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JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE

construction

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JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE

Japanese Architecture

  • Japanese architecture was influenced by the Chinese > Korean, they are very similar
  • Buddhism and Shinto overlap
  • Japan is a crescent shaped land mass off the coast of eastern Asia

            Sea of Japan between

            Consists of many islands, 4 main, 200 small (Hokkaido is the largest)

            Hydrology: rivers steep and swift, and very short

            Climate: varies depending where you are but mostly warm summer, cold winter

            Primary factors: near Asian continent and existence of major oceanic currents

                        -volcanic activities led them to use timber (easy to rebuild)-chain of mnts

Japanese Cities:

            Similar to Chinese planning

            Followed orthogonal plans and built around palaces

            Elements:

Strong axis

                        Symmetry

                        Entrance gateway

                        Halls

            -each emperor built his own capital city

            -each site required ritual purification

            Example:

            Heijo

                   

                        1st of great capitals “peaceful citadel”

                        Same grid plan and pattern as Chang’an in China      

           

Buddhist Architecture in Japan:

            Temples:

                        Made mostly of wood- easy to work and readily available

                        Flexible wooden structures more stable during earthquake

           

Example:

            Horyuji Temple

            -Great Temples of 8th century

                        Kondo= Golden hall

                                    Religious images

                        -Five story pagoda



                        Kodo=lecture hall

                        Simple rectangular enclosure wall

Shinto Shrines:

 

            Shinto= native religion of Japan “way of the gods”

            Reveres natural forces essential to agricultural prosperity

            Oral traditions recorded in 8th c.

            Represent essence of Japanese architecture

                        Older traditions preserved and new ideas germinate

            Elements:

                        -series of enclosed walls, gateways

                        -simple shrine

                        -all timber structures

                        -20 yr life span, after they dismantled and built new one in place

                        -lifted off the ground to protect from dampness

                        -important to preserve food and seeds

            Example:

            Ise Shrine at Uji-Yamada

                   Process of rebuilding shrines every 20 yrs is unique to Ise

Domestic Architecture:

            Geometric pattern

            Tatome mat- plan consists of 5 or 6

            Off ground structures of timber

                        Thin walls

                        Sliding doors

                        Picture scrolls

                        Light weight structures

            Shinden Style:

                        -for aristocratic residence

                        -shinden was residence of master of house

            Minka Style:

                        -“houses of the people”

                        -packed, earth, brick, and timber materials

                        -wooden folk houses

                        -as diverse as owners

                        -changing needs and changing incomes of owners

Japanese Palaces:

            Example:

            Katsura Palace

            1620

                        -summer retreat

                        -added on by different emperors over time

                        -Building not symmetrical

            Elements:

                        -exterior walls not thick          

                        -low furniture

                        -tatome mats

                        -painted panels

                        -Oriental architecture- elegant and simple

            -conforms with nature, accepting

            -architecture of view, continuity, and perspective

            Imperial gate, inner gate

            Gardens- natural stepping stone provide direction to emphasis on landscape

-garden design became an art form rooted in the imitation of the scenic values of natural forms, exploiting properties

                                    -viewing points

                                    -paving textures

                                    -framing devices (gates) for controlling views

                                    -artificial water bodies (lake, pond) man-made

Funerary Architecture:

            Important associated with mountains

                        -animistic spirits with mountains

                        -souls of dead depart earth from mountain tops

            Kofun or Burial Mounds

 

                        -monumental burial of emperors

                        350 AD

                        First carved from hillsides and later built on flat land

                        Combination of round mound with trapezoidal platform

                        Example:

                        Burial Mound of Sujin

         

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