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SUBSTANTIVUL ( THE NOUN) - SUBSTANTIVE PROPRII, COMUNE

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SUBSTANTIVUL ( THE NOUN)

A.Clasificare: (Classification.of Nouns )

I 1.SUBSTANTIVE PROPRII (PROPER NOUNS)




Andrew Romania, Bucharest, Monday, July.

2.SUBSTANTIVE COMUNE (COMMON NOUNS)

a)       substantive abstracte (Abstract Nouns): happiness, music, weather, autumn, time ,luck, beauty, freedom, fun.

b) substantive concrete. (Concrete Nouns glass, concrete, cotton, silk, leather;

girl, table, tree, rain;

c) substantive numarabile. (Countable Nouns

-au forma si de singular si de plural ; pot fi folosite cu many, few, several;

cat - cats, pen - pens.

d) substantive nenumarabile (Uncontable Nouns) :

-se folosesc cu verbul la singular.

-au forma numai de singular;

-pot fi folosite cu munch , little;

coal, coffe, food, ice, iron, rice, sand, steel, cruelty,honesty, patience, anger, happiness, hope, joy, pride, relief, respect, help, travel, sleep, work, freedom , baggage, business, equipment, furniture, housework, homework, advice, music, noise, peace, news, youth, knowledge, measles, fun, courage, despair, sugar, economics, beauty, information, scissors, tea, machinery, merchandise, money, nonsense, progress, research, spaghetti, strength, aeronautics, astronautics, electronics, mathematics, psysics,politics,aerobics, athletics, gymnastics, billiards, cards, checkers, darts,diabets, mumps.

e)substantive colective. (Collective Nouns):

army, team, fleet, flock, audience, committee, community, council, crew, enemy, gang, government, group, herd, jury, navy, press, public, staff.

II 1. SUBSTANTIVE SIMPLE (SIMPLE NOUNS)

cat, boy, weather, idea, cloud, soldier.

SUBSTANTIVE FORMATE PRIN DERIVARE (DERIVED NOUNS)

driver, childhood, writer, actress, pianist, imposibility.

SUBSTANTIVE FORMATE PRIN COMPUNERE (COMPOUND NOUNS)

pencilbox, icecream, classroom, a merry-go-round, bypass

B. Genul substantivelor (Gender of Nouns)

a)       masculin: man, boy, father, brother, son, uncle, wolf, lion

b)       feminin: woman, girl, mother, sister, daunghter, aunt, she-wolf, lioness.

c)       neutru: pen, bag, table, idea, cloud

d)       comun: friend, cousin, doctor, engineer.

Formarea substantivului feminin din masculin:

1) prin cuvinte diferite:

boy - girl

son – daughter

father - mother

king - queen

nephew - niece

uncle – aunt

2) prin adaugarea unui sufix:

bride - bridegroom

actor - actress

3) cu ajutorul pronumelui:

wolf – she-wolf

4) folosind un cuvant ajutator:

doctor – lady-doctor

C.      Cazul substantivelor (Case of Nouns)

1. Nominativ The Nominative Case)- cazul subiectului:

The boy is singing a nice song.

2. Dativ. (The Dative Case)-cazul complementului indirect:

Mother told a beautiful story to her daughter.

3. Acuzativ. (The Accusative Case)-cazul complementului direct:

Tom bought a doll for my daughter.

4. Genitiv. (The Genitive Case)- cazul atributului:

a)       genitivul sintetic : - `s se adauga la substantivele la singular sau la pluralele neregulate:

boy`s ball, man`s work, men`s works.

- )se adauga la pluralele regulate sau la substantivele proprii terminate in `s:

boys` balls, Whites` car.

Genitivul sintetic se foloseste cu:

Substantive ce denumesc persoane sau fiinte:

The bird`s wings the student`s papers

Susan`s bag the horses` food

The boy`s toy my parents` house

Mother`s blouse teachers` books

The cat`s tail children`s toys

Substantive ce denumesc unitati de timp, spatiu, masura:

A life`s work



A mile`s distance

Two weeks` work

A pound`s worth of apples

Yesterday`s newspaper

Substantive ce pot fi personificate:

Romania`s history

The sea`s voice.

Substantive ce denumesc o organizatie:

The government`s decision

The army`s retreat

Substantive ce denumesc elemente geografice sau locuri:

England`s weather

The Danube`s waters

The world`s population

The city`s parks

Substantive din expresii legate de natura:

The ocean`s roar

The sun`s heat

The moon`s light

Substantive din expresii legate de distanta:

At arm`s length

A ten yards` distance

Substantive din expresii legate de dimensiune si valoare:

A pound`s weight

Three dollars` worth

Substantive ce urmeaza dupa sake:

For peace`s sake

For order`s sake

For pity`s sake

b) genitivul analitic :

Constructia cu of se foloseste:

Cu substantivele la genul neutru:

The leg of the table

The colour of the car

The window of the room

The back yard of the house

In expresii mai lungi:

The child of the woman you have talked.

D.      Numarul substantivelor (Number of Nouns):

1. SUBSTANTIVE VARIABILE (VARIABLE NOUNS):

Regula generala de formare a pluralului substantivelor in limba engleza este de a adauga un -s la sfarsitul substantivului:

Boy – boys

Idea – ideas

Horse – horses

Cat - cats

Exceptii:

a) Atunci cand substantivul se termina in x, s, z, ch si sh acesta primeste terminatia – es la plural:

box - boxes brush - brushes

fox - foxes finish - finishes

bus - buses buzz - buzzes

glass - glasses quiz - quizzes

church - churches

watch - watches

dish - dishes

b) Atunci cand substantivul se termina in o precedat de o consoana, acesta primeste terminatia --es la plural:

tomato – tomatoes domino - dominoes

potato - potatoes echo - echoes

hero - heroes Negro - Negroes

dar: radio – radios

piano - pianos

photo – photos.

c) Atunci cand substantivul se termina in y precedat de o consoana, acesta primeste terminatia –ies la plural:

lady – ladies country - countries story - stories

baby – babies party - parties victory - victories

city – cities factory - factories

fly - flies



dar: toy – toys day - days

boy – boys key - keys

d) Atunci cand substantivul se termina in –f(e) acesta primeste la plural terminatia –ves.

Knife - knives wolf - wolves calf - calves

Wife - wives loaf - loaves half - halves

Life - lives thief - thieves scarves - scarves

Leaf - leaves shelf - shelves wolf - wolves

Dar roof - roofs

e) Unele substantive schimba la plural o vocala sau doua:

Man - men

Woman - women

Louse - lice

Goose - geese

Foot - feet

Tooth - teeth

Mouse - mice

f)        Unele substantive primesc la plural terminatia -en sau –ren:

Child - children

Ox - oxen

g)       Unele substantive nu isi schimba forma la plural:

Carp - carp aircraft - aircraft

Deer - deer crossroads - crossroads

Sheep - sheep dice - dice

Pike - pike fish - fish

Trout - trout fruit - fruit

Series - series hovercraft - hovercraft

Species – species spacecraft - spacecraft

h)       Unele substantive provenite dintr-o limba straina isi pastreaza forma de plural ca in limba de provenienta.

Stimulus - stimuli

Larva - larvae

Alga - algae

Phenomenon - phenomena

i)         Substantivele compuse primesc la plural un –s la cuvantul mai important:

Mother-in-law mothers-in-law

Sunflower sunflowers

Rain-coat rain-coats

2. SUBSTANTIVE INVARIABILE (INVARIABLE NOUNS)

a)       care au numai forma de singular:

meat, luggage, furniture, bread, money;

music, information, knowledge, homework, luck;

news, mathematics, economics, measles;

b)       care au numai forma de plural si au verbul la plural:

trousers, pyjamas, jeans, shorts, knickers, slacks, tights, pants, spectacles;

glasses, scissors, tongs, shears, scales, pliers, pincers, nutcrackers, compasses, binoculars;

the rich, the poor, goods;

police, people;

the Carpathians, the Alps, the Highlands









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