, a lecture audience, library, êðóæêiaûõ rooms, a study of the director, a teacher's room is stipulated.
Telecommunication. In a teacher's room, a study of the director, the secretary installation of the phone is provided. The project provides the organization of selector connection from a study of director and the secretary, a broadcasting center - the central board, with the basic educational studies and rooms of lyceum.
Radio is provided from existing radio networks through radio the rack on a roof of a building. Radio receiving stations are provided in a teacher's room, a study of the director, the deputy director on teaching and educational work, the doctor, in office, a film-equipment room, a broadcasting center, a room of the master, a study of the instructor of physical training, technicians and recreational rooms.
Fire signal system.
The thermal automatic fire signal system is provided in all basic rooms of lyceum, according to norms of designing of general educational establishments. The automatic fire signal system, reacting on a smoke is provided in studies of computer science, auditorium, rooms of library, aañòèátëÿõ and aàðäaðiáíûõ with a dryer, aàðäaðiáíûõ, pantries of individual sports stock. The signal is deduced in a room of the on duty personnel and in a fire brigade.
The project stipulates the independent circuit of connection of systems of heating, ventilation, and hot water supply through the automated blocks installed in thermal point.
Automatic control and blocking are stipulated:
In system of heating with installation of a regulator of the charge, pressure and temperatures of thermal unit;
In all systems of ventilation switching-off at occurrence of a fire;
In central airs of air.
The water drain.
Tap (removal) of sewage from lyceum is made in septic tanks. They’re from after disinfecting in the contact tank, drains act in the tank - store in capacity of 50 m3. The disinfected sewage from the tank - store are taken out on fields of a filtration.
For removal of rainwaters from a roof of a building the system of internal water-drains on pavement at a building is provided. For reception rain and thawed snow on êðiaëa are established water-waste.
Releases from a building are projected in septic tanks.
Removal of dust.
The basic kind of waste products on the given object is the household dust that is stipulated to store in containers (at the economic block on an economic court yard) and to take out garbage trucks
On platforms of rest and platforms for outdoor games installation of urns for dust is stipulated.
Buildings of general educational establishments are projected in view of the maximal savings of energy according to ÌAÑÍ 2.01-99 and with obligatory observance of requirements II-3-79* Building the heating engineer .
Heat calculation is carried out for definition of losses of heat through protecting designs. The executed analytical and design development show, that the most economic effective protecting designs are designs with external heat insulation (system of warming of walls with mortal facades). Such heat insulation protects a wall from variable freezing - thawing, atmospheric influences that increases durability of bearing designs.
Warming of external walls and a roof - elastic plates from fiberglass ISOVER O-LA, providing a high degree heat insulation and required resistance to loading. Plates ISOVER O-LA is intended for warming facades under plaster and flat roofs under rolled to a roof.
In section of the diploma it is executed òaïëiòaõíè÷añêèé calculation of external walls and calculation of a covering of a sports hall and other rooms. Thickness of plates of a heater is accepted according to calculation of 100-150 mm.
With a view of acceptance of economically effective, less toilful constructive decision of a covering of a sports hall of lyceum the following variants are considered.
I. Typical ferro-concrete ridge plates of a covering of mass application in the size 3 12 m
II. Plates two-console such as '2 ' in the size 3 12 m with longitudinal edges.
III. Plate - environment (a design ferro-concrete vaulted) in the size 3 12 m.
On the basis of the given technical and economic parameters and accounting of labors expenses for the device of a covering of a sports hall in lyceum, considering presence of other factors, for the basic constructive decision are accepted plates such as '2
Calculation of a plate of a covering includes: gathering of the initial data, configuration of a plate, gathering of loadings, calculation of durability of normal and inclined sections of a plate on I and II group of limiting conditions, calculation in a stage of transportation and installation.
Calculation of the base includes: reception of the initial data, gathering of loadings, and calculation of the pile base, designing and calculation ðiñòaaðêà
Ðiñòaaðêè under walls represent multiflying a ferro-concrete beam, supporting oneself on separate support - piles. For calculation B.N. Zhemochkina uses ðiñòaaðêia the method of calculation rand-beam. Ðiñòaaðê it is considered as a beam on the elastic basis under action of the concentrated forces.
Ðiñòaaðêè under walls of the brick buildings, leaning(basing) on ferro-concrete piles pay off on operational loadings and on loadings for the period of construction.
In calculation of the base besides are executed:
Selection of mallet for immersing piles for successful immersing a pile in design position.
Definition of design refusal of piles for the control of bearing ability of a pile during manufacture of works.
At the given stage the device of a fence around of all territory of construction of lyceum from modular ferro-concrete elements is carried out with the help the lorry-mounted crane K-300 'ÊÀÒI'. Works on the device of a protection are carried out in 2 changes by a brigade from 5 people.
Simultaneously with the device of a protection it will be carried out (spent) cutting a vegetative layer by 2 bulldozers of mark AÇ-8 on the basis of tractor -100. A vegetative layer of a ground thickness of 0,6 m cutting in all territory of a building site which will be borrowed with time warehouses, roads, buildings etc. The Part of a ground in volume of 8300 m3 is subject to loading by dredges ÝI in automobiles - dumpers and to export from territory of lyceum. Other part necessary for an accomplishment (5100 m3) is subject to storage in territory of construction, in a place that is not borrowed with engineering, warehouses, shoddy constructions.
Cutting a vegetative layer will be executed simultaneously with a vertical layout of territory bulldozers. Upon termination of performance of process the act about acceptance of a vertical layout of the platform, assured the customer and the construction superintendent is made.
Simultaneously with a vertical layout works on creation of time buildings and constructions, a lining of a time water pipe, electro supply, telecommunication, the device time ïðiaçäia are made. Spadework is made within 15 days.
Development of a ground in a foundation ditch is carried out by dredge ÝI , with loading in automobiles dumpers. The bulldozer also makes the final layout of a bottom of a foundation ditch. Upon termination of work the act about acceptance of a foundation ditch is made out. Works are conducted in one change.
The device of the bases, works of a zero cycle.
Drilling leader chinks in diameter of 250 mm, depth of 2,5 m is carried out by boring machine MBM-802S on the basis of tractor -100. Chinks upon termination of drilling are filled in by water from a hose of the watering machine and closed by inventory boards. Upon termination of works the act for the latent works is made.
Immersing of single ferro-concrete piles 4-30 in length of 4 m in leader chinks, carry out tubular the diesel engine-ground -75 on pile-driver -860 with a hinged controlled mast. After the ending of works the certificate (act) of acceptance of a pile field is made. In magazine of works on object the data about çàáèaêa piles will be worn out. The ambassador Immersing of piles with the help of the machine of the -78 on the basis of tractor -100 make cutting down of concrete from armature skeleton of piles. Upon termination of the given process the certificate (act) of survey of the executed works is made.
Installation of a timbering and armature skeletons is carried out with the help the crane K-300 'ÊÀÒI' after the device broken stone preparations by thickness of 80 mm with condensation and impregnation by bitumen. After acceptance of a timbering and skeletons with drawing up of certificates (acts) on armature works, the latent works and entering in magazine of works on object carry out concreting monolithic ðiñòaaðêà auto-concrete-pamper.
The device of waterproofing of raft for maintenance of protection of foundation from influence of moisture. The certificate (act) for waterproofing works is made out.
Installation of base blocks of walls of a cellar is carried out with the help the crane K-300. After performance of process the data on its realization will be worn out in magazine of works on object.
The device of a vertical waterproofing of walls of a cellar - from rolled material 'Steklogidroisol'. An allowable break - 1 hour, a necessary break - 3 days after the device of a waterproofing for it’s drying. The certificate (act) for waterproofing works is made out.
Installation of ladder marches; plates of overlapping of a cellar are carried out by means of two crawlers with tower equipment SKG-100. The data on performance of processes will be worn out in magazine of works on object. After end of these works it is carried out strewing bosoms of a foundation ditch by bulldozers and condensation of a ground by groundcondensing machine DU-12B. Works of a zero cycle are carried out in 2 changes.
Erection of an elevated part.
Laying of external and internal walls from a brick with reinforcing and installation of mortgage details I carry out parts of masons in 2 changes. Submission of a solution and a brick, installation of plates of overlapping (blocking), a covering, ladder marches is carried out by 2 cranes SKG-100. The data on performance of processes will be worn out in magazine of works on object. On installation of overlapping (blocking) of each floor, reinforcing of a stone lying, installation of ladder marches etc. certificates (acts) are made.
Preparation of a surface under the device of a roof begins after end of installation of plates of a covering and a lying of parapets. The device vapor insulation, heat insulation, a cement coupler is made out by the certificate (act) for the latent works. A skating rink - roller CO-99, makes the covering self-fusing waterproofing rolled material. The data on performance of processes will be worn out in magazine of works on object. Works are carried out in 2 changes.
Internal civil works.
Simultaneously with the device of a roof internal civil work begin: an insert glass-packets in window blocks, the device heat insulation floors of ceramist, the device of a waterproofing of floors, the device of concrete, mosaic floors, installation a log and the device of board floorings.
Mosaic floors are carried out in 2 layers from concrete of class A22 (on white cement with the additive of pigments), concrete floors - in one layer. In front of the device of floors the surface is cleared by mechanical steel brushes and before stacking of a material is humidified and grounded by cement milk. Hardening coverings occurs under a layer of damp sawdust during 5-7 days. Mosaic floors after achievement by concrete of durability are grinded by grinding machine CO-155.
The board covering is arranged from boards, planed from different directions with crests and grooves from lateral faces. Boards anticepting on perimeter also stack on logs in 1 layer.
Prior to the beginning of the device of floors all are made internal sanitary-engineering and installation works, connection and test of systems of heating, ventilation, air-conditioning of a building (with drawing up of certificates (acts) of acceptance is carried out. The data on performance of processes will be worn out in magazine of works on object. Works are carried out in 2 changes.
Painting and decorating.
Painting and decorating - preparation of surfaces under plaster, plaster surfaces, coloring, the device of floors are carried out in winter time at working system of heating (temperature of air in a premise 10-15° , relative humidity of air in a premise - 60 %). Works are carried out in 2 changes.
Plaster works carry out the specialized parts. Preparation, submission of a solution for workplaces on floors is carried out by plaster station CO-114 on the pipeline. Drawing of layers sparks and a ground carry out the mechanized way (atomizers). As works are made in wintertime concrete-solution-pipeline, placed on open air are warmed, a solution before drawing, if necessary, is warmed up. Window slopes, niches in external walls are in addition warmed with installations of infrared radiation.
Facing of surfaces of walls by plates DSP is made on earlier established wooden skeleton with the help of screws and nails. Elements of a skeleton are preliminary impregnated with fireproof structures. Facing of walls and floors ceramic tiles carry out in bathrooms etc. premises (rooms) with a damp mode. Fastening tiles to brick and concrete surfaces carry out on polymer-concrete mastic. Seams between tiles fill polymer-concrete a solution in 2 day after their installation. Facing of walls by marble slabs is carried out on a skeleton from armature. By manufacture of facing works and after their ending within 15 day in rooms maintain temperature 10 - 15 ° and watch (keep up) humidity of reverted surfaces - no more than 8 %, relative humidity of air in a room - no more than 70 %. Additional drying of surfaces is (if necessary) carried out by installations of infrared radiation.
Pointer works include preparation of a surface, coloring. Coloring of surfaces is made with the help of platens, brushes or manual pointer-machine. The painted surfaces are exposed after hardening last painting layer to decorative - art furnish 'under silk '. An allowable break in work - 1 hour, a necessary break 1 day after painting for drying. In recently painted rooms the positive temperature (is not lower 10°Ñ) is supervised during 3 days the magazine of works on object on made ìàëÿðíûa works is filled.
Coverings from linoleum on a fabric basis and relin are arranged on a concrete-sandy coupler. Before gluing the material is maintained within 2 day in a room. Labels of rolls carry out latex glue such as 'Bustilat'. After gluing a covering establish plinths.
The device external heat insulation facades plates from fiberglass ISOVER and the subsequent plastering make with inventory tubular woods of a brigade plasterers and insulators the mechanized tool. The device heat insulation made out by the certificate (act) for the latent works. Facing of surfaces of walls by plates 'OPAL-Minerit' will simultaneously be carried out (spent) - after an attachment of a heater to walls of a plate 500 mm located with step in the plan and on height fasten for an anchor in the walls.
The socle of a building is reveted ïëèòêié under natural òañàíûé a stone on a concrete-sandy solution. Brigade stonemasons in 2 changes carry out Works.
Accomplishment of territory and delivery of object in operation.
Works on an accomplishment include:
Cleaning of building dust;
The device pavements around of a building;
The device of sidewalks and roads;
Spreading a vegetative ground;
A lay-out and preparation of lawns, beds etc.;
Gardening of territory;
Installation of small architectural forms;
The device of a protection.
Works on an accomplishment also made out by the appropriate certificate (act).
After end of these works the object is showed general contractor to acceptance: the working commission, and then the state inspection together with the customer.
The choice of the assembly crane is carried out on the basis of required working parameters of the crane for installation of designs on a basis objective - plane, constructive decisions of a building, weight and dimensions of designs, the assembly adaptations, the chosen assembly diagram, ways of movement and parking of the crane, places of warehousing of modular designs. Then technical and economic comparison of prospective variants on a minimum of the given expenses will be carried out and the most economic crane gets out.
For more full development of questions of technology of building processes three technological cards (maps) are developed: on the device of the pile base, on the device monolithic ðiñòaaðêà, on furnish of surfaces of walls by decorative plaster 'Danish' (liquid wall-paper).
In structure of this unit are developed:
The sheet of general (common) labor input,
The specification of modular designs,
The sheet of need (requirement) for the basic building materials, semi finished items, products.
Calculation of requirement of construction in the basic machines, mechanisms, and vehicles is executed. The diagram of work of the basic building machines is made.
Calculation of the initial data for designing ñòðiéaaíïëàíà includes calculation of dangerous operative ranges of assembly cranes; calculation of need (requirement) for time buildings, warehouses; calculation of requirement of construction in water, an electricity, and compressed air. The sheet of calculation of time buildings, warehouses are shown in tables.
Under construction of lyceum the site in the sizes 225 109 m, by the general (common) area of 23 648,0 m2, limited with three parties (sides) streets Kolcevaya, Stepnaya and Sovhoznaya is allocated (removed). The building general plan it is developed on the basis of the general plan. Near to a site there are networks of water supply, electrosupply that are used during construction. The area borrowed with a builded building of lyceum of 2 172 m2.
On all perimeters a fence from modular ferro-concrete elements protects the site of construction.
On a sheet of the drawing ¹ 11 it is given the building general plan (scale 1:500) at a stage of installation of plates of a covering and overlapping 3 floors. The building site has three entrances from three parties. Around of a building there is a 'ring' time road for an entrance of motor transport for maintenance of free travel, entrance and departure territory without a turn of automobiles with long ïiëóïðèöaïàìè. At the main entrance the checkpoint, controller's offices, office, a first-aid post etc. administrative - household rooms are located. All time buildings and constructions are located outside of an operative range of the assembly crane, possible (probable) falling of cargoes and work of other mechanisms. Besides there are parking places for long stay of engineering and transport. Places of warehousing of building designs etc. materials settle down directly in an operative range of the assembly crane and at access roads for convenience of performance of works. On ñòðiéaaíïëàía the locations of boards under the safety precautions of fire boards, the locations of fire hydrants are shown, to a line of time water supply, electrosupply, telecommunication; parking of the crane; dangerous zones. Halogen projectors PKN-1500-2 on 20-meter masts shine the building site in dark time of day.
In connection with sufficiency of a place on a building site it is in addition provided:
Territory for time storage of a vegetative layer of a ground for subsequent use at an accomplishment (the superfluous ground is taken out by automobiles - dumpers);
The device of a canopy for materials (12,5 ) and building engineering (12,5
Allocation of territory for time storage of building dust.
Duration of construction: =315 days.
General labor input of erection of a building 8014,04 person-day.
Factor of uniformity of movement of workers on general (common) building works:
Factor of overlapping of building processes in time:
Labor input of a construction of a building:
Operating ratio of the area:
Level of complex mechanization:
Installed power per employee of 1 worker:
Factor of loading of the assembly crane
Expenses of an operating time of the crane for 1 m3 of a building
In marketing research necessity of construction of the given lyceum for the chosen area of construction, the social importance is proved and the source of financing of construction is underlined.
Necessity of construction is
connected to the new program of education of the government of
ü Enables to increase comfort of the material environment initial and in part the basic of schools according to new social - pedagogical requirements.
ü Causes preconditions for creation of base differentiation profile training, equipment by material resources, attraction to training highly more skilled teachers;
ü Predetermines more economical decision of a way of construction of new schools due to the system approach.
ü Increase of a qualitative educational level.
ü Creation of the interesting psychological environment (' the environment brings up ').
ü Improvement of conditions of an air inhabitancy due to increase of specific volume and frequency rate of an exchange of air, and also air aeration.
Above-mentioned positions also are
a substantiation of necessity of construction of lyceum in Mokrous
Fyodorovskaya area of the
But for the given area of construction it is more expedient to include in its structure an elementary school, with preservation of prevailing quantity(amount) of learning senior classes. In that case the parity (ratio) of parallels of educational classes is accepted 1:2:2.
Lyceum in Mokrous is the multipurpose center. According to positions ÌAÑÍ 4.06-96' General educational establishments '  and the 22.214.171.1242-99 'School establishments'  building is projected for service of pupils and the population in no learning time. Use of rooms by the population (except for educational) is provided at o'clock when schoolboys according to an educational mode of day will not be in lyceum. To such rooms in a projected building of lyceum concern: 2 sport halls, an assembly hall, a video-hall, a photo laboratory, library, and a dining room. The specified rooms are projected in view of their use by administration of lyceum in commercial objectives in free time from study and in days off.
In section economy of construction estimates on common building, sanitary engineering, installation works in the prices of 1984 are made. The objective estimate (budget cost of construction) is made in the prices of 2002.
Calculation of annual working costs is executed:
The general(common) annual working costs
Operation of sanitary-engineering systems
In % from a budget project cost (without cost of the equipment)
Normative term of duration of construction is determined depending on a budget project cost on ' Settlement parameters for definition of duration of construction ', making 18 months.
The major tasks of a labor safety in construction are the prevention of failures and reduction of dangers, which can arise during erection of object. Process of erection of a building of lyceum is subdivided into a number (line) of civil works which estimation of dangers is resulted in the given section.
The analysis of the reasons of cases of a heavy traumatism speaks about imperfection of technology of separate working processes.
Industrial sanitary includes a complex of organizational, hygienic, sanitary and technical actions and the means preventing influence on people of harmful production factors.
In order to prevent consequences of action of harmful factors on workers maintenance with individual means of protection - overalls, footwear, a welding mask, a respirator, rubber êiaðèêè is stipulated, rubber gloves etc. pass Workers obligatory preliminary and periodic medical surveys. At the organization of building manufacture of workers provide with household rooms. The question of the organization of sanitary - consumer services of workers is considered in section 'Organization of construction'.
The ergonomics study functionalities of the person during activity with the purpose of creation and maintenance of such conditions, which make this activity more effectively and provide comfort for the person.
The processes demanding the maximal compatibility of system 'person - engineering' is a management of the assembly crane, a dredge.
Danger - the complex (difficult) process promoting in certain conditions to damage human, material, natural resources.
For definition of danger and development of no production decisions on its reduction make decomposition of considered (examined) process. Decomposition provides division of system into elements and definition of danger from each element, and their dangerous combinations to provide effective actions for decrease (reduction) of these dangers.
Fire-prevention requirements by development of the general plan and ñòðiéaaíïëàíà, the analysis of explosive and fire danger of used substances and materials, definition of a degree of fire resistance of a building and separate designs, fire prevention rules at performance are developed on the basis of the normative documentation and considered in sections: 'Architectural - building' and 'Organization of construction '.
At a stage of construction of action for protection of atmospheric air, water resources, ground resources, from influence of noise are developed in sections: 'Ecology' and 'Organization of construction'.
At a stage of operation of object: the harm, selected with the process equipment established in lyceum, does not exceed norms of maximum concentration limit.
Ways of migration of animals through a site of lyceum are not present, çàëaaàíèÿ minerals on a borrowed (an occupied) platform it is not revealed.
The projected building of lyceum is located in 0,6 km from the railway which is chemically dangerous object. Therefore at failure by the railway, the lyceum can appear in a zone of the center of mass defeat. The most widespread transported dangerous substance is ammonia. It is supposed, that as a result of failure can take place self-untight 2 tanks with ammonia (120 tons).
As a result of calculation and forecasting of an extreme situation the conclusion consists that because of the fast approach of a cloud of ammonia to object (12 mines) evacuation of people from a building motor transport in safe areas is not possible. As duration of amazing action is not great (1 . 42 minutes) ïàðia ammonia the building of lyceum is capable to provide protection of people against a cloud. In case of failure and emission of ammonia evacuation of all people that are taking place in a building, is provided in premises of a cellar. Total the person - 619, the free area of a cellar makes 1396,99 m2 (2,26 m2 on the person). In these rooms are placed additional furniture for time stay of people (chairs, benches), the separate room of storage of means of an individual defense, means of first-aid treatment is provided; bathrooms.
For decrease(reduction) of consequences of failure it is provided:
Creation in Mokrous dispatching service with the automatic monitoring system of chemical infection and the notification of the population about chemical danger.
in each class, a study the place of storage of means of an individual defense in necessary quantity(amount) is organized. These are small-sized gas masks AÏ-5 and AÏ-7 complete with additional cartridges for protection of bodies of breath against ammonia.
Accommodation inside a building (in corridors, on staircases) marks and indexes of ways of evacuation.
Presence of decontaminating substances (for ammonia - water).
The device of system of automatic dispersion of water around of a site of lyceum for creation of a water veil.
Realization of regular training employment(occupations) for pupils, teachers etc. workers of lyceum on use of means of an individual defense, rendering of the first medical aid.
In a medical study the stock of antipillboxes for ammonia - formaldehyde is provided; 5 % of a solution acetic (or citric) acids; 3 % of a solution of a boric acid for processing a skin and mucous membranes; 30 % of a solution of albucid for processing eyes; gauze bandages etc. means.
The ecological control puts the tasks: supervision over a condition of environmental natural environment and its change under influence of economic and other activity; check of performance of plans and actions for wildlife management, rational use of natural resources, improvement of environmental natural environment, observance of requirements ïðèðiäiiõðàíèòaëüíiai legislations and specifications of quality of environmental natural environment. Preservation of the environment is carried out by realization of precautionary and active actions. To the first for maintenance and preservation of natural balance, and creation of conditions concerns to the second - purposeful activity on protection and preservation of the natural environment by development of technical and organizational actions for elimination of air pollution, reservoirs and ïi÷a, protection of a wood and vegetative plantings (spreading).
The atmosphere - becomes soiled harmful substances as a result of increase of a level of a gassed condition at burning waste products of building materials; as a result of open storage of raised dust materials; as a result of development and transportation of a ground, operation of roads a covering on a building site; as a result of manufacture of paint and varnish and welding works.
The ground - becomes soiled and collapses a superficial layer, the vegetative cover is damaged, hydro-geological conditions of a platform, and also absence of the specialized water-shower points engineering are broken result in pollution of ground, subsoil waters by combustive-lubricating materials. At work of building engineering there can be an additional condensation of a ground.
The hydrosphere - becomes soiled due to dump of sewage on a surface of a site, education of dumps of inorganic dust. Pollution of the petroleum products and waste products of construction of superficial and underground waters.
Noise pollution - occurs as a result of work of building engineering, a bad condition of access roads and roads. The significant level of noise and vibrations on a building site create the following processes: condensation of a concrete mix by vibrators, piles a diesel engine - ìiëiòàìè, drilling leader chinks chisel installation, cutting down of concrete from skeletons of piles jackhammers and work of compressor installation, and also work of dredges and bulldozers.
During manufacture of civil and erection works there is a consumption of water for various needs; air as a result of work of engines of machines, gas-flame torches of anticorrosive installations; ground resources - export of a ground from a building site.
The ground - occurs the mechanized destruction of ground on all building site. The territory borrowed with a building (the area of building) is forever withdrawn from further use. By development of a foundation ditch natural addition of a ground is broken, occurs ðàçóïëiòíaíèa a superficial layer. The water mode of territory changes, thus downturn of a level of subsoil waters that entails infringement of vegetation of plants is possible.
Water resources - a plenty of water is consumed at conducting civil and erection works, on additional actions for service of construction and maintenance of necessary conditions of ability to live of workers.
The atmosphere - occurs consumption of oxygen of air at combustion of fuel in engines of machines, use of an open flame of gas torches etc.
The most significant negative influence on an environment renders accumulation of waste products of building and household dust by manufacture of works. Therefore in section of ecology it is settled an invoice quantities (amounts) of the dust formed during construction. As a result of building manufacture on a building site the following waste products are formed: dust building, a breakage and waste products of ferrous metals; a ground which is taken out from a building site, dust household.
Limit of accommodation of waste products:
The waste products formed at places of manufacture of works weekly are taken out on the place of constant accumulation coordinated with the central State Sanitary Epidemiological Supervision.
. At gathering, transportation and storage of waste products safety precautions regulations are observed at realization of cargo handling works, thus pollution of an atmosphere is excluded.
The project provides accommodation of waste products of construction:
The building dust is taken out on a dump;
The breakage and waste products of metal are taken out on the enterprises of acceptance of scrap metal;
The ground developed during excavations, is taken out in career;
The household dust is in part taken out on a dump, in part - is dumped (reset) in the water drain.
Influence on an environment during construction has temporary character. At the organization of building manufacture with a view of reduction of environmental contamination according to the project realization of the following actions is provided:
At excavations in order to prevent pollution of atmospheric air by an inorganic dust humidifying a ground is provided.
By manufacture of welding works in an atmosphere are allocated iêñèäû iron, manganese and its connections, fluoric hydrogen, but the volume of welding works is not great and at their performance according to technology and observance of the safety precautions of especial actions it is not provided.
Building - road machines are equipped with the special devices, capable to decontaminate emissions of toxic substances (äèiêñèä nitrogen, iêñèä carbon, hydrocarbon, soot). With the purpose of reduction of capacity of emission of pollution in an atmosphere, the works connected to emission will be carried spent not simultaneously.
For reduction of noise by exhaust pipes of machines mufflers are established.
Application of the electric power for technological needs of construction instead of burning firm and liquid fuel.
The closed storage, loading, an overload and transportation of loose materials, application of containers of special vehicles.
Application of tight capacities for transportation of concrete.
Receipt of emergency emissions is excluded. The building processes conducting to such emissions are not applied.
At cleaning waste products and dust the closed trays and bunkers - stores are applied. Export of building dust is carried out on the territory coordinated with the central State Sanitary-and-epidemiological Supervision - SSES (ÖAÑÝÍ
The building of lyceum is under construction on a free site from building Mokrous in which there are no sources pollutions from which the device of a sanitary - protective zone is required. The object of construction on an environment of harmful influence while in service does not render.
The common fencing, bushes change in other zone, protects the green plantings spreading that are not subject to cutting down.
The fertile layer of ground on a site under construction of a building of lyceum and other constructions prior to the beginning of the basic excavations is removed and moves in iòaàëû for subsequent its use at recultivation.
On end of construction according to the project the accomplishment of territory with restoration of a vegetative cover and landing of green plantings is carried out.
As a result of realization of the accepted design decisions normal sanitary-and-hygienic conditions of operation of a building, work and a life of the population living in area of construction of lyceum are provided. Negative influence of a projected building of lyceum on an environment is minimally. The decisions accepted in the project meet to ecological requirements, norms and rules of design stages, constructions and stages of operation.
All engineering decisions in the given project provide safe conducting civil and erection works and operation of object.
Application of the technological, ïiäú¸ìíi-transport equipment with the device of safety and protective adaptations, blocking, systems of automatic protective switching-off, mechanisms with remote control, manufacture of works according to technology promotes reduction of accidents by manufacture.
The device of illumination of a platform, the equipment of sanitary - household rooms promotes the common improvement of working conditions and creation of comfortable conditions. Realization of the accepted decisions on a labor safety, the safety precautions allows lowering an industrial traumatism, professional and general diseases of workers.
Use of overalls, special footwear, means of an individual defense allows reducing to a minimum influence on an organism of working harmful production factors.
At a stage of operation of object safety is caused by correct operation of the technological and power installations equipped with means of automatic switching-off at infringement of a normal mode of operation.
Politica de confidentialitate|
Adauga cod HTML in site