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Ordinary clauses in business conventions


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1 Quantity

Quantity and quality clause is present in any business contract according to its object and nature. The seller, hirer, franchisor, licensor, mandator, the silent partner, lessor, broker, insurer or the ship-owner will make reference to the quantity and the quality of the object of the contract in the quantity and quality clause. They are both established according to the type of contract, nature of assets/goods/services and international trade usage. Different measurement units are used to determine the different quantities.


Centimetre0,394 inch (in)

Metre49.4 inches or 1.094 yards (yd)

Kilometre (km)0.6214 mile

Surface ..GB/US

Square metre (m2).1 are (a)0.025 acre

Ares 1 hectare (ha)471 acres

Hectares .1 square kilometre (Km 2)0.386 square miles

Weight GB/USMetric

1 grain

o.065 gram (g)

437 grains

1 ounce (oz)

28.33 grams

16 drams (dr)

1 ounce

28.35 grams

16 ounces

1 pound (lb)

0.454 kilogram (kg)

14 pounds

1 stone (st)

6.356 kilograms

2 stone

1 quarter

17 kilograms

4 quarters

1 hundredweight (cwt)

50.8 kilograms

112 pounds

1 hundredweight

5o.8 kilograms

100 pounds

1 short hundredweight(US)

45.5 kilograms

20 hundredweight

1 ton

1016.o4 kilograms

2000 pounds

1 short ton

0.907 tonne

2240 pounds

1 long ton

1.016 tonnes

Linear Measure


1 inch (in)

25.4 milimetres (mm)

12 inches

1 foot (ft)

30.48 centrimentres (cm)

3 feet

1 yard (yd)

0.914 metre (m)

5 yards

1 rod, pole or perch

5.029 metres

22 yards

1 chain (cn)

20.17 metres

220 yards

1 furlong (fur)

201.17 metres

8 furlongs

1 mile

1.609 kilometres

1760 yards

1 mile

609 kilometres

3 miles

1 league

4.828 kilometres

Square Measures


1 square (sq) inch

6.452 sq centimetres

144 sq inches

1 sq foot

929.03 sq centimetres

9 sq feet

1sq yard

0.836 sq metres

484 sq yards

1 sq chain

404.62 sq metres

4840 sq yards

1 acre

0.405 hectare

..40 sq rods

1 rood

10.1168 ares

4 roods

1 acre

0.405 hectare

640 acres

1 sq mile

59 kilometres or 259 hectares

Cubic Measure


1 cubic (cu) inch

16.39 cu centimetres

1728 cu inches

1 cu foot

0.028 cu metre

27 cu feet

1 cu yard

0.765 cu metre

There are numerous standard measurement units used in international trade :

o      barrel for crude oil

o      bale for cotton, wool or paper

o      bag (70 kos)

o      sack (100 kos)

o      bushel for grains

o      drum, demijohn, carboy, can, for chemicals

o      sets for china, glass

Allowances are also used for fungible goods. The time, the place and the way of ascertaining the weight will also be mentioned in the quantity clause. The contract will always mention whether gross or net weight is understood.

       The documents needed to ascertain the quantity are:

-       the B/L (Bill of Lading)for the sea transportation

-       the Way Bill or Air Consignment Note for river transportation, land and air

-       the mail receipt for mail transportation

Mind also the ways various products are prepared and packed for sale:

A string of bretzels; a bar of soap; a tube of tooth paste; a sample of packet of hair conditioner; a loaf of bread; a cartoon of beer; a 400 g tin of baked peas; a packet of cornflakes; a bunch of grapes, a pack of different soup vegetables; a few sheets of paper; a pair of shoes.


Quality clause refers to the quality of the goods, services that make the object of the contract. It may involve detailed description from physical, chemical, biological point of view, or the goods state (solid, gaseous, liquid) , shape, colour, size, content, place of origin, crop year for wines. The technical specification is enclosed to the contract making detailed reference to the specific characteristics of the merchandise that makes the object of the contract.

-       material that the product is made of

-       power consumption

-       output per time unit

-       operation speed

-       operation /use instructions, etc

Before concluding the contract the content of the quality clause will be established according to samples, specimens, patterns that will represent references for the goods delivered. In certain situations the brand name /trade mark will be mentioned. Catalogues are also means of confronting the quality of the products offered to those ones delivered.

Roman trade rules and principles are mentioned till nowadays by the expressions: 'tale quale' or 'tel quel' when the product is taken delivery of and paid by the buyer as it is. He takes the risk of any subsequent damage. Products can also be qualified by specific expressions: Fine (F), finest (FF), super fine (FFF) or fair, good, extra, waste, rejects, f.o.q. (fair average quality), g.o.b. (good ordinary brand).

The quality checking will be confirmed by a specialized document: Works Test Certificate (WTC) which guarantees the quality of the goods for a limited period of time


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