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Types, Operators and Expressions: Variable Names

Types, Operators and Expressions Variables and constants are the basic data objects manipulated in a program. Declarations list the variables to be used, and state what type they have and perhaps what their initial values are. Operators specify
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Const and volatile

Const and volatile These are new in Standard C, although the idea of const has been borrowed from C++. Let us get one thing straight: the concepts of const and volatile are completely independent. A common misconception is to imagine that someh
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Enums

Enums These fall into the category of ‘half baked’. They aren't proper enumerated types, as in Pascal, and only really serve to help you reduce the number of #define statements in your program. They look like this: enum e_tagvar; Just as w
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Bitfields

Bitfields While we're on the subject of structures, we might as well look at bitfields. They can only be declared inside a structure or a union, and allow you to specify some very small objects of a given number of bits in length. Their usefuln
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Simple arrays

Simple arrays The use of arrays in C is often a problem for the beginner. The declaration of arrays isn't too difficult, especially the one-dimensional ones, but a constant source of confusion is the fact that their indices always count from 0.
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More logical expressions.

More logical expressions. This chapter has already shown how C makes no distinction between ‘logical’ and other values. The relational operators all give a result of 0 or 1 for false and true, respectively. Whenever the control of flow
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Linkage - Effect of scope

Linkage Although the simple examples have carefully avoided the topic, we now have to look into the effects of scope and linkage, terms used to describe the accessibility of various objects in a C program. Why bother? It's because realistic pro
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How the preprocessor works

How the preprocessor works Although the preprocessor (Figure 7.1) is probably going to be implemented as an integral part of an Standard C compiler, it can equally well be though of as a separate program which transforms C source code conta
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Pointers and Arrays: Pointers and Addresses

Pointers and Arrays A pointer is a variable that contains the address of a variable. Pointers are much used in C, partly because they are sometimes the only way to express a computation, and partly because they usually lead to more compact and
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Statements: Selection Statements

Statements Except as described, statements are executed in sequence. Statements are executed for their effect, and do not have values. They fall into several groups.     statement:       lab
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The UNIX System Interface: File Descriptors

The UNIX System Interface The UNIX operating system provides its services through a set of system calls, which are in effect functions within the operating system that may be called by user programs. This chapter describes how to use some of t
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Real types

Real types It's easier to deal with the real types first because there's less to say about them and they don't get as complicated as the integer types. The Standard breaks new ground by laying down some basic guarantees on the precision and ran
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Sequence points

Sequence points Associated with, but distinct from, the problems of real-time programming are sequence points. These are the Standard's attempt to define when certain sorts of optimization may and may not be permitted to be in effect. For examp
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Initialization - Constant expressions

Initialization Now that we have seen all of the data types supported by C, we can look at the subject of initialization. C allows ordinary variables, structures, unions and arrays to be given initial values in their definitions. Old C had
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Control of flow - The if, while, for, switch statement

Control of flow 1. The if statement The if statement has two forms: if(expression) statementif(expression) statement1else statement2 In the first form, if (and only if) the expression is non-zero, the statement is executed. If the
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Structures - Linked lists and other structures

Structures Arrays allow for a named collection of identical objects. This is suitable for a number of tasks, but isn't really very flexible. Most real data objects are complicated things with an inherent structure that does not fit well on to a
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Preprocessor statements

Preprocessor statements The first statement in the example is a preprocessor directive. In days gone by, the C compiler used to have two phases: the preprocessor, followed by the real compiler. The preprocessor was a macro processor, whose job
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Input and Output: Standard Input and Output

Input and Output Input and output are not part of the C language itself, so we have not emphasized them in our presentation thus far. Nonetheless, programs interact with their environment in much more complicated ways than those we have shown b
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The type of functions - Declaring functions

The type of functions All functions have a type: they return a value of that type whenever they are used. The reason that C doesn't have ‘procedures’, which in most other languages are simply functions without a value, is that in C it is permiss
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Expressions involving pointers: Conversions, Arithmetic

Expressions involving pointers Because of the introduction of qualified types and of the notion of incomplete types, together with the use of void *, there are now some complicated rules about how you can mix pointers and what arithmetic with p
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