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POPULATION OF BRITAIN

geography

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POPULATION OF BRITAIN

PLAN OF IDEAS

I. Population distribution and density in Britain

II. Population change: growth rate, natural increase, migration

III. Population structure

                                          

A. Discussion Points

     Britain’s population is not evenly spread because there are areas with only a small population while there are others, especially the cities where the population density is very high.


   

B. Population distribution and density

This section of the lesson could be done as pair work.

Tip:     Step1. The teacher could write DENSITY and DISTRIBUTION on the board and ask the students to explain what these words         

                       mean.

           Step 2. Students read the definition in their books and see if they were right.

           Follow up: Teachers may ask students to come up with other new terms they have encountered while reading. (densely populated,

                       high population density, sparsely populated, low population density)

2. The areas with high density are the very populated areas around big cities like: London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle Glasgow.  Those with low density are: Scotland, Northern part of England, some parts of Wales, especially areas with a higher elevation.

  a. The example given is Central Scotland, number 2: is north Wales, number 3: the area around Birmingham,  and number 4: Scotland.

       In the case of North Wales – factors: relief/elevation, wet climate. Birmingham – flat land, drier climate,  big city located at crossroads  

      (– good transport facility.) In Scotland beside relief, harsh(wet and cold) climate due to latitude and altitude as well.

  b.  Factors influencing the population density in the four countries:

        England has the highest density because much of the territory is flat and the biggest industrial cities are concentrated there.

        Wales is mainly highland but the Bristol Channel and the existence of coal reserves around Cardiff has added to the population

        density of this region.

        Northern Ireland the lack of industrial resources had led to a low the population density.

        Scotland has the lowest population density due to the fact that approximately 80% of the country is mountainous region with a very

        small population. The only parts with major economic activities are those areas in the lowland regions, especially in towns and  

        cities. (Lately there has been an emigration towards south England because several coal mines have closed down.)

Letter on the map (conurbation)

Name of conurbation

Cities

Population (thousands) 2000

A

 Clydeside

Glasgow

579

B

 Tyneside

Newcastle

300

C

 West Yorkshire

Leeds

720

D

 Greater Manchester

Manchester

191

E

 Merseyside

Liverpool

439

F

 West Midlands

Birmingham

977

G

 Greater London

London

7 million

Bristol

376

Edinburgh



449

Cardiff

305

Belfast

277

 
3.a. 

   b. London has the highest density of population due mainly to the fact that it is the capital of the country and it has many functions. Government offices, administration, services, industries, headquarters of firms are all concentrated there.

C. Population Change (page 25)

5. This task could be individual or pair work. Instruct students to look at the terms in the frame before attempting to fill in the blanks.

In general, population increases when the birth rate (the number of live births per 1000 people per year) is greater than the death rate (the numbers of deaths per 1000 people per year). Therefore, we say the natural increase (the difference between these demographic indicators) is positive. In Britain, this difference is so small that the population is changing very slowly or is stagnant. It means there is a slow population growth.

There are two more factors that affect the change of population.  Life expectancy (expected lifespan in years for a person) and urban population (the percentage of the total population living in cities). In Britain both are quite high, especially the urban population (92%) which shows a correct correlation between several factors.

Migration is another very important factor, which contributes through its double route: emigration (moving out of an area) and immigration (moving into a new area) to the population change.

6.  Read the reasons for internal migration within the UK and divide them into push and pull factors. Discuss your choice.

Note: Perhaps it is better to talk first about the push and pull factors influencing the rural-urban migration, a phenomenon students may be familiar with from their own region. Try to elicit answers from students.


Most recently there has been a reverse migration, from urban to rural. These are mainly wealthy people who own good cars to commute from the village to the city.


Suggested answer:

 

Population Structure

7. The population pyramid presents the: dependency ratio = the percentage of people who depend on the working age group (children between 0-14 and old people over 65). These people are called dependants.

NB nearly half the British population now go to college or university and therefore remain dependents until they are in their twenties.  Many people retire at 60 or even earlier and are therefore no longer economically active after 60.

    The population pyramid in Fig. 5.4. shows:

·        a narrow base (suggesting a low birth rate)

·        straighter shape - balance between male and female population (approximately the same percentage

·        slightly higher percentage of middle-aged than young

·        old people well-represented especially old women

PRACTICE AND CONSOLIDATION (page 26)

1. The definition for the terms is to be found in the lesson (pages 24-25)

2.  a.       A - south-west Wales; 

              B – Scotland: 

              C – west of England

     b. the factors are the same as in 2.b. from section B. Population distribution and density (see Teachers’ notes previous page)

     c. internal migration from London to Wales:  push factors: noise, stress, pollution, high costs

 pull factors: cheap housing, peace and quiet…

              from Scotland or Cumbria to London    push factors – steep and rugged relief, harsh climate, rural regions with little economic

                                                                       potential, no support for young people

                                                          pull factors - more job opportunities in big cities, milder climate

3. a. The dependent population are the age groups between 0 – 14 and over 65.

    b. Optional.  In order to make a pyramid you need a sheet of paper with a system of mill metric grid (hartie milimetrica).

4. The definition of the term conurbation is given in the Student’s Book on page 24 (after Fig. 5.2.) Examples of conurbations are given in fig.5.3.

   The density of population is high inside these conurbations because people want to live close to their working place. They don’t want to spend too much time commuting. Since these cities are large, a lot of people are employed in the different branches of economy.

5. This task can be given as homework. Since students will have different choices the answers will vary.

6.  The solution to the cross-word puzzle:

              1. ETHNIC GROUP                                          

              2. GROWTH RATE                                           

              3. DENSITY                                                     

              4. POPULATION PYRAMID                              

              5. SPARSELY POPULATED                             

              6. DISTRIBUTION

7.  CHANGE

8.  MIGRATION

9.  BIRTH RATE

10. LONDON

11. URBAN POPULATION

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