Scrigroup - Documente si articole

Username / Parola inexistente      

Home Documente Upload Resurse Alte limbi doc  

CATEGORII DOCUMENTE





loading...

BulgaraCeha slovacaCroataEnglezaEstonaFinlandezaFranceza
GermanaItalianaLetonaLituanianaMaghiaraOlandezaPoloneza
SarbaSlovenaSpaniolaSuedezaTurcaUcraineana

AdministrationAnimalsArtBiologyBooksBotanicsBusinessCars
ChemistryComputersComunicationsConstructionEcologyEconomyEducationElectronics
EngineeringEntertainmentFinancialFishingGamesGeographyGrammarHealth
HistoryHuman-resourcesLegislationLiteratureManagementsManualsMarketingMathematic
MedicinesMovieMusicNutritionPersonalitiesPhysicPoliticalPsychology
RecipesSociologySoftwareSportsTechnicalTourismVarious

Types of Verbs

grammar

+ Font mai mare | - Font mai mic






DOCUMENTE SIMILARE

Trimite pe Messenger
TYPES OF COMPOSITION
THE ADJECTIVE
ADVERB
TEST LIMBA ENGLEZA - Multiple Choice
Types of Verbs
ADJECTIVUL - Adjective posesive, interogative
UNDERSTANDING RUBRICS
ADVANCED GRAMMAR&VOCABULARY PRACTICE

TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

Types of Verbs

Before you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are divided into three groups:





Group I Continuous Verbs

     The first group, called 'Continuous Verbs', contains most English verbs. These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses.

Continuous Verbs
   to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch etc.

Examples:

I eat dinner every day. Correct

I am eating dinner now. Correct


Group II Non-continuous Verbs

The second group, called 'Non-continuous Verbs', is smaller. These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in 'continuous' tenses. They include:

Abstract Verbs
   to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist

Possession Verbs
   to possess, to own, to belong

Emotion Verbs
   to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind

Examples:

He is here now.    Correct
He is being here now.    Not Correct

He wants a drink now.    Correct
He is wanting a drink now.    Not Correct


Group III Mixed Verbs

   The third group, called 'Mixed Verbs', is the smallest group. These verbs have more than one meaning. Some meanings behave like 'Non-continuous Verbs', while other meanings behave like 'Continuous Verbs.'

Mixed Verbs
to have, to appear, to see, to hear, to feel, to weigh, to look

List of Mixed Verbs with Examples and Definitions:

to appear:

Donna appears confused.    Non-continuous Verb
(Donna seems confused.)

My favorite singer is appearing at the jazz club tonight.    Continuous Verb
(My favorite singer is giving a performance at the jazz club tonight.)

to have:

I have a dollar now.    Non-continuous Verb
(I possess a dollar.)

I am having fun now.    Continuous Verb
(I am experiencing fun now.)

to hear:

She hears the music.    Non-continuous Verb
(She hears the music with her ears.)

She is hearing voices.    Continuous Verb
(To hear something others cannot hear. She is hearing voices in her mind.)

to miss:

John misses Sally.    Non-continuous Verb
(He is sad because she is not there.)

Debbie is missing her favorite TV program.    Continuous Verb
(She is not there to see her favorite program.)

to see:

I see her.    Non-continuous Verb
(I see her with my eyes.)

I am seeing the doctor.    Continuous Verb
(To visit or consult with a doctor, dentist, or lawyer.)

I am seeing her.    Continuous Verb
(I am having a relationship with her.)

He is seeing ghosts at night.    Continuous Verb
(To see something others cannot see. For example ghosts, aura, a vision of the future etc.)

to smell:

The coffee smells good.    Non-continuous Verb
(The coffee has a good smell.)

I am smelling the flowers.    Continuous Verb
(I am sniffing the flowers.)

to taste:

The coffee tastes good.    Non-continuous Verb
(The coffee has a good taste.)

I am tasting the cake.    Continuous Verb
(I am trying the cake to see what it tastes like.)

to think:

He thinks the test is easy.    Non-continuous Verb
(He considers the test to be easy.)

She is thinking about the question.    Continuous Verb
(She is pondering the question, going over it in her mind.)

to weigh:

The table weighs a lot.    Non-continuous Verb
(The table has a great weight.)

She is weighing herself.    Continuous Verb
(She is determining her weight.)


Some Verbs Can Be Especially Confusing:

to be:

Joe is American.    Non-continuous Verb
(Joe is an American citizen.)

Joe is being very American.    Continuous Verb
(Joe is behaving like a stereotypical American.)

Joe is being very rude.    Continuous Verb
(Joe is behaving very rudely. Usually he is not rude.)

Joe is being very formal.    Continuous Verb
(Joe is behaving very formally. Usually he is not formal.)

NOTICE: Only rarely is 'to be' used in a continuous form. This is most commonly done when a person is temporarily behaving badly or stereotypically. It can also be used when someone's behavior is noticeably different.

to feel:

The massage feels great.    Non-continuous Verb
(The massage has a pleasing feeling.)

I don't feel well today.    Continuous or Non-continuous Verb
I am not feeling well today.
(I am a little sick.)

Active / Passive Verb Forms

     Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have 'Active Forms' and 'Passive Forms'. You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.


ACTIVE FORM

     In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [VERB] + [thing receiving action]

EXAMPLES:

The professor      teaches        the students.
   (subject)         (active verb)       (object)
(doing action)                 (receiving action)

John          washes             the dishes.
(subject)        (active verb)           (object)
(doing action)               (receiving action)


PASSIVE FORM

     In some sentences, speakers use the passive form. In the passive form, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included at the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized.

[Thing receiving action] + [BE] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

EXAMPLES:

The students      are  taught             by the professor.
(subject)           (passive verb)
(receiving action)                       (doing action)

The dishes          are washed         by John.
(subject)            (passive verb)
(receiving action)               (doing action)

Simple Present

FORM Simple Present

EXAMPLE:   [ to run]

I run
you run
he runs
she runs
it runs
we run
they run


USE 1 Repeated Actions   

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.

EXAMPLES:

I play tennis.

She does not play tennis.

The train leaves every morning at 8 am.

The train does not leave at 9am.

She always forgets her purse.

He never forgets his wallet.

Every twelve months, the Earth circles the sun.

The sun does not circle the Earth.


USE 2 Facts or Generalizations     

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.

EXAMPLES:

Cats like milk.

Birds do not like milk.

California is in America.

California is not in the United Kingdom.

Windows are made of glass.

Windows are not made of wood.

New York is a small city. (It is not important that this fact is untrue.)


USE 3 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)   

Sometimes speakers use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.

EXAMPLES:

I am here now.

She is not here now.

He needs help right now.

He does not need help now.

He has a car.


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Simple Present

EXAMPLES:

Once a week, Tom cleans the car. ACTIVE

Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. PASSIVE

Present Continuous

FORM Present Continuous

[AM / IS / ARE] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLES:

I am watching TV.

He is quickly learning the language.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Present Continuous (is learning), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (is quickly learning).


USE 1 Now     

Use the Present Continuous with Continuous Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.

EXAMPLES:

You are learning English now.

You are not swimming now.

I am sitting.

I am not standing.

They are reading their books.

They are not watching television.

What are you doing?

Why aren't you doing your homework?


USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now    

In English, now can mean 'this second,' 'today,' 'this month,' 'this year,' 'this century' and so on. Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.

EXAMPLES: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)

I am studying to become a doctor.

I am not studying to become a dentist.

I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.

I am not reading any books right now.

Are you working on any special projects at work?

Aren't you teaching at the University now?


USE 3 Near Future    

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.

EXAMPLES:

I am meeting some friends after work.

I am not going to the party tonight.

Is he visiting his parents next weekend.

Isn't he coming with us tonight.


USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with 'Always'    

The Present Continuous with words such as 'always' or 'constantly' expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words 'always' or 'constantly' between 'be' and 'verb+ing.'

EXAMPLES:

She is always coming to class late.

He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up.

I don't like them because they are always complaining.


IMPORTANT Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any 'continuous' tenses. Also, certain 'non-continuous' meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in 'continuous' tenses. To express the idea of 'happening now', you must use Simple Present USE 3.

EXAMPLES:

She is loving chocolate. Not Correct

She loves chocolate. Correct


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Continuous

EXAMPLES:

Right now, Tom is writing the letter. ACTIVE

Right now, the letter is being written by Tom. PASSIVE

Simple Past

FORM Simple Past

[VERB+ed]

EXAMPLES:

I visited my friends.

I often visited my friends.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with only one part such as Simple Past (visited), adverbs usually come before the verb (often visited). Please remember this is different from verbs with more than one part such as Present Continuous.


USE 1 Completed Action in the Past    

Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

EXAMPLES:

I saw a movie yesterday.

I didn't see a movie yesterday.

Last year, I traveled to Japan.

Last year, I didn't travel to Japan.

She washed her car.

She didn't wash her car.


USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions    

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th

EXAMPLES:

I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.

He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.


USE 3 Single Duration    

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a long action often used with expressions like 'for two years,' 'for five minutes,' 'all day' or 'all year.'

EXAMPLES:

I lived in Brazil for two years.

Shauna studied Japanese for five years.

They sat at the beach all day.

We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.

How long did you wait for them?
We waited for one hour.


USE 4 Habit in the Past    

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as 'used to'. To make it clear that we are talking about a habit we often use expressions such as 'always,' 'often,' 'usually,' 'never,' 'when I was a child' or 'when I was younger' in the sentence.

EXAMPLES:

I studied French when I was a child.

He played the violin.

She worked at the movie theater after school.

They never went to school, they always skipped.


IMPORTANT 'When clauses' happen first

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word when such as 'When I dropped my pen' or 'When class began' These clauses are called 'when clauses' and they are very important. The examples below contain 'when clauses.'

EXAMPLES:

When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.

She answered my question, when I paid her one dollar.

'When clauses' are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing. First, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her a dollar.

EXAMPLE:

I paid her a dollar, when she answered my question.


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Simple Past

EXAMPLES:

Tom repaired the car. ACTIVE

The car was repaired by Tom. PASSIVE

Past Continuous

FORM Past Continuous

[WAS / WERE] + [VERB+ing]
EXAMPLES:

I was studying when she called.

I was carefully picking up the snake when it bit me.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Past Continuous (was picking), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (was carefully picking).


IMPORTANT

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word when such as 'when she called ' or 'when it bit me.' Clauses with the Past Continuous usually start with while. While expresses the idea 'during the time.' Study the examples below. They have the same meaning.

EXAMPLES:

I was studying when she called.

While I was studying, she called.


USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past    

Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually an action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

EXAMPLES:

I was watching TV when she called.

When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.

While we were having a picnic, it started to rain.

Sally was working when Joe had the car accident.

While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.


USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption    

In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by an action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.

EXAMPLES:

Last night at 6 p.m., I was eating dinner.

At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.


IMPORTANT

In the Simple Past a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous a specific time only interrupts the action.

EXAMPLES:

Last night at 6 p.m., I ate dinner.
(I started eating at 6 p.m.)

Last night at 6 p.m., I was eating dinner.
(I started earlier and at 6 p.m. I was in the process of eating dinner.)


USE 3 Parallel Actions    

When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.

EXAMPLES:

I was studying while he was making dinner.

While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.

They were eating dinner, discussing their plans and having a good time.


USE 4 Atmosphere

In English we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere in the past.

EXAMPLE:

When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.


USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with 'Always'    

The Past Continuous with words such as always or constantly expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression used to but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words always or constantly between 'be' and 'verb+ing.'

EXAMPLES:

She was always coming to class late.

He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.

I didn't like them because they were always complaining.


IMPORTANT Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any 'continuous' tenses. Also, certain 'non-continuous' meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in 'continuous' tenses. To express the idea of Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past.

EXAMPLES:

Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct

Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Past Continuous

EXAMPLES:

The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. ACTIVE

The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. PASSIVE

Present Perfect

FORM Present Perfect

[HAS / HAVE] + [past participle]

EXAMPLES:
I have seen that movie many times.

I have never seen that movie.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Present Perfect (have seen), adverbs usually come between the first part and the second part (have never seen).


USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now    

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with time expressions such as 'yesterday,' 'one year ago,' 'last week,' 'when I was a chlid,' 'when I lived in Japan,' 'at that moment,' 'that day' or 'one day.' We CAN use the Present Perfect with expressions like 'ever,' 'never,' 'once,' 'many times,' 'several times,' 'before,' 'so far,' 'already' and 'yet.'

EXAMPLES:


I have seen that movie twenty times.

I think I have met him once before.

There have been many earthquakes in California.

Has there ever been a war in the United States?
Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

People have traveled to the moon.


IMPORTANT How do you actually use the Present Perfect?

The concept of 'unspecified time' can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:


TOPIC 1 Experience

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, 'I have the experience of' You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

EXAMPLES:

I have been to France.
(This sentence means that you have the experience of being to France. Maybe you have been once, or several times.)

I have been to France three times.
(You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.)

I have never been to France.
(This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.)

I think I have seen that movie before.

He has never traveled by train.

Joan has studied two foreign languages.

Have you ever met him?
No, I have not met him.


TOPIC 2 Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.

EXAMPLES:

You have grown since the last time I saw you.

The government has become more interested in arts education.

Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.

My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.


TOPIC 3 Accomplishments

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.

EXAMPLES:

Man has walked on the moon.

Our son has learned how to read.

Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.

Scientists have split the atom.


TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting

We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action.

EXAMPLES:

James has not finished his homework yet.

Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.

Bill has still not arrived.

The rain hasn't stopped.


TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times

We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which occured in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.

EXAMPLES:

The army has attacked that city five times.

I have had four quizes and five tests so far this semester.

We have had many major problems while working on this project.

She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.


IMPORTANT

When we use the Present Perfect it means that something happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.



Sometimes we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. Expressions such as 'in the last week,' 'in the last year,' 'this week,' 'this month,' 'so far' and 'up to now' can be used to narrow the time we are looking in for an experience.



EXAMPLES:

Have you been to Mexico in the last year.

I have seen that movie six times in the last month.

They have had three tests in the last week.

She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.

This week my car has broken down three times.


NOTICE
'Last year' and 'in the last year' are very different in meaning. 'Last year' means the year before now. 'In the last year' means from 365 days ago until now.

EXAMPLES:

I went to Mexico last year.
(I went to Mexico in 1998.)

I have been to Mexico in the last year.
(I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now. We do not know exactly when.)

USE 2 Duration From Past Until Now (Non-continuous Verbs)


With Non-continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. 'For five minutes,' 'for two weeks' and 'since Tuesday' are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.

EXAMPLES:

I have had a cold for two weeks.

She has been in England for six months.

Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Perfect

EXAMPLES:

Many tourists have visited that castle. ACTIVE

That castle has been visited by many tourists. PASSIVE

Present Perfect Continuous

FORM Present Perfect Continuous

[HAS / HAVE] + [BEEN] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLES:

I have been waiting here for two hours.

She has only been studying English for two years.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Present Perfect Continuous (has been studying), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (has only been studying).


USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now    

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. 'For five minutes', 'for two weeks', and 'since Tuesday' are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

EXAMPLES:

They have been talking for the last hour.

She has been working at that company for three years.

James has been teaching at the University since June.


USE 2 Recently, Lately    

You can use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as 'for five minutes', 'for two weeks', and 'since Tuesday'. Without the durations, the this tense gives a more general meaning of 'lately'. We often use the words 'lately' or 'recently' in the sentence to strengthen this meaning.

EXAMPLES:

Recently, I have been feeling really tired.

She has been watching too much television lately.

Mary has been feeling a little depressed.


IMPORTANT

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of 'lately' or 'recently.' If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as 'Have you been feeling alright?', it suggests that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as 'Have you been smoking?' suggests that you can smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear, or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.


IMPORTANT Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. To express the idea of Present Perfect Continuous with these exception verbs, you must use Present Perfect.

EXAMPLES:
Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct

Sam has had his car for two years. Correct


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Perfect Continuous

EXAMPLES:

Recently, John has been doing the work. ACTIVE

Recently, the work has been being done by John. PASSIVE

NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is rarely used in its passive form.




Past Perfect

FORM Past Perfect

[HAD] + [PAST PARTICIPLE]

Examples:

I had studied a little English when I came to the U.S.

They had never met an American until they met John.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Past Perfect (had met), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (had never met).

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in Past


The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

EXAMPLES:

I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.

Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 1992?

Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before in 1988.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-continuous Verbs)



With Non-progressive Verbs and some non-progressive uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

EXAMPLES:

We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.

By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.


IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

Unlike the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.



EXAMPLE:

She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.


If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when before or after is used in the sentence. The words before and after actually tell you what happens first so the Past Perfect is optional. Both sentences below are correct.

EXAMPLE:

She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.


HOWEVER

If the Past Perfect action did not happen at a specific time, Past Perfect MUST be used at all times. Compare the two sentences below.



EXAMPLE:

She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct


ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Past Perfect

EXAMPLES

George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanics license. ACTIVE

Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanics license. PASSIVE

Past Perfect Continuous

FORM Past Perfect Continuous

[HAD BEEN] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLES:

I had been waiting there for two hours before she finally arrived.

She had only been studying English for two years before she got the job.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Past Perfect Continuous (had been studying), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (had only been studying).

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past



We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. 'For five minutes' and 'for two weeks' are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now.

EXAMPLES:

They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.

She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.

James had been teaching at the University for more than a year before he left for Asia.


USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past

Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.

EXAMPLES:

Jason was tired because he had been jogging.

Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.


IMPORTANT

If you do not include a duration such as 'for five minutes,' 'for two weeks' or 'since Friday', many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous. There is also a difference in meaning. Compare the examples below.


EXAMPLES:

I was reading when my roommate returned.
Emphasizes the interruption of 'reading.'

I had been reading for an hour when my roommate returned.
Emphasizes the amount of time 'for an hour.'


ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Past Perfect Continuous

EXAMPLES:

Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years, before he moved to Paris. ACTIVE

The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris. PASSIVE


NOTE: Passive forms of the Past Perfect Continuous are not common.

Simple Future

The Simple Future has two different forms in English, 'will' and 'be going to.' Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice the differences will become clear. Both 'will' and 'be going to' refer to a specific time in the future.


FORM Will

[WILL] + [VERB]

EXAMPLES:

I will help him later.

I will never help him.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Simple Future (will help), adverbs usually come between the first part and the second part (will never help).


FORM Be Going To

[AM / IS / ARE] + [GOING TO] + [VERB]

EXAMPLES:

He is going to meet Jane tonight.

He is definitely going to meet Jane tonight.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Simple Future (is going to meet), adverbs usually come between the first part and the second part (is definitely going to meet).


IMPORTANT No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with 'when', 'while', 'before', 'after', 'by the time,' 'as soon as,' 'if' and 'unless.' In this lesson, all verbs in Time Clauses are italicized.

EXAMPLES:

When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct

When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct


USE 1 'Will' to Express a Voluntary Action

'Will' often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often we use 'will' to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help.

EXAMPLES:

A: I'm really hungry.
B: I'll make some sandwiches.

A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep.
B: I'll get you some coffee.

A: The phone is ringing.
B: I'll get it.


USE 2 'Will' to Express a Promise

'Will' is usually used in promises.

EXAMPLES:

I will call you when I arrive.

If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.

I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.


USE 3 'Be going to' to Express a Plan

'Be going to' expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future.

EXAMPLES:

He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.

We are going to meet each other tonight at 6:00 PM.

A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake.
B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.


USE 4 'Will' or 'Be Going to' to Express a Prediction

Both 'will' and 'be going to' can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In 'prediction' sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples there is no difference in meaning.

EXAMPLES:

The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.

John Smith will be the next President.
John Smith is going to be the next President.

The movie 'Zenith' will win several Academy Awards.
The movie 'Zenith' is going to win several Academy Awards.


IMPORTANT

In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence's meaning.


ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Simple Future

EXAMPLES:

John will certainly finish the work by 5:00 PM. ACTIVE
The work will certainly be finished by 5:00 PM. PASSIVE

Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. ACTIVE
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. PASSIVE

Future Continuous

IMPORTANT No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with 'when', 'while', 'before', 'after', 'by the time', 'as soon as', 'if' and 'unless'. In this lesson, all verbs in Time Clauses are italicized.

EXAMPLES:

While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct

While I will be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct


FORM Future Continuous

[WILL BE] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLE:

When your plane arrives tonight, I will be waiting for you.


[AM / IS / ARE] + [GOING TO] + [VERBing]

EXAMPLE:

When your plane arrives tonight, I am going to be waiting for you.

NOTE: It is possible to use either 'will' or 'going to' to create the Future Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.


USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future     

Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted. The interruption is usually an action in the Simple Future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

EXAMPLES:

I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.

I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.

While I am working, Steve will make dinner. (NOTICE 'am working' because of 'while.')

I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.

He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.

NOTE: No future tenses can be used in Time Clauses therefore you must say 'While I am working .' See the warning at the top of the page.


USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption     

In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by an action in the Simple Future. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.

EXAMPLES:

Tonight at 6 p.m., I am going to be eating dinner.

At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.


IMPORTANT

In the Simple Future a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin. In the Future Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.

EXAMPLES:

Tonight at 6 p.m., I am going to eat dinner.
I am going to start eating at 6 p.m.

Tonight at 6 p.m., I am going to be eating dinner.
I am going to start earlier and I will be in the process of eating dinner at 6 p.m. .


USE 3 Parallel Actions    

When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. These are Parallel Actions.

EXAMPLES:

I am going to be studying while he is making dinner.

While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television.

Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.


USE 4 Atmosphere

In English we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere in the future.

EXAMPLE:

When I arrive at the party everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.


IMPORTANT Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any 'continuous' tenses. Also, certain 'non-continuous' meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in 'continuous' tenses. To express the idea of Future Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Future.

EXAMPLES:
Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct

Jane will be at my house when you arrive. Correct


ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Future Continuous

EXAMPLES:

At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dog. ACTIVE

At 8:00 PM tonight, the dog will be being washed by John. PASSIVE

NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Continuous are not common.

Future Perfect

IMPORTANT No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with 'when,' 'while,' 'before,' 'after,' 'by the time,' 'as soon as,' 'if' and 'unless'. In this lesson, all verbs in Time Clauses are italicized.

EXAMPLES:

I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct

I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct


FORM Future Perfect

[WILL HAVE] + [PAST PARTICIPLE]

EXAMPLE:

I will have perfected my English by the time I come back from the U.S.


[AM / IS / ARE] + [GOING TO HAVE] + [PAST PARTICIPLE]

EXAMPLE:

I am going to have perfected my English by the time I come back from the US.

NOTE: It is possible to use either 'will' or 'going to' to create the Future Perfect with little or no difference in meaning.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future



The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.

EXAMPLES:

By next November, I will have received my promotion.

By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-continuous Verbs)


With Non-continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.

EXAMPLES:

I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.

By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Past Perfect

EXAMPLES:

The Post Office will have returned my package before I can pick it up. ACTIVE

My package will have been returned by the Post Office before I can pick it up. PASSIVE

Future Perfect Continuous

IMPORTANT No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with 'when,' 'while,' 'before,' 'after,' 'by the time,' 'as soon as,' 'until,' 'if' and 'unless'. In this lesson, all verbs in Time Clauses are italicized.

EXAMPLES:

I won't tell the student the answer until he has been working on the math problem for more than an hour. Correct

I won't tell the student the answer until he will have been working on the math problem for more than an hour. Not Correct


FORM Future Perfect Continuous

[WILL HAVE BEEN] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLE:

I will have been waiting for two hours when her plane finally arrives.


[AM / IS / ARE] + [GOING TO HAVE BEEN] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLE:

I am going to have been waiting for two hours when her plane finally arrives.

NOTE: It is possible to use either 'will' or 'going to' to create the Future Perfect Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future


We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. 'For five minutes,' 'for two weeks' and 'since Friday' are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous, however the duration stops in the future.

EXAMPLES:

They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Tony arrives.

She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.

James will have been teaching at the University for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.


USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future

Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.

EXAMPLES:

Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.

Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.


IMPORTANT

If you do not include a duration such as 'for five minutes,' 'for two weeks' or 'since Friday', many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous. There is also a difference in meaning. Compare the examples below.

EXAMPLES:

I will be reading when my roommate returns.
The reading will be interrupted.

I will have been reading for an hour when my roommate returns.
The reading will stop just before my roommate returns.


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Future Perfect Continuous

EXAMPLES:

The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. ACTIVE

The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. PASSIVE

NOTE: Passive forms of the Past Perfect Continuous are not common.

Used to


FORM Used to

[USED TO] + [verb]

EXAMPLES:

I used to go to the beach everyday.


USE 1 Habit in the Past     

'Used to' expresses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the past. It says that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now.

EXAMPLES:

Jerry used to study English.

Sam and Mary used to go to Mexico in the summer.

I used to start work at 9 o'clock.

Christine used to eat meat, but now she is a vegetarian.


USE 2 Past Fact     

'Used to' can also be used to talk about past facts or generalizations which are no longer true.

EXAMPLES:

I used to live in Paris.

Sarah used to be fat, but now she is thin.

George used to be the best student in class, but now Leena is the best.

Oranges used to cost very little in Florida, but now they are quite expensive.


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Used to

EXAMPLES:

Jerry used to pay the bills. ACTIVE

The bills used to be paid by Jerry. PASSIVE

Would Always


FORM Would Always

[WOULD ALWAYS] + [verb]

EXAMPLE:

I would always take my surf board to the beach with me.


USE 1 Habit in the Past     

Like 'Used to' and Simple Past, 'Would Always' expresses the idea that something was an old habit which stopped in the past. It says that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now. This form suggests that someone willingly acted that way and often expresses annoyance or amusement at the habit. It can also suggest the habit was extreme.

EXAMPLES:

She would always send me strange birthday gifts.

Sam and Mary would always choose the most exotic vacation destinations.

Sally would always arrive early.

Christine would always come late to the meetings


IMPORTANT 'Would Always' is Different

'Would Always' is not exactly the same as 'Used to' or the Simple Past. 'Would Always' cannot be used to talk about past facts or generalizations. It can only be used for repeated actions.

EXAMPLES:

Sarah was shy, but now she is very outgoing. CORRECT

Sarah used to be shy, but now she is very outgoing. CORRECT

Sarah would always be shy, but now she is very outgoing. NOT CORRECT


IMPORTANT Other Forms Are Possible

This type of repetition in the past is usually expressed by 'Would Always'; however, other forms are also possible. English speakers often use 'would constantly,' 'would forever' or simply 'would.' Although the last form 'would' is correct, it is not suggested because it can easily be confused with other verb forms such as the Conditional or Future in the Past. 'Would never' can also be used to express the concept that someone always refused to do something in the past.

EXAMPLES:

Jerry would always bring his younger brother to the parties. CORRECT

Jerry would constantly bring his younger brother to the parties. CORRECT

Jerry would bring his younger brother to the parties. CORRECT

Jerry would never bring his younger brother to the parties. CORRECT
(Opposite meaning = Jerry refused to bring his younger brother with him to the parties.)


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Would Always

EXAMPLES:

Jerry would always pay the bills. ACTIVE

The bills would always be paid by Jerry. PASSIVE

Future in the Past


Like Simple Future, Future in the Past has two different forms in English, 'Would' and 'Was Going to.' Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings.


FORM Would

[WOULD] + [verb]

EXAMPLES:

I said I would help him later.

I said I would never help him.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Future in the Past (would help), adverbs usually come between the first part and the second part (would never help).


FORM Was Going To

[WAS / WERE] + [GOING TO] + [verb]

EXAMPLES:

I knew John was going to meet Jane after the party.

I knew John was secretly going to meet Jane after the party.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Future in the Past (was going to meet), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (was secretly going to meet).


USE 1 Future in Past     The blue X represents the Future in the Past.

Future in the Past, follows the same basic rules as the Simple Future. 'Would' follows the same basic rules as 'Will,' and 'Was Going to' follows the same rules as 'Be Going to.' Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not.

EXAMPLES:

I told you he was going to come to the party.

I knew Julie would make dinner.

Jane said Sam would bring his sister with him, but he came alone.

I had a feeling that the vacation was going to be a disaster.

He promised he would send a postcard from Egypt.


IMPORTANT No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, Future in the Past cannot be used in clauses beginning with 'when,' 'while,' 'before,' 'after,' 'by the time,' 'as soon as,' 'if' and 'unless.' In this lesson, all verbs in Time Clauses are italicized.

EXAMPLES:

I already told Mark that when he arrived, we would go out for dinner. Correct

I already told Mark that when he would arrive, we would go out for dinner. Not Correct


ACTIVE / PASSIVE Future in the Past

EXAMPLES:

I knew John would certainly finish the work by 5:00 PM. ACTIVE
I knew the work would certainly be finished by 5:00 PM. PASSIVE

I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. ACTIVE
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight. PASSIVE



loading...







Politica de confidentialitate

DISTRIBUIE DOCUMENTUL

Comentarii


Vizualizari: 880
Importanta: rank

Comenteaza documentul:

Te rugam sa te autentifici sau sa iti faci cont pentru a putea comenta

Creaza cont nou

Termeni si conditii de utilizare | Contact
© SCRIGROUP 2019 . All rights reserved

Distribuie URL

Adauga cod HTML in site