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JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE

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JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE

TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

Japanese Architecture

  • Japanese architecture was influenced by the Chinese > Korean, they are very similar
  • Buddhism and Shinto overlap
  • Japan is a crescent shaped land mass off the coast of eastern Asia

Sea of Japan between




Consists of many islands, 4 main, 200 small (Hokkaido is the largest)

Hydrology: rivers steep and swift, and very short

Climate: varies depending where you are but mostly warm summer, cold winter

Primary factors: near Asian continent and existence of major oceanic currents

-volcanic activities led them to use timber (easy to rebuild)-chain of mnts

Japanese Cities:

Similar to Chinese planning

Followed orthogonal plans and built around palaces

Elements:

Strong axis

Symmetry

Entrance gateway

Halls

-each emperor built his own capital city

-each site required ritual purification

Example:

Heijo

1st of great capitals “peaceful citadel”

Same grid plan and pattern as Chang’an in China

Buddhist Architecture in Japan:

Temples:

Made mostly of wood- easy to work and readily available

Flexible wooden structures more stable during earthquake

Example:

Horyuji Temple

-Great Temples of 8th century

Kondo= Golden hall

Religious images

-Five story pagoda

Kodo=lecture hall

Simple rectangular enclosure wall

Shinto Shrines:

Shinto= native religion of Japan “way of the gods”

Reveres natural forces essential to agricultural prosperity

Oral traditions recorded in 8th c.

Represent essence of Japanese architecture

Older traditions preserved and new ideas germinate

Elements:

-series of enclosed walls, gateways

-simple shrine

-all timber structures

-20 yr life span, after they dismantled and built new one in place

-lifted off the ground to protect from dampness

-important to preserve food and seeds

Example:

Ise Shrine at Uji-Yamada




Process of rebuilding shrines every 20 yrs is unique to Ise

Domestic Architecture:

Geometric pattern

Tatome mat- plan consists of 5 or 6

Off ground structures of timber

Thin walls

Sliding doors

Picture scrolls

Light weight structures

Shinden Style:

-for aristocratic residence

-shinden was residence of master of house

Minka Style:

-“houses of the people”

-packed, earth, brick, and timber materials

-wooden folk houses

-as diverse as owners

-changing needs and changing incomes of owners

Japanese Palaces:

Example:

Katsura Palace

1620

-summer retreat

-added on by different emperors over time

-Building not symmetrical

Elements:

-exterior walls not thick

-low furniture

-tatome mats

-painted panels

-Oriental architecture- elegant and simple

-conforms with nature, accepting

-architecture of view, continuity, and perspective

Imperial gate, inner gate

Gardens- natural stepping stone provide direction to emphasis on landscape

-garden design became an art form rooted in the imitation of the scenic values of natural forms, exploiting properties

-viewing points

-paving textures

-framing devices (gates) for controlling views

-artificial water bodies (lake, pond) man-made

Funerary Architecture:

Important associated with mountains

-animistic spirits with mountains

-souls of dead depart earth from mountain tops

Kofun or Burial Mounds

-monumental burial of emperors

350 AD

First carved from hillsides and later built on flat land

Combination of round mound with trapezoidal platform

Example:

Burial Mound of Sujin



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