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SUBSTANTIVUL ( THE NOUN) - SUBSTANTIVE PROPRII, COMUNE

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SUBSTANTIVUL  ( THE NOUN)

A.Clasificare: (Classification.of Nouns )

I  1.SUBSTANTIVE PROPRII (PROPER NOUNS)

 

 Andrew,  Romania,  Bucharest,  Monday,  July.

 

 

 

 

 2.SUBSTANTIVE COMUNE (COMMON NOUNS)

a)       substantive abstracte (Abstract Nouns): happiness, music, weather, autumn, time ,luck, beauty, freedom, fun.

b) substantive concrete. (Concrete Nouns) : glass, concrete, cotton, silk, leather;

       girl, table, tree, rain;

c) substantive numarabile. (Countable Nouns) :

     -au forma si de singular si de plural ; pot fi folosite cu many, few, several;

       cat - cats,   pen - pens.  

d) substantive nenumarabile (Uncontable Nouns) :

    -se folosesc cu verbul la singular.

    -au forma numai de singular;

    -pot fi folosite cu munch , little;

 coal, coffe, food, ice,  iron,  rice, sand, steel, cruelty,honesty, patience, anger, happiness, hope, joy, pride, relief, respect, help, travel, sleep, work, freedom , baggage, business, equipment, furniture, housework, homework, advice, music, noise, peace, news, youth, knowledge, measles, fun, courage, despair, sugar, economics, beauty, information, scissors, tea, machinery, merchandise, money, nonsense, progress, research, spaghetti, strength, aeronautics, astronautics, electronics, mathematics, psysics,politics,aerobics, athletics, gymnastics, billiards, cards, checkers, darts,diabets, mumps.

e)substantive colective. (Collective Nouns):

army, team, fleet, flock, audience, committee, community, council, crew, enemy, gang, government, group, herd, jury, navy, press, public, staff.

 II  1. SUBSTANTIVE SIMPLE (SIMPLE NOUNS)

 

                 cat, boy, weather, idea, cloud, soldier.

     2 . SUBSTANTIVE FORMATE PRIN DERIVARE  (DERIVED NOUNS)

 

 driver, childhood, writer, actress, pianist, imposibility.

     3 . SUBSTANTIVE FORMATE PRIN COMPUNERE (COMPOUND NOUNS)

 

 pencilbox, icecream, classroom, a merry-go-round, bypass

B. Genul substantivelor (Gender of Nouns)

a)       masculin: man, boy, father, brother, son, uncle, wolf, lion

b)       feminin: woman, girl, mother, sister, daunghter, aunt, she-wolf, lioness.

c)       neutru: pen, bag, table, idea, cloud

d)       comun: friend, cousin, doctor, engineer.                                                                                                                          

Formarea substantivului feminin din masculin:

1) prin cuvinte diferite:

              boy - girl

              son – daughter

                father - mother  

                king - queen   

                nephew - niece

                uncle – aunt

2) prin adaugarea unui sufix:

                bride - bridegroom

                actor - actress

3) cu ajutorul pronumelui:

                wolf –      she-wolf

4) folosind un cuvant ajutator:

                doctor –   lady-doctor

C.      Cazul substantivelor (Case of Nouns)

1. Nominativ.( The Nominative Case)- cazul subiectului:

                                The boy is singing a nice song.

      2. Dativ. (The Dative Case)-cazul complementului indirect:               

                                Mother told a beautiful story to her daughter.

      3. Acuzativ. (The Accusative Case)-cazul complementului direct:

                            Tom bought a doll for my daughter.

      4. Genitiv. (The Genitive Case)- cazul atributului:

a)       genitivul sintetic : - `s se adauga la substantivele la singular sau la pluralele neregulate:

             boy`s ball, man`s work, men`s works.

                                   - (  ` )se adauga la pluralele regulate sau la substantivele proprii terminate in `s:

             boys` balls, Whites` car.

Genitivul sintetic se foloseste cu:

Substantive ce denumesc persoane sau fiinte:

The bird`s wings                                the student`s papers

Susan`s bag                                        the horses` food

The boy`s toy                                     my parents` house

Mother`s blouse                                teachers` books

The cat`s tail                                      children`s toys

Substantive ce denumesc unitati de timp, spatiu, masura:

                  A life`s work

                 A mile`s distance

                 Two weeks` work

                 A pound`s worth of apples

                 Yesterday`s newspaper

Substantive ce pot fi personificate:

                  Romania`s history

                  The sea`s voice.

Substantive ce denumesc o organizatie:

                  The government`s decision

                  The  army`s retreat

Substantive ce denumesc elemente geografice sau locuri:

                   England`s weather

                   The Danube`s waters

                   The world`s population

                   The city`s parks

Substantive  din expresii legate de natura:

                    The ocean`s roar

                     The sun`s heat

                     The moon`s light

Substantive din expresii legate de distanta:

                     At arm`s length

                     A ten yards` distance

Substantive din expresii legate de dimensiune si valoare:

                     A pound`s weight

                     Three dollars` worth

Substantive ce urmeaza dupa sake:

                     For peace`s sake

                     For order`s sake

                     For pity`s sake

b)  genitivul analitic :

Constructia cu of se foloseste:

Cu substantivele la genul neutru:

                  The leg of the table

                  The colour of the car

                   The window of the room

                   The back yard of the house

In expresii mai lungi:

                  The child of the woman you have talked.

                            

                         

D.      Numarul substantivelor (Number of Nouns):

1. SUBSTANTIVE VARIABILE (VARIABLE NOUNS):  

              

             Regula generala de formare a pluralului substantivelor in limba engleza este de a adauga un  -s la sfarsitul substantivului:

                 Boy     – boys

                 Idea     – ideas

                 Horse   – horses

                Cat       - cats

Exceptii:

a) Atunci cand substantivul se termina in  x, s, z, ch si sh acesta primeste terminatia – es la plural:

box   -      boxes                                    brush - brushes                                                   

fox    -      foxes                                finish  - finishes 

bus    -      buses                                   buzz   -   buzzes

glass  -     glasses                                 quiz   -  quizzes 

church  -  churches

watch   -  watches

dish      -  dishes

b) Atunci cand substantivul se termina in o precedat de o consoana, acesta primeste terminatia --es la plural:

tomato – tomatoes                  domino  -  dominoes              

potato -  potatoes                   echo      -  echoes

hero    -  heroes                      Negro  - Negroes

                                         dar:              radio – radios

                                                             piano - pianos

                                                             photo – photos.

c) Atunci cand substantivul se termina in y precedat de o consoana, acesta primeste terminatia –ies la plural:

lady – ladies                country  -  countries                      story     -  stories

baby – babies              party     -  parties                          victory  - victories

city – cities                   factory  - factories

fly  - flies

                                         dar:             toy – toys                day  -  days

                                                            boy – boys              key  -  keys

                                                               

d)  Atunci cand substantivul se termina in –f(e) acesta primeste la plural terminatia –ves.

Knife -  knives                                     wolf  -  wolves                      calf        -  calves

Wife  -  wives                                       loaf   -  loaves                       half        -  halves

Life   -   lives                                   thief   -  thieves                     scarves  - scarves

Leaf  -   leaves                                 shelf   -  shelves                    wolf      - wolves    

                              Dar    roof  -  roofs

e) Unele substantive schimba la plural o vocala sau doua:

Man       - men

Woman  -  women

 Louse    -  lice

Goose    - geese

Foot       -  feet

Tooth     -  teeth

Mouse    - mice

f)        Unele substantive  primesc la plural terminatia  -en sau –ren:

Child  - children

Ox  -  oxen

g)       Unele substantive nu  isi schimba forma la plural:

Carp     -  carp                         aircraft        - aircraft

Deer     -  deer                         crossroads  -  crossroads

Sheep   -  sheep                       dice            - dice   

Pike      -  pike                          fish            -  fish

Trout    -  trout                        fruit           -  fruit

Series   - series                         hovercraft  -  hovercraft

Species – species                      spacecraft  -  spacecraft

h)       Unele substantive provenite dintr-o limba straina isi pastreaza forma de plural ca in limba                  de provenienta.

Stimulus  -  stimuli

Larva  -  larvae

Alga  -  algae

Phenomenon  -  phenomena

i)         Substantivele compuse primesc la plural un –s la cuvantul mai important:

Mother-in-law                     mothers-in-law

Sunflower                          sunflowers

Rain-coat                           rain-coats

2. SUBSTANTIVE INVARIABILE (INVARIABLE  NOUNS)

 

a)       care au numai forma de singular:

-          meat, luggage, furniture, bread, money;

-          music, information, knowledge, homework, luck;

-          news, mathematics, economics, measles;

b)       care au numai forma de plural si au verbul la plural:

-          trousers, pyjamas, jeans, shorts, knickers, slacks, tights, pants, spectacles;

-          glasses, scissors, tongs, shears, scales, pliers, pincers, nutcrackers, compasses, binoculars;

-          the rich, the poor, goods;

-          police, people;

-          the Carpathians, the Alps, the Highlands

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