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ADJECTIVUL - Adjective posesive, interogative

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THE ADJECTIVE
ADJECTIVUL - Adjective posesive, interogative

TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

ADJECTIVUL

A. Forma – adjectivele limbii engleze sunt invariabile. Ele nu au gen sau numar.




My mother used a yellow towel.

Her mother bought a basket of yellow lemons.

NOTA: Adjectivele demonstrative sunt SINGURA exceptie, avand numar.

This shirt has been ironed. That blouse looks dirty.

These flowers are beautiful. Those bushes need cutting.

B. Topica – cand doua sau mai multe adjective sunt folosite impreuna:

  1. adjectivele subiective sau de opinie (boring, lovely, lazy) sunt asezate in fata adjectivelor obiective sau concrete (old, red, square):

Here’s my gorgeous new hat!

Ann is an active young lady.

  1. adjectivele obiective sau concrete stau in urmatoarea ordine:

DIMENSIUNE – VARSTA – FORMA – CULOARE – ORIGINE – MATERIAL – SCOP

a small oval plate

an antique French table

a black metal walking stick

C. Adectivele si prepozitiile – adjectivele sunt adesea urmate de prepozitii:

Our neighbour’s son is interested in astronomy.

We were completely satisfied with the results.

Some people are anxious about air travel.

Andy was polite to the man.

Iata o lista de adjective cu prepozitiile corespunzatoare:

at to about of for with

bad married sad stupid bad delighted

expert cruel sincere nice responsible disgusted

good kind sorry generous useful pleased

slow loyal sure kind satisfied

quick faithful thrilled generous

shocked sensitive worried

surprised rude curious

amused useful enthusiastic

in on

interested dependent

expert

successful

D. Comparatia adjectivelor.

  1. comparativul si superlativul adjectivelor se formeaza:
    • adaugand -er si -est la sfarsitul adjectivelor monosilabice si celor terminate in -y, -er, -ly.
    • adaugand more si most inaintea adjectivelor de doua sau mai multe silabe.

Comparatia regulata

adjectiv

comparativ

superlativ

warm

warmer

the warmest

happy

happier

the happiest

clever

cleverer

the cleverest

boring

more boring

the most boring

intelligent

more intelligent

the most intelligent

excited

more excited

the most excited

Comparatia neregulata

adjectiv

comparativ

superlativ

good, well

better

the best

bad

worse

the worst

little

less

the least

much, many

more

the most

far

farther

the farthest

further

the furthest

NOTA: Adjectivele de o silaba terminate intr-o consoana, dubleaza consoana:

fat, fatter, the fattest

Adjectivele terminate in consoana +y, transforma pe y in i:

pretty, prettier, the prettiest

  1. se foloseste as + adjectiv + as in propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima egalitatea si as / so +adjectiv + as in propozitii negative:

Your eyesight is as good as mine.

Peter isn’t as / so short as his brother.

  1. adjectivul la comparativ + than pentru a exprima diferenta:

That watch is more expensive than mine.

Your mother seems more nervous than your father.

NOTA: Comparatiile pot fi facute atat cu more cat si cu less.

Paris is more interesting than Houston.

Houston is less interesting than Paris.

  1. comparativ + and + comparativ, pentru a exprima cresterea sau descresterea gradata a calitatii:

The baby is growing bigger and bigger.

She seems less and less enthusiastic about it.

I’m feeling more and more irritated by Eric.

D. Tipuri de adjective.

  1. Adjective calificative - foma: young, empty, small, spacious, black, elegant, ugly, strong, lonely, intelligent, round, happy, hard, creative, rough, transparent etc.

The old men were sitting in the sun.

Above my head was only the blue sky.

Participiile trezente (formele in ING) si participiile trecute (formele in -ed) sunt folosite ca adjective calitative. Participiile prezente au sens activ, iar participiile trecute au sens pasiv.

Participiu prezent Participiu trecut

boring  bored

amusing amused

interesting interested

tiring tired



frightening frightened

The student grew bored during the lecture.

Spielberg’s new film is frightening.

  1. Adjective posesive - forma: (sg) my, your, his / her / its; (pl) our, your, their. Se folosesc:
    • pentru a face referire la posesor:

I took off my coat.

We drove our car.

The photograph has lost its original colours.

cu parti ale corpului si haine:

The children washed their hands before dinner.

Jim put on his new cowboy boots.

cu own, pentru a intari idea de posesie:

She cleaned her own room.

It isn’t his own work. Jeffrey helped him do it.

  1. Adjective interogative - forma: what, which si whose. Utilizare:
    • what se foloseste pentru lucruri:

What book are you reading? (ar putea fi orice carte)

which se foloseste pentru persoane sau lucruri in cazul unei alegeri limitate:

Which book do you prefer? (dintre cele pe care le-ai citit)

Which boys are you tutoring? (dintre cei care au nevoie de indrumare)

whose se foloseste pentru persoane si exprima posesia:

Whose car have they borrowed?

  1. Adjective cantitative - forma: much, many, little, few, some, any, no si toate numerele folosite adjectival. Utilizare:
    • many si few se folosesc cu substantive numarabile, much si little se folosesc cu substantive nenumarabile:

many magazines, few inhabitants

much money, little happiness

much si many se pot combina cu how:

How much money do you need?

How many birds live in that nest?

no se foloseste in propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima negatia:

My husband speaks no Spanish. (= Sotul meu nu vorbeste spaniola deloc.)

No drinks were offered during the flight. (= Nu au oferit nici o bautura in timpul zborului.)

  1. Adjective demonstrative - forma: this, that, these, those. Utilizare:
    • demostrativele sunt SINGURELE adjective variabile din limba engleza. Se acorda in numar cu substantivul determinat:

singular plural

this book these books

that tree those trees

This skirt is big, that skirt is the right size.

These photographs are blurred, those photographs are well-focused.

this, these se refera la persoane si lucruri din apropierea vorbitorului. That, those se refera la persoane si lucruri aflate mai departe de vorbitor:

This chair is rather uncomfortable.

These cookies are delicious.

That airplane is flying too low.

Those clouds look fluffy.

  1. Adjective distributive - forma: each, every, all, both, either, neither. Utilizare:
    • each inseamna “considerat separat sau individual”. E urmat de substantiv la singular:

Each flower had a different colour.

every poate insemna “considerati impreuna” sau “considerati separat”. Urmeaza un substantiv la singular:

Every girl had a red hair ribbon. (= Fiecare fata avea o panglica rosie in par.)

Every circle is round. (= Toate cercurile sunt rotunde.)

either inseamna “oricare din cel / cele doi / doua”:

Either dress is suitable for the party.

neither inseamna “nici unul / una din cei / cele doi / doua”. Verbul trebuie sa fie la afirmativ:

Neither dress is suitable for the party.

NOTA: Either… or implica o alegere:

You can have either eggs or bacon for breakfast.

Neither… nor subliniaza cele doua negatii:

Neither women nor children were admitted.

EXERCITII

1. Alegeti cuvantul corect pentru fiecare spatiu. Retineti ca prepozitiile sunt importante pentru a alege corect.

useful expert dependent married sorry

polite stupid responsible satisfied interested

Jack Hardy is ………………… at cooking Italian pasta.

Cindy has been ………………… to Thomas for five years.

Ellen is ………………… about the accident she caused.

I feel ………………… for my younger sister.

It’s really very ………………… of him to insult his boss.

The president sounded very ………………… with Fred’s report.

His son is ………………… in zoology.

Please try to be ………………… to your grandmother.

He is ………………… on his secretary’s good memory.

That old servant would certainly be ………………… for cleaning the floor.

2. Completati propozitiile folosind forma corecta de comparativ sau superlativ a adjectivelor dintre paranteze. Adaugati as, than sau the unde este necesar.

  1. Your son is ………………………………… in the class. (tall)
  2. The grass in summer is not ……………..……………… the grass in spring. (green)
  3. Soccer is …………………………….…… game in the world. (popular)
  4. Alexandra is more …………………….………… her sisters. (musically talented)
  5. I found Forman’s last film ………………………… than his previous ones. (good)
  6. Tim is a lot ………………………………… he used to be. (responsible)
  7. The president seemed …………………..……………… as usual. (confident)
  8. These are ………………………… cherries I have ever eaten. (sweet)
  9. Why do you think Heather is …………………….…………… Janet? (pleasant)
  10. In my opinion Marlon Brando is ……………..……………… actor of all. (good)

APLICATII

MY FUTURE CAREER

1. In order to choose the best career, you must first get to know yourself better. You do that by gathering specific information about yourself – this is called self-assessment. A self assessment should include a look at the following: values, interests, personality, and skills.

a. Values: the things that are important to you, such as: a high position, spare time, autonomy etc.

b. Interests: what you enjoy doing, such as: listening to music, taking pictures, hanging out with friends etc.

c. Personality: how are you, as a person, such as: communicative, shy, adventurous etc.

d. Skills: the activities you are good at, such as: writing, computers, cooking etc.

Don’t forget to ask yourself some key questions about your future career:

  • Is a high salary important to me?
  • Is it important for my work to involve interaction with people?
  • Is it important for my work to make a contribution to society?
  • Is having a job with a high position important for me?

2. Take this self-assessment quiz to find out more about yourself and on what should your future career focus on. Select one of the two answers to each question. Then read the results to find out your profile.

1. Are you more likely to:

a. think before you act?

b. act before you think?

2. Would you rather be:

a. deeply involved in one or two important projects?  

b. superficially involved in lots of projects?

3. Are you:

a. more practical than imaginative?  

b. more imaginative than practical?  

4. Do you tend to:

a. listen more and talk less?  

c. talk a lot and listen less?  

5. Do you prefer to:

a. use what you know?

b. learn new things?  

6. When working on a project would you rather:

a. think things through in your head and then share your ideas with others?

b. think out loud and brainstorm with a group?

7. When making decisions, do you:

a. analyse everything and weigh up the evidence?

b. base them on what you feel is right?

8. At work, do you:

a. avoid being at the centre of the action?

b. enjoy being at the centre of the action?  

9. Are you generally:

a. punctual - always on time?

b. late - always running a few minutes behind?

10. Are you a:

a. realist?  

b. dreamer?

11. When making decisions, do you prefer to:

a. analyse things first and then decide?

b. do what feels right at the moment?

12. When you are asked a question, do you:

a. hesitate, think things through and then answer?

b. respond quickly and improvise?  

13. Do you find yourself more:

a. meticulous and slow paced?  

b. spontaneous and fast moving?

14. Do you focus on:

a. reality?

b. possibilities?  

15. Do you enjoy working:

a. alone?

b. with others?  

ANSWERS

If you have a majority of A, then:

You are an analytical person who likes exact things. You are more suited for a desk job where people don’t disturb you and you have time to think and solve your problems.

You don’t like to make decisions on the spot and that is why you don’t react well to pressure. That is why you are more comfortable working on a computer than with people. But if complex situation needs a lot of attention and calculated thinking – you’re the person to save the day!

If you have a majority of B, then:

You are a communicative person who likes to try new things. You are more suited for an outdoor job or one that involved a lot of dynamic activity, where you can meet and interact with people.

You don’t like to stay in an office and only work with a computer screen and that is why you tend to jump into all new ideas that could bring something exciting into your life. You love to be in the centre of attention. But if a new situation needs creative and out-of-the-box thinking – you’re the person to save the day!

3. Maybe this will be your job someday. Follow the hints from Across and Down to complete the crossword.

Across

2.keeps us safe.

4.teaches students.

5.flies airplanes.

6.writes the news.

9.makes expensive clothes.

12.handles money in a firm.

13.sails the sea.

15.grows crops.

16.prepares meals in restaurant.

Down

1.cuts and styles hair.

3.paints pictures.

7.looks after your teeth.

8.looks after your health.

10.cleans the building.

11.makes music.

14.looks after the sick.








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