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External Declarations: Function Definitions

External Declarations The unit of input provided to the C compiler is called a translation unit; it consists of a sequence of external declarations, which are either declarations or function definitions.     translation-u
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Sizeof and storage allocation

Sizeof and storage allocation The sizeof operator returns the size in bytes of its operand. Whether the result of sizeof is unsigned int or unsigned long is implementation defined—which is why the declaration of malloc above ducked the issue by
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The Task ahead - Logical expressions and Relational Operators

The Task ahead In this chapter we look at the various ways that the control of flow statements can be used in a C program, including some statements that haven't been introduced so far. They are almost always used in conjunction with logic
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Control Flow: Statements and Blocks

Control Flow The control-flow of a language specify the order in which computations are performed. We have already met the most common control-flow constructions in earlier examples; here we will complete the set, and be more precise about the
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The alphabet of C

The alphabet of C This is an interesting area; alphabets are important. All the same, this is the one part of this chapter that you can read superficially first time round without missing too much. Read it to make sure that you've seen the
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Opening shots - So why is this important?

Opening shots 1. So why is this important? The arithmetic data types and operators of C are interesting but hardly rivetting. They show, collectively, a certain imagination and spirit that has stamped C with a special flavour, but they f
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Structures: Basics of Structures


Structures A structure is a collection of one or more variables, possibly of different types, grouped together under a single name for convenient handling. (Structures are called ``records'' in some languages, notably Pascal.) Structures help t
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Typedef

Typedef Although typedef is thought of as being a storage class, it isn't really. It allows you to introduce synonyms for types which could have been declared some other way. The new name becomes equivalent to the type that you wanted, as this
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Libraries - Mathematical functions, Variable numbers of arguments

Libraries 1. Introduction 2. Diagnostics 3. Character handling 4. Localization 5. Limits  6. Mathematical functions 7. Non-local jumps 8. Signal handling  Variable numbers of arguments 10.
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A program to find prime numbers

A program to find prime numbers /*** Dumb program that generates prime numbers.*/#include <stdio.h>#include <stdlib.h>main()                    else                            divisor = divisor-1;            }            if(not_prime =
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A Tutorial Introduction - Getting Started

A Tutorial Introduction Let us begin with a quick introduction in C. Our aim is to show the essential elements of the language in real programs, but without getting bogged down in details, rules, and exceptions. At this point, we are not tr
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An example performing input

An example performing input It's useful to be able to perform input as well as to write programs that print out more or less interesting lists and tables. The simplest of the library routines (and the only one that we'll look at just now) is cal
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Character handling - Strings, Untyped pointers

Character handling C is widely used for character and string handling applications. This is odd, in some ways, because the language doesn't really have any built-in string handling features. If you're used to languages that know about string han
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Recursion and argument passing - Call by value

Recursion and argument passing So far, we've seen how to give functions a type (how to declare the return value and the type of any arguments the function takes), and how the definition is used to give the body of the function. Next we need to s
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Functions

Functions A C program is built up from a collection of items such as functions and what we could loosely call global variables. All of these things are given names at the point where they are defined in the program; the way that the names are u
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Complete Programs in C

Complete Programs in C 1. Putting it all together 2. Arguments to main 3. Interpreting program arguments 4. A pattern matching program 5. A more ambitious example 6. Afterword
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Keywords and identifiers

Keywords and identifiers After covering the underlying alphabet, we can look at more interesting elements of C. The most obvious of the language elements are keywords and identifiers; their forms are identical (although their meanings are
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Functions and Program Structure: Basics of Functions


Functions and Program Structure Functions break large computing tasks into smaller ones, and enable people to build on what others have done instead of starting over from scratch. Appropriate functions hide details of operation from parts of th
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Directives - The null directive

Directives Directives are always introduced by a line that starts with a # character, optionally preceded by white space characters (although it isn't common practice to indent the #). Table 7.1 below is a list of the directives defined in
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Arrays, the & operator and function

Arrays, the & operator and function We have already emphasized that in most cases, the name of an array is converted into the address of its first element; one notable exception being when it is the operand of sizeof, which is essential if
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