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ENGLISH FOR COMMUNICATION

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ENGLISH FOR COMMUNICATION

UNIT I

THE INTERNET

Read this text about the impact the Internet will have on our lives:

The Internet is the Wild West, the Gold Rush of ’49. Miss the Internet and you’ll miss the opportunity of a lifetime. The Internet is one of those ‘once-in-a-decade’ revolutionary developments that will change many aspects of everyday life, some only remotely connected to the Web.

The Internet took its place in history along with the personal computer, the electronic chip, the mainframe computer, and television. Of the five, the Internet will turn out to be the most important development, the one that will change your life in more ways than the other four. And the changes have just begun. The number of websites is growing at the rate of fifty thousand a week. This is the era of the Internet, and the future belongs to those who can do the best job of building their brands on the Net.

The Internet will change your business even though you don’t have a Website, you don’t do business on the Internet, and your product or service will never be sold or advertised in cyberspace. But how will it do that? And what can you do about it? It’s easy to err in one of two different ways. You can make either too much of the Internet or too little. You make too much of the Net when you assume that it will completely replace traditional ways of doing business. No new medium has ever done that.

Television didn’t replace radio and radio didn’t replace newspapers. You make too little of the Net when you assume it will not affect your business at all. Every new medium has had some effect on every business, as it has had on existing media. Radio, for example, was primarily an entertainment medium until the arrival of television. Today radio is primarily a music, news and talk medium.

The new medium does not replace the old. Rather, the new medium is layered on top of the old media, forever changing and modifying all of the existing media. The original mass communications medium was the human voice, still an unusually effective way to send a message. Each major medium to follow became powerful in its own right because the medium possessed a unique and highly prized attribute. The book multiplied the number of people that could be reached by a single individual. The periodical added the attribute of news. Large numbers of people could share news of the latest events in their city or country and eventually the world. Radio added the attribute of the human voice. News and entertainment could be communicated with emotion and personality. Television added the attribute of motion.

What attribute does the Internet bring to the communications table? The Internet is going to take its place alongside the other major media, because it exploits a totally new attribute. We believe that history will rank the Internet as the greatest of all media. And the reason is simple. The Internet is the only mass-communications medium that allows interactivity. On the Internet a brand lives or dies in an interactive era. In the long run, interactivity will define what works on the Internet and what doesn’t work. The secret to branding on the Internet is your ability to present your brand in such a way that your customers and prospects can interact with your message. You’ll have to throw out many of the traditional ways of brand building if you want to build a powerful Internet brand.

(Adapted from Ries, Al, Ries, Laura, ‘The 11 Immutable Laws of Internet Branding’)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Decide whether the following sentences are true (T) or false (F):

1. The author claims that major changes that influence people’s lives occur every ten years.

2. The best tactics for businessmen is to wait and see what changes the Internet will bring about.

3. The arrival of a new mass-communications medium announces the disappearance of old ones.

4. The characteristics of new media are added to the previous ones to enrich the way we communicate.

5. According to the author, successful Internet brands are those that allow a two-way communication system.

II. Match the words in column A with their synonyms or definitions from column B:

remote mainly

primarily ultimately

prized extremely important, valued highly

eventually far away

to err to permit

to assume to make a mistake

to allow to consider as true

in the long run in the future, but not immediately

III. Read the text below and decide which answer, A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an

example at the beginning (0):

One real barrier to globalism is (0) ………… tape – taxes, duties, customs forms, and paperwork in general. These are the things that are going to clog up the system and slow it (1) ……… . But you can’t stop progress. In (2) ……….. time, the paper barriers will come down, too. Another barrier to globalism is language. The first decision a global brand builder must (3) ……. is the language (4) ………… . Do you use English, or do you translate your site (5)………… various different languages? If you (6) ……… only the languages used by a significant number of people, there are still 220 different languages. In the long term you are (7) ……….. to find successful examples of both single-language and multiple-language sites. But there is never only one to do anything and you can be sure there will be at (8)………. one competitor going in the opposite (9)………… .

Example:

0. A. green B. blue C. red D. white

1. A. off B. down C. round D. in

2. A. Ø B. the C. a D. some

3. A. come B. do C. arrive D. make

4. A. thought B. question C. situation D. idea

5. A. for B. from C. as D. into

6. A. add B. number C. count D. accept

7. A. probably B. likely C. probable D. expected

8. A. least B. last C. less D. latest

9. A. road B. direction C. way D. sense

B. Grammar

I. Choose the most appropriate verb form (a or b) to fill the blanks in the following sentences:

1) “Jane, what ……..about this dress”?

a. do you think b. are you thinking

2) “I ……..that nothing will change too soon around here”.

a. expect b. am expecting

3) I wonder what’s wrong with John. He ……….so quiet today. He’s not himself!

a. is b. is being

4) Apples ………..better in winter.

a. taste b. are tasting

5-6) “I am so sorry to turn you down, Andrew, but I ………Tom tonight. He asked me out for a drink”.

“Oh, I………..”.

5) a. see b. am seeing

6) a. see b. am seeing

7) They ……….about spending their holiday in France.

a. think b. are thinking

8) “Could you call later? I …………..lunch with my parents now”.

a. have b. am having

9) “Mrs. Robertson …………the company in this meeting today”.

a. represents b. is representing

10) Bernardette …………in “The Opera Singer” this month.

a. appears b. is appearing

11) He …………a nice-looking man.

a. is b. is being

12) I …………her for her inner strength.

a. admire b. am admiring

13) Mrs. Johnson ……….a baby next month.

a. expects b. is expecting

14) “She …………so nice in her red dress!”

a. looks b. is looking

15) His report …………the first attempt to cast light on this issue.

a. represents b. is representing

16) “She …………at those reports right now, I’m afraid I cannot disturb her”.

a. looks b. is looking

II. Choose the correct variant, a, b, c or d:

1.Oh, look at that truck on the first lane! It …the tree!

a) hits b) is hitting

c) will hit d) is going to hit

2.Have you heard the news? Alice …married next week!

a) is getting b) has got

c) will have got d) gets

3. The doctors ………….the people in that devastated city.

a) will be seen b) are been seen

c) are being seeing d) will see

C. More exercises

I. Do and Make

Look at some idiomatic expressions with do and make

You are made for sports.

When you make much/little of something you treat something as important/unimportant

What do you make of his speech? (What do you understand of his speech?)

There are a lot of do-it-yourself magazines and TV shows.

When you want someone to stop doing something annoying, you say: that will do

When you can do without coffee, you manage without it.

You will find out more about the uses of do and make by doing the following exercise:

Use either do or make to complete these sentences:

1. They had a fight but they finally ……… up.

2. I know that you had to work hard to finish this paper for me, but I promise I’ll …….. it up to you!

3. After the employees’ protests, the managers decided to ……. away with those regulations.

4. We should ……. some room for them, they have a lot of luggage!

5. ‘Would you like something to eat?’

‘No, but I could … with a cup of coffee!’

6. ‘How do you …..?,’ he said, shaking his hand.

7. Can you ….. the washing? I’m really tired.

II. In the following exercise prefixes or suffixes are to be added to the words on the left so as to complete the sentences:

Example:

They were impressed with his…………to speak three foreign languages. ABLE (ability)

1. Experts in child ………… claim that interaction with other children is crucial. DEVELOP

2. They made plans for his ………… ARRIVE

3. They found the most ……. way to cut down costs. EFFECT

4. He delivered a ………… speech in front of a large audience. POWER

5. ……….. is the key element of this new software.     INTERACTIVE

6. It was an ………….. hot summer. USUAL

III. Phrasal verbs: GROW

Take a look at the following definitions:

grow into = become, develop into a particular type of person over a period of time

grow out of (a habit) = stop doing it as you become older

grow out of clothes = become too big to wear those clothes

grow up = become an adult

See also some expressions with grow: grow old, grow to like somebody (gradually start to like), grown-up (n.) = adult

Now fill the blanks in the following sentences with phrasal verbs taken from the box. Changes in form may be necessary: grow up grow out of grow into

1. He used to hit all the children around him when he was 4, but he…………..it lately.

2. Stop being silly! ……..

3. When I saw her after several years I realized she …………a beautiful young lady.

IV. Choose the correct answer, a or b, to fill the blanks in the following sentences:

1. Ann ….. (a. thinks/b. is thinking) that her friends will help her, that’s why she looks so confident.

2. At this time tomorrow I …… (a. will be flying / b. I will have been flied) to Germany.

3. Everyone ….. (a. will claim / b. will be claimed) that the market is a good thing for the community.

4. Usually Ann works until late at night, but this week she …… (a. leaves / b. is leaving) earlier because her boss is on a holiday.

5. This month I …… (a. do / b. am doing) that course in history.

6. He ….. (a. expects / b. is expecting) everyone to support him but there is a surprise in store for him.

7. The blue lines on the map ………. (a. represent / b. are representing) rivers.

V. Complete the sentences with the correct verb form:

Because we know that you love your backyard, we are launching a new magazine in August. We (1) …. (want/have wanted/are wanting) your projects in this magazine. Every issue (2)…. (will be carrying/will carry/will be carried) instructions for backyard improvements that (3) … (can make/can made/can be made in a week-end. We’ll also include ideas like how (4) …. (to be installed/to 13 install/install) outdoor lighting. If you (5) …. (have looked/will look/are looking) now for advice, the editors can help.

D. Writing

Information sheets, leaflets, brochures

The purpose of leaflets is to present information clearly to readers. Consequently it is important to break up the information into short sections with clear sub-headings. The layout and organization should be eye-catching. It is advisable to start with a direct main heading and continue in a direct style.

The following text is a sample of a third year student’s work:

Heading

World Trade Center: A Valuable Presence on the Market

Sections

History

One of the first major investment projects that changed Bucharest’s face, the $ 120 million USD World Trade complex was built in the northern part of the city shortly after 1990.

Practical information

Facilities

In a highly competitive market, the WTC’s two-level Conference Center has some of the best-equipped, modern facilities available in Bucharest. Its 10 conference rooms with a variable seating capacity cover the entire meeting and conference domain. Rooms range from smaller ones, accommodating 10 to 30 persons, such as the Cairo, Vienna, Moscow, Seoul or Taipei, to larger rooms, accommodating about 100 persons, such as the Mexico & Seoul hall. The New York Auditorium, which can hold up to 300 persons, is the only hall in Bucharest with an extendable amphitheatre.

Quoting a professional

Services

‘The newest facility we have introduced is the PR package’, says the

Conference Center coordinator. ‘We are offering our potential clients the

entire range of services related to event promotion and management: conference rooms, translation, pressroom, catering and hotel services.’

Extra information

And more!

Focusing on special events promotion and trade shows, the WT Business Plaza is a multifunctional area of display. The Shopping Gallery hosts exclusive boutiques, a fashion and art gallery, bank offices and travel agencies, a beauty salon, restaurants and a post office.

Business…

Even with the real estate market in recession, WTC still has some of the most competitive renting offers for office spaces, says the Real Estate Managing Director.

…and Fun!

Last but not least, the residential dimension of WTC gathers a four-star hotel and the original concept of the WT Village, an exclusive residential area with all the modern facilities available on the market for the international business community. The Health Center inside the WT Village includes outdoor tennis courts, a swimming pool, a sauna and a restaurant, while The Club focuses on social and sporting activities.

For further information please call our Office in Bucharest or visit our web page.

D. Practice

You work for a travel company. Your boss has asked you to prepare a leaflet giving general information about your city. Write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.

UNIT II

LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE RAINBOW WARRIOR AFFAIR

Two DGSE agents using false names were arrested in New Zeeland on 12 July 1985 and duly charged with passport and related offences. On 23 July they were further charged with conspiracy to commit arson, with willfully damaging the Rainbow Warrior by means of explosives, and with the murder of Fernando Pereira, a crew- member who drowned in the incident. They pleaded not guilty and were remanded in custody. In mid-August the French press identified them as Alain Mafart and Dominique Prieur. On 26 July New Zeeland police also obtained warrants to arrest agents who had left New Zeeland prior to the explosions. On 13 August New Zeeland demanded extradition of all those involved, but the French government replied that it could not extradite French nationals. The other agents, including three who reported to the Paris police on 25 August, were never apprehended. The charges against Mafart and Prieur were altered to manslaughter and willful damage at the hearing on 4 November 1985. The agents pleaded guilty and were sentenced on 22 November to ten years' imprisonment for manslaughter and seven years' for willful damage, the terms to run concurrently. The French Defence Minister told them that the government would work for their release and on 28 November he urged negotiations for their return to France.

An investigation by the French government into the possibility of official involvement, published on 26 August 1985, recognised the identity and affiliation of the agents but found no evidence to indicate that their mission involved anything other than surveillance. On 6 September France notified New Zeeland of its concern that Mafart and Prieur should enjoy all the guarantees of international law. After further press revelations France acknowledged on 22 September that all agents had obeyed orders, and protested that they should not be exempted from blame.

Meanwhile New Zeeland had notified France on 6 September that it would take legal steps to secure compensation from the French State. Further, the New Zeeland Prime Minister, David Lange, said on 26 September that he had prohibited extradition of the agents and political interference in the legal proceedings. After the convictions he remarked on 16 December that New Zeeland would consider repatriating the agents provided they continue to serve their prison sentences. Negotiations between New Zeeland and France, which had begun on 23 September 1985, continued intermittently until 19 May 1986 when New Zeeland suspended them in protest at continued economic sanctions by France.

Early in 1986 France began impeding New Zeeland imports. New Zeeland formally complained to France on 26 February 196, and on 4 April the European Community Trade Commissioner upheld the complaint. France did not admit to imposing the trade barriers until 22 April.

Other European states were concerned to see the dispute resolved. The European Parliament condemned secret service activity against the Rainbow Warrior and demanded a full explanation from France. During a visit to Europe in June 1986 Lange indicated that various governments had impressed upon him the need for an early resolution on the dispute.

France and New Zeeland announced on 19 July that they had agreed to refer all the matters without precondition to arbitration by the UN Secretary-General. The ruling was completed on 6 July 1986 and signed on 9 July. It required France to apologise and pay a fixed sum to New Zeeland; required New Zeeland to transfer Mafart and Prieur into French custody; and enjoined France not to impede New Zeeland exports to the European Community. The terms were carried out on 22-23 July 1986, and France subsequently abided by the ruling on New Zeeland exports.

(Adapted from Michael Pugh, 'Legal Aspects of the Rainbow Warrior Affair', International and

Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 36, July 1987)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Choose the correct answer A, B or C so as to form a correct statement. (Only one answer is correct.)

1. The New Zeeland Police couldn't arrest all the DGSE agents because:

A. they had false names.

B. French nationals couldn't be extradited by the government of their own country.

C. they had lost their passports.

2. The French government started an investigation to:

A. see if any officials were involved in that affair.

B. find the missing agents.

C. find out what their mission was.

3. On 6 September New Zeeland informed France that:

A. it intended to ask for compensation from France.

B. it would agree to repatriate the agents if they served their prison sentence in France.

C. it agreed to France's interference.

4. The European Parliament was dissatisfied because:

A. they demanded an explanation from New Zeeland.

B. the two states couldn't resolve the matter.

C. they were against the activity of the secret agents.

II. Match the words with their definitions.

1. duly (adj.) a. put something forward as the basis of a case in a court of law on behalf of somebody

2. warrant (n) b. send back an accused person from law court into custody.

3. urge (v) c. arrest

4. remand (v) d. try too earnestly or persistently to persuade

5. plead (v) e. in a due, correct or proper manner.

6. term(n) f. a written order giving authority to do something

7. apprehend (v) g. period of time for which somebody is sentenced to prison

8. ruling (v) h. hinder or obstruct the progress or movement of something.

9. impede (v) i. decision made by a judge or by some other authority.

III. Fill in the blanks with the following prepositions: by, to, from, upon.

1. He finally decided to aide the referee's decision.

2. His words impressed my memory.

3. Due to his heart condition he was exempted military service.

4. What I have to say refers all of you.

IV. After reading the definitions of the words given below choose the word that best fits the context so as to make correct and meaningful sentences.

manslaughter, homicide, murder

manslaughter: crime of killing a person unlawfully but not intentionally

homicide: crime of killing one person by another.

murder: unlawful killing of a human being intentionally

1. In Agatha Christie's novels many are solved by detective Poirot.

2. Tom is a policeman and works with the department.

3. The driver of the car who produced the accident was accused of because the woman had crossed the street right in front of his car.

V. Read the text below and choose the best word A, B, C or D that fits each space.

FOR A SNEEZE FREE FUTURE TAKE A KITTEN

Childhood allergies are on the (1) …, but research suggests raising children in a house with pets may be a good way to keep kids (2) … . In a study following 474 children from birth to age six or seven, allergist Dennis Ownby, of the Medical College of Georgia, (3) … that those who had been exposed (4) … two or more household cats and dogs since birth were less (5) … react to allergens than those born (6) … animal free homes. Early exposure to the bacteria (7) … pets may encourage the proper functioning of the immune system. Pets are not a (8) … for all kids. If the child has developed a (9) …, introducing a dog or cat into the home will likely make it worse.

1 A rise B grow C verge D fall

2 A glad B healthy C still D busy

3 A came B revealed C found D looked

4 A of B for C to D of

5 A similar B common C likely to D supposed

6 A into B out of C from D on

7 A found B carried on C identified D discovered

8 A friend B solution C scheme D toy

9 A likeness B plot C sensitivity D dislike

B. Grammar

I. Complete the following table

have ………

fight ………

cost ………

……… saw

……… lay

……… tried

find ………

lay ………

……… left

……… brought

put ………

begin ………

II. Complete the spaces with your own words so as to make meaningful sentences.

1 When I was in high school I … .

2 The questions were easy. I hope you … .

3 The team lost the match because Tom … .

4 Debbie was a very unhappy child because … .

5 I didn’t sleep very well last night because … .

6 David had an accident last year when he … .

7 The test was quite easy. I hope you … .

8 When Rosie got home her flat was a mess. She realized that … .

9 Last night there was a terrible storm. The wind was so strong that … .

10 She liked travelling. She … .

III Complete the sentences below with the Simple Past of the verbs given in brackets.

a. Mr. Phanourakis (1.be) … eighty-five years old when he (2.say) … goodbye to his Greek mountain village and (3.take) … an American ship for the United States. His sons had done well in the restaurant business there and (4.want) … him to spend his remaining years with them. The old gentleman (5.know) … no language save his own but, with the dignified self-confidence of the Greek mountain villager, he (6.make) … his way easily about the foreign ship.

b. Harry (1.tell) … his wife that he (2.want) … to see his mother that evening if he (3.can) … get away his office a little earlier. His mother had not felt so well during the past few weeks and he (4. say) … he (5.want) … to convince her to go to hospital.

IV. Put the verbs in brackets in the past tense continuous.

1. Yesterday morning I wanted to go to the zoo, but I couldn’t. It (rain) … heavily.

2. I called Maizie last night, but she was not at home. She (study) … at the library.

3. While Marie (read) … a story, she fell asleep.

4. It (rain) … this morning when I left for my office.

5. Ted (shovel) … the snow in front of his house.

V. Use either the simple past tense or the past tense continuous in the following sentences.

1. When I (drop) … my cup, the coffee (spill) … on my lap.

2. When Susan (arrive) … the lecture had already started and the professor (write) … on the whiteboard.

3. He (be) … very polite person. Whenever a woman (enter) … the room he (stand up) ….

4. Mr. Black (walk) … when Tom’s, dog (attack) … him.

5. The children (play) … yesterday afternoon.

6. I just (open) … the envelope to take out the letter when the wind (blow) … it away.

7. As she (climb) … the ladder it (slip) … and she (fall) … .

8. He usually carries an umbrella, but when I (see) … him yesterday he (not, carry) … one.

9. They (want) … to go on a cruise last summer but they (can, not) … make up their minds where to go so they (end up) … staying home.

10. He (ride) … his bicycle every afternoon when he (be) … a child.

VI. Put the verbs in brackets in the past tense simple, past tense continuous or future in the past.

It (1. be) … obvious from the moment that she (2. arrive) … at John’s party that Zoe (3. want) … me to sit next to her boyfriend. I (4. tell) … her that I (5. mind) … where I (6. sit) … and that I (7. can) … move on the sofa.

VII. Put the verbs in brackets in the future in the past.

1. Paul promised he (bring) … the book back the following week.

2. Because Julian made an appointment with his dentist he hoped he (have to, not) … wait very long.

3. When our friends arrived we decided that we (have) … lunch in the garden.

4. He was running to catch a bus because he was afraid he (late) … for school.

5. They forgot to invite Margaret to the barbecue, but they promised they (invite) … her next time.

VIII. Fill the blanks in the following sentences with either the future in the past or “going to future in the past”.

1. Last Saturday I was invited at Tom’s birthday. I wanted to wear something special, so I told my friend I (buy) … a new outfit for that special occasion.

2. When I met Helen she was carrying two bags that looked quite heavy. I told Helen I (help) … her to carry them.

3. Yesterday it rained all day and in the evening the temperature dropped very much so we assumed it (freeze) … during the night.

4. We had been driving for five hours and when I looked at the petrol gauge I realized we (run out of) … petrol any minute.

IX. Identify the phrasal verbs and the verbs with preposition in the verbs given below, then make sentences with them.

1. be keen on

2. belong to

3. to listen to

4. to put up

5. put up with

X. Choose the correct variant A, B or C. Only one variant is correct.

1. I’m very happy you aced the exam. This calls … a celebration.

A. after B. on C. for

2. If you feel lonely just call … us. We’ll be very happy.

A. for B. on C. off

3. They had to call the picnic … because of the storm.

A. of B. off C. after

4. He called … us on his way to the gym.

A. on B. for C. by

5. She loves flowers; everybody thinks that she takes … her mother.

A. up B. after C. for

6. She was studying for the exam when the lights went … .

A. out B. in C. off

7. She told them she … not be late.

A. will B. will have C. would

8. She is very thin. She suffers … malnutrition.

A. from B. of C. for

C. Writing

Letter Writing

There are some general rules which apply to letter writing, whether we deal with informal or formal

letters. When we write letters in English we have to know that all letters are arranged according to a

certain pattern.

The Address. The sender’s address is written in the top-right hand corner of the letter. The address can be written in either indented or block style. Never write your name at the top of the letter.

The order of the address is: number of the house, name of the street, town or city, area, country. There is a comma after each line and a full stop after the last line. One can use the following abbreviations: St. for Street, Rd. for Road, Sq. for Square, Ave. for Avenue Pl. for Place. Drive and Lane are not abbreviated.

The Date. The date is written below the address. The months that can be abbreviated are: Jan., Feb.,

Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. The abbreviations used for days are: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. These numbers of the days may be placed either before or after the name of the month. e.g. Sept. 25th or 25th Sept.

The Margin. There has to be a clear margin on both sides of the letter. This margin has to be equal on both sides so that the letter appears in the middle of the page.

The Body. It represents the letter itself. The paragraphs can be indented or written in the block style.

The Subscription. It represents the words with which we end the letter. It usually begins with the word Yours written with capital Y.

The Signature. The signature should come under the subscription.

The Postscript. If you remember that you want to add a few lines after you have finished the letter you 22 may use a postscript, which must be headed with the letters P.S.

Informal (Personal) Letters.

Whenever you write to a friend try to be natural.

The Salutation. The letter should begin with Dear + the name of your friend. e.g. Dear Michael, Dear

Susan. When you write to a relative you may begin the letter with Dear Aunt Edwina or Dear Cousin

Tom, etc. Never begin the letter with Dear friend.

The Body. The body has three parts: Introduction, Purpose and Conclusion.

Introduction. It shows what has prompted you to write the letter. You can either refer to a previous letter or to an event that made you write the letter. Here are some usual expressions and phrases:

Thank you/Many thanks for your letter.

It was good to hear from you.

I was very sorry to hear…

It was such a disappointment to hear…

You’ll be glad to hear that…

Notice that you can use contracted forms.

Purpose. It is the most important part of the letter, because it explains why you are writing the letter.

You have to be very careful to render in words your thoughts and intentions. You should also try to include personal details so that to make the letter more attractive.

Conclusion. A letter is usually ended with a polite wish.

I shall be looking forward to hearing from you.

Please give my love/regards/best wishes to …

I do hope that you …

The Subscription. The words used depend on how well you know the person you are writing to. If you are writing to a very good friend you may use: Yours affectionately; Love. If you are not very close friends you may use: Yours sincerely, Yours very sincerely followed by a comma.

The signature. The way you sign your letter depends on the relationship between you and the person you are writing to. Therefore, you may use your full name, your Christian name or a nickname.

Types of Personal Letters.

One can speak about the following types of personal letters:

Letter of – Apology

Invitation

Accepting/Rejecting an Invitation

Request

Congratulation/Good Luck/Thank You

News and Information

Here is an example of personal letter. The paragraphs are indented.

31 Church Rd

Lancaster

Lancashire

nd May2004.

Dear Mary,

It was nice hear the good news .I’m happy to hear that John proposed to you while you were in Spain. You’re not going to believe what’s happened to me these days .As I’ve lived one of the most disappointing experiences I feel like sharing it with you. .

Two weeks ago I saw an ad for a local restaurant. It seemed very appealing so Tony and I decided to spend a nice evening there. But you shouldn’t always rely on an ad,, trust me! We did, and we were sorry.

First of all, the food was not as good as it had been advertised but the prices were way too high 23 for the place and the quality of the food .The menu contained very fancy dishes and we were enchanted by the names, but I can’t say the same thing about the quality of the food. It had a very strange taste and I’m not sure it was very fresh.

Secondly, the service was just awful! There were two waiters in the entire restaurant, so, we had to wait fifteen minutes before someone came to take our order. The waiter said that the dishes would be ready in about ten minutes, but, in fact, we had to wait for more than an hour before he appeared with the appetizers. The waiter was not only slow, but he was also clumsy, as he spilled some sauce on Tony’s trousers.

Another reason why I advise you not to go there when you come to Lancaster is the music. The band was playing very loudly and we could hardly understand each other. There was so much noise that I got dizzy.

Finally, my plate was not very clean and when I told the waiter about it he cleaned it with the napkin.

The nice thing about it was that I was with Tony and we feel so good when we are together, so, after all I must say it was not a spoiled evening.

But enough about me. I’d like to know what you’ve been doing since you returned.

I’m looking forward to hearing more details about your engagement and also your wedding plans.

Love,

Susan

D. Practice

I. You had arranged to meet your friend Alex next month at Montana hotel in Sinaia. Unfortunately, you have received a very important project and you can no longer go. Write a letter of apology of about 100 words excusing yourself and asking for a rain check.

II. You have been invited to a party. Write a letter of about 100 words thanking for the invitation and accepting it.

UNIT III

GETTING A JOB

Read this text unraveling the secrets of getting employed:

Do soon-to-be graduates really need to start looking for a job before they graduate? The advice from the experts is yes, especially if they want to ensure a good job in their chosen field, because today’s economy is making the job search a little tougher.

Tony Lee, editor in chief of CareerJournal.com, the Wall Street Journal’s executive career site, says there’s room for optimism. ‘It’s clear that the job market is improving after a very spotty year, which is great news for people who decide to look for new employment,’ Tony says. ‘Hiring activity for some of the 8.7 million unemployed people in this country will be boosted’. However, unemployment figures released in December by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the US Department of Labor were only slightly encouraging. The unemployment rate, at 5.7 percent, was continuing its downward trend. What the unemployment statistics didn’t show were the additional 1.1 million Americans who are not in the workforce because of school or family responsibilities or the 433,000 Americans who have stopped applying for jobs because they believe there are no jobs for them.

John Petrik, dean of Career Services for Young Graduates, agrees that the improved economy is a good sign, but he’s still cautious about employment opportunities for graduates. ‘The job market is lagging. It is harder now to break into the job market, but I think it will come back’.

He advises college students to start thinking about their career options during the last six months of their last year in school, but to aggressively pursue a job during the last 15 weeks. This way, by the time other students get back from their holiday, the successful graduate will have gathered information about the appropriate companies and will have attended several employer job fairs. “It takes a little more creativity and research and persistence to start a job then it did in years past,” he says. “You should start doing your research at least six months before graduating. I know it’s a tough time because you’re doing projects and papers. But the longer you wait, the colder you get. Some students say, ‘I want to wait until the market is better or after I get back from my cruise to Hawaii,’ but that’s not a good idea. You need to show you’re fresh in your field”.

Matt Giles, who wrote the Young Adult’s Guide to a Business Career, had his dream job lined up before he graduated with a bachelor’s degree in finance from the University of Southern Indiana. More than a year later, he still gets e-mails from classmates who have been waiting for the employment market to improve so they can jump ship and who are still trying to break into their chosen fields. He, in the meantime, has been promoted to a better position.

Matt, who is a living example of how to best use your time in college, wrote his how-to book while a senior in college. By that time he had already had two business internships. What Matt did was to call a company he was interested in and ask to talk to someone who had the type of job he was interested in doing some day. “I’d say, ‘I have a year and a half before graduation, and I’m thinking about what I want to do’”. He’d then ask them if he could come in and talk to them about their position. “No one said, ‘No,’” he says. Once he got in the door, Matt didn’t care what their answers were. He’d tell them he thought that position sounded interesting and asked whether their company had any internships or co-op programs, which allow a student to attend school and be paid for working in an intern capacity. According to Matt, he now had a foot in the door and was a face they knew as opposed to just a name on a resume. That tactic earned him internships. “Real world experience is more important to future employers than your degree,” Matt says. “At my interview with Old National Bank, I was sitting there and the interviewer mentioned that I was the fifteenth graduate she had interviewed and the only one who had experience with a similar company. There was no question I would get the job”. He started as a registered brokerage operations specialist and has since got a promotion as an investment consultant. His tip to college students? “If you wait until you graduate to look for a job, you’ve waited too long”.

(adapted from the Internet, https://gateway.proquest.com, the cover story of Kathleen Isaacson

published in the periodical “Women in Business”)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Choose the correct answer, a, b or c:

1. It is advisable for college seniors to look for jobs before they graduate because

a. they will have family responsibilities later on

b. it now takes more to find a good job

c. there are no jobs for them

2. Which is the sign of the improved job market?

a. there are more Americans eager to join the work force

b. the unemployment rate is falling

c. graduates can now choose a field they like

3. According to John Petrik, in order to find a good job you need to be:

a. patient

b. fresh in your field

c. persistent

4. Matt succeeded in finding a good job because:

a. he wrote a book on the subject

b. he knew people from the company

c. he had worked in the field



II. Match the words in column A with their synonyms or definitions from column B:

Example: cautious = not taking risks, careful

spotty new, having just come from a place

appropriate arranged to happen or to be available

fresh good in some parts, but not in all

lined up suitable, correct

III. Choose the appropriate synonym for each meaning of the adjective ‘tough’:

strict / not easily damaged / strong / difficult / not tender

1. They are having a tough race today, trying to break the record.

2. She was a tough manager, asking everyone to obey the rules.

3. I got sick and tired of these movies where the tough guy always beats up the bad guys and saves everyone.

4. She needed to buy a pair of tough, sensible shoes to wear at work.

5. She couldn’t chew the tough meat.

IV. Related Word Groups

Take a look at the following words:

WORK He started work when he was still in college. (job, employment)

She wears nice clothes at work. (place of job)

Hard work is valued.     (effort)

This is a nice work of art.

The works of a machine     (mechanism)

JOB He took a part-time job in the summer. (paid work)

What’s your job here? (task)

PROFESSION - a job that needs special training

TRADE – a job that involves working with your hands

VOCATION – calling

TASK – work that somebody has to do (usually hard work)

CHORE – a task you do regularly

ASSIGNMENT – a task you are given as part of your job/studies

PROJECT – school project, research project

LABOUR – physical work: manual labour/skilled labour

Now put each of the following words in its correct place in the sentences below:

profession / vocation / work / career / job / task / chore / assignment / trade / occupation / position / employment / post

Example: These are some people from work

1. ‘The deadline for your written …………..is June, 8,’ said the Professor.

2. She had on-the-………….. training.

3. He resigned from his…………..

4. She decided to concentrate on her……….., so she didn’t follow him to Africa.

5. I would like to apply for the…………….of assistant manager.

6. He is a blacksmith by………….

7. She has a …………for helping people.

8. She sent her resume to several………..agencies.

9. The customs officer wanted to know my………..

10. The policeman had to perform the unpleasant………of informing the victim’s family.

11. He can’t wish for more; he’s at the top of his………..

12. The child was paid for the small household …………

V. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate words from the box. Some changes in form may be necessary:

pursue / break into / lag / jump ship / release / room

1. There’s always……….for improvement in everybody’s work.

2. The offer they got from the director of the rival company was so good, that they decided to…….

3. …………a new market is always difficult and risky without proper research.

4. He was so tired after the party, that he barely managed to ……….behind his friends on the way

home.

5. He did everything in his power to…………..his final goal, that of having a career in advertising.

6. They…………the book on Christmas and had very good sales.

VI. Read the text below and decide which answer, A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0):

Pam, who is experienced (0) ………… finding temporary and full-time employees for firms, has seen (1) ……… of graduates who think they know what they want, but don’t really understand what a job entails. By doing temp work, students can get a (2) ………… in the door and an opportunity to see if (3) ……. is the type of work they want to do. Pam suggests students work temp jobs while they figure (4) ……. what they want to do next. In the (5) ……….., temp jobs can become full-time positions. Statistics show that about 80 percent of the company’s employees placed in temporary jobs were hired to (6) …… a full-time opening in the same company.

Example:

0. A. at B. into C. of D. in

1. A. lot B. plenty C. most D. many

2. A. foot B. hand C. leg D. arm

3. A. he B. that C. there D. Ø

4. A. off B. on C. out D. in

5. A. period B. time C. while D. meantime

6. A. fill B. appoint C. fulfill D. take

C. Grammar exercises

I. Complete the sentences with the correct verb form:

When I turned 50, several years ago, I noticed that my body (1)……….. (have changed/was changing/had been changed). I (2)………. (mustn’t believe/may not believe/couldn’t believe) how quickly my face was drying out. Nothing I tried (3)……. (seemed/was seeming/have seemed) to work. I was starting to look old. So I (4)…… (was beginning/began/begin) to search for a solution. I founded a nutrition company and for several years I (5)……. (had researched/was researching/have researched) natural products.

II. Complete the sentences with the correct verb form

John has a new secretary, Jane. It’s 4 p.m. now and Jane is telling her boss what she has been doing all day. Put the verbs into the Present Perfect Simple or Continuous, as necessary:

1. I ……. (work) all morning on the paper for the meeting tomorrow.

2. I …. (type) five letters, but I still have some left.

3. I …. (call) Dr. Brown’s office, but I haven’t been able to contact him. I’ll try again later.

4. Someone…….. (come) for the fax machine.

5. He ……. already ……… (order) the materials he needs and he will fix it soon.

D. More exercises

I. Phrasal verbs: GET

Take a look at the following definitions:

get (sth.) across = succeed in communicating sth.

get along/on with sb. = have a friendly relationship

get at = criticize sb. repeatedly

get away = succeed in leaving a place

get away with = do sth. wrong and not be caught

get back at = revenge

get by = manage to live/do sth. with the money/things you have

get down to sth. = begin to do sth. that requires attention/effort

get in = arrive at a place

get into a fight/a habit/trouble

get off = start a journey

get out of = avoid doing sth. you have promised to do/you must do

get over = begin to feel better after an unpleasant event, overcome

get round to sth. = find the time to do sth.

get up = wake up, stand up

Now fill the blanks in the following sentences with phrasal verbs taken from the box. Changes in form may be necessary:

get across / get along with / get at / get away / get away with / get back at / get by / get down to / get in / get off / get out of / get over / get round to / get up

1. He didn’t want to………her although she had hurt his feelings.

2. She………..her illness and returned to work.

3. Although I listened carefully to his speech, I didn’t really…his message …….

4. I’ll be late tonight because I can’t…………..that meeting.

5. Why………you always……….me? I’m not the only one to blame!

6. How do you ……… your new colleagues?

7. He managed to…………..paying only a fine for his wrongdoing.

8. She manages to………on a small salary, although she supports her family.

9. After spending all morning talking on the phone she finally ………..working on that paper.

10. She managed to………from work earlier and did some shopping.

11. What time do you……….from work?

12. I was busy all week, so I couldn’t …………phoning him.

13. They plan to………before sunrise because of the heat.

14. He was so tired after the party that he couldn’t……. .

II. Choose the correct variant, a, b, c or d:

1.They…..to their jobs and are ready to reach a compromise with their investors.

a) have been returning b) had returned

c) have returned d) were returning

2. In June next year they………….in this business for 20 years.

a) will be b) are going to be

c) will have been d) have been

3.She…, that’s why she’s still gasping for breath.

a) has run b) has been running

c) was running d) run

4.I can’t find Mary anywhere. …she… from her holiday yet?

a) didn’t…return b) wasn’t…returning

c) hasn’t…returned d) hasn’t…been returning

5.In May 2003 he…in this company for 10 years.

a) will be working b) will have been working

c) will work d) is going to work

6. She…already two novels when she became known in America as well.

a) wrote b) was going to write

c) had been writing d) had written

7. They ……the conference carefully for several weeks.

a) have prepared b) are preparing

c) are prepared c) were preparing

8. They ……already a new branch in that country when the scandal broke out.

a) have opened b) had opened

c) had been opening d) opened

III. Complete the sentences in the text. Use the appropriate auxiliary or modal:

He wanted to meet her so he dialed her number.

“What (1)……….you doing tonight?”, he asked her.

“Nothing special”, she answered.

“(2) ….you like to have dinner with me?”

“I would be delighted to see you”.

Later on they (3)…….almost finished eating when she got up and said:

“I’ve got to go”.

“What (4)…..you mean?”, I asked.

“My parents (5)……..be very upset if I don’t arrive home on time”.

E. Writing

Descriptions

In examinations you may be asked to write descriptions of people, places or things. Although such assignments may appear easy at first, students find the task difficult sometimes, because there is no story and they must provide interesting details to keep the reader focused on the description. You should use a lot of descriptive adjectives to illustrate distinctive features and avoid the use of common adjectives such as: large, big, interesting, nice. Instead, use words that can add a distinctive personal feature. This is what this student who chose to give a description of fashionable clothes did:

“Grandma’s blouses are back in style, with those gorgeous prints and colour combinations: stripes, bubbles or flowers – the choice is totally yours. We cannot overlook the dress: it has an ultra romantic appearance. The bags and shoes are more coloured than ever, with tons of accessories talking about the ‘flower-power’ era or the ‘elegant urban lady’.

The colour palette is fresh, sweet, romantic, sober, playful and calm. Every personality can benefit from this chromatic joy. You can wear turquoise, black and orange, apple green or raspberry red, powerful pink and delightful baby blue, brown and lilac, any shade of grey and ultramarine blue in the same season. Fashion has never been freer than it is today!”

You need to structure your description. For example, if you are asked to describe a person, you should consider giving details about where you first met that person, about the person’s general physical appearance, character and personal qualities and should end with final comments or with revealing your feelings now about that first meeting.

Remember to include your reactions to make your description more interesting. This is how a student showed how she felt about her English teacher in high school:

“When I was in high school, I couldn’t answer a ‘yes/no question’. I always had to say ‘it depends…’

My English teacher was the one who taught me I couldn’t live happily without knowing how to answer such a question…He told me that if you have the courage to say a firm ‘yes’ or ‘no’, you’ll have the courage to do anything. Everything”.

This is an example of the description of a house:

The House of My Dreams

Setting the scene

location

Development

My dream house has to be Italian-style, and it would be absolutely marvelous if it was placed in the south of Italy or France, or perhaps an island. I would definitely want it to be huge, but not too tall, so as not to seem old and manor-like. I would like it to have a lot of forged metal handles of incredible detail all around, and an interesting design, with rooms spread out intelligently, rather than grouped around a hallway with doors.

feelings

amenities

The living room would have to be large, with a fireplace, and decorated in a detailed, yet simple way. I despise houses that seem overstocked with antiques or cut and pasted from a science-fiction movie. I would like my house to have all the modern amenities. For example, the fireplace would have to be remote-controlled. And I must have the option of playing music all over the house.

Details

The bedrooms would have large windows, for I enjoy great views a lot, and they would have to be extremely ravishing. The walls would be sturdy, dressed in wood, but rather modern, and the carpets and chairs would have to be soft, inviting and cozy.

special attractions

The pool would have an ocean view and be crystal clear blue. It would be better if it was somewhat similar to the house design, and created like a pond, therefore not modern-like and impersonal.

Conclusion

humorous ending

I can see and touch this house in my dreams. Oh, the parties and the afterparty recoveries I’d have in such a dream house!

Practice

Write your answers in 120-180 words in an appropriate style:

1. Describe your favourite place in your city.

2. Imagine you are in a restaurant on New Year’s Eve. Describe what you see.

3. Describe the person who has had the greatest influence in your life.

4. Describe your favourite object in your room.

UNIT IV

PROMOTION

Promotion is communication that is intended to inform, persuade, or remind an organisation's target markets of the organisation or its products. The promotion with which we are most familiar - advertising - is intended to inform, persuade, or remind us to buy particular products. But there is more to promotion than advertising, and it is used for other purposes as well. For example, charities use promotion to inform us of their need for donations, to persuade us to give, and to remind us to do so in case we have forgotten.

(1) Promotion is aimed at facilitating exchanges directly or indirectly by informing individuals, groups, or organizations and influencing them to accept a firm's products. To expedite exchanges directly, marketers convey information about a firm's goods, services, and ideas to particular market segments.

To bring about exchanges indirectly, marketers address interest groups, regulatory agencies, investors, and the general public concerning a company and its products.

Marketers frequently design promotional communications, such as advertisements, for specific groups, although some may be directed at wider audiences.

(2) Marketers can use several promotional methods to communicate their message to individuals, groups, and organizations.

Advertising, personal selling, publicity, and sales promotion are four major elements in an organization's promotion mix.

Advertising is a paid, non personal message communicated to a selected audience through a mass medium.

Personal selling is personal communication aimed at informing customers and persuading them to buy a firm's products.

Sale's promotion is the use of activities or materials to create direct inducements to customers or sales persons.

Publicity is a non personal message delivered in news-story form through a mass medium, free of charge.

(3) Depending on its purpose and message, advertising may be classified into three groups. Selective advertising promotes specific brands of products and services. Institutional advertising is image-building advertising for a firm. And primary-demand advertising is industry (rather than brand advertising).

(4) The advertising media are the various forms of communication through which advertising reaches its audience. They include newspapers, magazines, television, radio, direct mail, and outdoor displays.

The print media - which include newspapers, magazines, direct mail and billboards - account for more than 50 per cent of advertising expenditures. The electronic media - television and radio - account for about 28 per cent.

(Adapted from 'Business', William M. Pride (Texas A&M University); Robert J.Hughes (Dallas

County Community College); Jack R. Kapoor (College of Du Page); 1991, Houghton Miffflin

company, Boston

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. In the text above there are four paragraphs. Choose a title for each paragraph from the ones given below.

A. The Promotion Mix.

B. Advertising Media

C. The Role of Promotion.

D. Types of Advertising by Purpose.

II. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

1. Promotion has the role of facilitating only indirect exchanges.

2. Advertising is the best known type of promotion.

3. Personal selling can be viewed as a form of communication that addresses the public at large.

4. Selective advertising is meant to sell a specific brand.

5. Newspaper advertising is the most used form of advertising due to its relative low cost compressed to other forms of advertising.

III. Match the words in the left column with their synonyms from the right column.

1. frequently a. know

2. make it easy b. convince

3. be familiar with c. often

4. persuade d. facilitate

IV. Fill the blanks with the words given below, so as to form meaningful sentences.

different / be able / some / magazine / can / information / organ / you / will / several / be used / story

Like a reporter, never begin with predetermined idea about the length of the . . Find out everything you , since you must have complete before you condense it - and news people won' later to ask you questions you never anticipated (which they ). In doing so you may find that have accumulated information for not one but stories. You may find that, with a emphasis, the story you have researched may by the newspaper, the local chamber of commerce , an industry publication, and your company's own house .

V. Read the text below and choose the best word A, B, C or D that fits each space.

THE MEDAL OF HONOUR

The Medal of Honor is the (1) … military award for bravery that can be (2) … any individual in the United States. The Medal of Honor is (3) … in the name of Congress to a person who, (4) … a member of the armed forces, (5) … himself or herself conspicuously by gallantry and (6) … at the risk of life above and (7)…the call of duty while engaged in an (8) … against any enemy of the United States; (9) … engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign (10)… ; or while serving with friendly foreign forces (11) … in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a (12) … party.

1. A. highest B. high C. known D. important

2. A. taken to B. asked by C. given to D. wanted

3. A. decorated B. awarded C. given D. donated

4. A. whereas B. because C. while D. during

5. A. boasts B. distinguishes C. fights D. knows

6. A. intrepidity B. fear C. cowardice D. interest

7. A. above B. next to C. over D. beyond

8. A. action B. activity C. fight D. issue

9. A. during B. while C. whereas D. however

10. A. country B. army C. force D. foe

11. A. engaged B. involved C. got D. implied

12. A. involved B. fighting C. belligerent D. important

VI. Match the words in column A with their synonyms in column B.

1 quest a help

2 aid b blinding

3 clue c awkward; unskillful

4 dazzling d search

5 maladroit e hint, lead

B. Grammar

I. Phrasal verb: bring

bring about: cause something to happen

bring back: return something.

bring down: a. bring somebody. down- (in football) cause sb. to fall down by fouling him; b. bring

something down - land a plane

bring somebody in: arrest, bring sb. to the police station for questioning

bring somebody round: to cause to regain consciousness

bring somebody up: educate

Countable and Uncountable Nouns. Plural of Nouns.

Countable Nouns are nouns that can be counted, therefore they have both singular and plural forms.

e.g. a house two houses

a school two schools

a box two boxes

a magazine two magazines

Uncountable Nouns are nouns that have no plural form and therefore they cannot be counted. Most of them refer to a whole that is made up of different parts(furniture, knowledge, equipment).

e.g. water, sugar, wine ,flour, beer, tea, knowledge, literature, music, money, sadness, etc.

Because we cannot count them in themselves we need ways of counting them, measures, units, etc.

For nouns that can be weighed we use: a kilo, a pound, a gallon ,a glass, a cup, a pint, a packet etc..

e.g. a kilo of flour/sugar/milk/water; a glass of wine, a pint of beer, a cup of coffee, a packet of washing

powder. Nouns that refer to a whole that is made up of different parts receive the following determinatives: a piece of, an item of, some.

Some common uncountable nouns

WHOLE GROUPS MADE UP OF SIMILAR ITEMS: baggage, clothing, equipment,

food, fruit, furniture, garbage, hardware, jewelry, junk, luggage, machinery, mail,

makeup, machinery money/cash/change, postage, scenery, traffic

FLUIDS: water, milk, wine, tea, beer, etc

SOLIDS: ice, bread, butter, meat, gold, silver, glass, paper, cotton, wood, wool, etc.

GASES: air, steam, smoke, nitrogen, pollution

PARTICLES: rice, corn ,dirt, dust, flour, pepper, salt, sand, sugar, etc.

ABSTRACTIONS:

- beauty, confidence, education, happiness, health, hospitality, honesty, intelligence,

sleep, truth, etc.

- advice, information, news, evidence, proof

- time, space, energy

- work, homework

- grammar, vocabulary

LANGUAGES: English, French, Chinese, etc.

FIELDS OF STUDY (subjects); chemistry, mathematics, literature, etc

RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES: tennis, chess, bridge, etc.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES: driving, swimming, travelling, walking, etc.

NATURAL PHENOMENA: weather, dew, fog, hail, lightning, snow, etc.

C. More exercises

I. Mark the nouns in the sentences below with C for countable nouns and NC for uncountable nouns:

1. I have some cents, nickels and quarters in my pocket. In other words, I have some money in my pocket.

2. Marie likes to wear jewelry. She usually wears two rings, a necklace and a bangle.

3. We enjoyed our trip a lot. The scenery was great. There were beautiful mountain lakes, forests and wonderful wild flowers.

4. Nick has black hair and blue eyes.

5. In our country we have showers, thunderstorms, hail, thunder and lightning in summer.

6. We are very glad that you got married and we wish you all the happiness in the world.

7. Helen has very good marks at English and chemistry.

8. Snakes like to bask in the sunshine.

9. We had meat, cabbage, potatoes, salad and rice for dinner.

II. Select the correct answer:

1. ‘What will you have?’

‘I’ll have … .’

A. a beer B. beer

2. I’ve read an article about French … .

A. cheese B. cheeses

3. ‘We’ve run out of bread. Will you buy some on your way home?’

‘Of course. How much bread do we need?’

‘ I think we need two … .’

A. breads B. loaves

4. In summer, when it is very hot outside I enjoy eating …, especially if it’s strawberry.

A. an ice B. ice

5. It is said that is in the eyes of the beholder.

A. beauty B. the beauty

III.Circle the correct answer.

1. The charity committee is formed of five (women / womans).

2. When I was at home I used to help my mother washing the (dishis / dishes).

3. Susan bought two beautiful linen (table-cloths / tables-cloth).

4. Mark always wears fashionable (cloths / clothes).

5. The storm that hit the city last night produced a lot of (damage / damages).

6. The people who were insured could ask for (damage / damages) from the insurance company.

7. When you enter a country you have to pass through (custom / customs).

8. Both of her sons are (fire-fighters / fires-fighters).

9. He attended a school for (animals trainers / animal trainers).

IV. Underline the plural in the text below.

Comparative advertising is now common among manufacturers of deodorants, toothpaste, butter, tires, and automobiles. Comparisons are often based on the outcome of surveys or research studies. Though competing firms act as effective watchdogs against each other's advertising claims, and regulations on comparative advertising are stringent, a certain sophistication on the consumer's part concerning claims based on 'scientific studies' and various statistical manipulations is worth cultivating.

V. Complete the sentences with a few, (very) few, a little, (very) little.

1. Do you have minutes? I'd like to ask you a few questions.

2. 'This stew doesn't taste too good'.

' I think it'll taste better if you add salt in it.'

3. The professor lectured very clearly. As a result, students had questions to ask.

4. Because the family is poor, the children have clothes.

5. Maria visited Rome months ago.

6. I was thirsty, so I drank water.

7. Julie has trouble adjusting to her class. she doesn't like her coleagues too much and so she has very friends.

8. Mary has problems with her blood pressure so she add salt to her food.

9. She enjoys listening to music before she goes to bed.

10. We have free days left and we're planning to spend them at the seaside.

VI .Some (but not all) of the following sentences contain an error. Find and correct the errors.

1. It's important for every students to attend classes.

2. Spain is one of the country I'd like to visit.

3. I gave a present to each women in the room.

4. I have read every one of these books.

5. I gave a flower to each of the woman in the room.

6. I found each of the error in this exercise.

7. The teacher gave a test paper to each student.

C. Writing

Formal Letters

The Address. Write the name and the address of the person or company you are writing to in the left

hand corner of the letter, below the date.

Write your address and date in the top right hand corner of the letter. Leave an equal margin on the left and right sides.

The Salutation. Write Dear…, next to the left hand margin. If you know the name of the person write it, if not write Dear Sir or Madam,. In both cases the salutation is followed by a comma.

The Body. The body is formed of the Introduction, the Purpose and the Conclusion.

Use separate paragraphs for each component of the letter body. The paragraphs can by indented or in block style.

The Subscription. End your letter with Yours faithfully, or Yours sincerely .If you begin your letter with Dear Mr. …, you should end the letter with Yours sincerely. If you begin the letter with Dear Sir or Madam, you should end the letter with Yours faithfully,. Both salutations are followed by a comma.

The salutation is written in the bottom left hand corner of the letter. Never use contracted forms in a formal letter.

Types of Formal Letters. There are several types of formal letters. The most used ones are: letter of

a. application

b. apology

c. complaint

d. enquiry

e. opinion

a. The letter of application. In the introduction you should make it clear which job you are applying for and where you have heard about it. In the purpose write all the necessary details about yourself, your skills, and why you think that you are very fit for this job. It is also advisable to mention when you could be available for an interview. Use a new paragraph for each main topic.

Some words and expressions that can be used:

I read in the newspaper/I read the ad/I am interested in the advertisement… and I would like to apply for the position/post of …

I am … years of age and I have a Diploma/Degree in …

b. Explain the reason why you are apologising and offer to make up in some way.

Some useful words and expressions:

I would like to apologise for…

The reason I missed the …/I couldn’t come to/attend the…

42

I am writing to apologise for …

c. State the object of your complaint in the first paragraph and give all the details in the next ones. Try to be clear and factual, do not be rude.

Useful words and expressions:

I am writing to complain…

I would like to inform you that…

I am very dissatisfied with …

d. Use the first paragraph to explain what kind of information you need.

Useful words and expressions:

I am writing to enquire about …

I read your article about … and I am interested in …

I would be grateful if you could send me details about …

e. After introducing the topic, give details of any letter, article, book, etc. you are interested in and give your opinion.

Useful words and details:

I was interested to read the article …

I was amused/ interested/delighted/impressed/touched/moved by …

Example of a letter of application.

JOB OFFER. “English speakers wanted! Part-time staff needed to greet groups of English tourists on their arrival at the airport and provide information and assistance. Good knowledge of the city and good communication skills in English required. Experience of working with people would be an advantage. Please apply in writing to

Director Reynolds, City Tourist Office.”

31Church St.

Bucharest

th July 2004

The Director

The City Tourist Office

Victoria Ave.

Bucharest

Dear Mr. Reynolds,

I am interested in applying for the tour operator position recently advertised in the local newspaper. The skills I have developed from my academic background and my work experience support my strong interest in public relations and tourism.

As you can see from my resume, the internship I had with “Events” agency provided an opportunity for me to gain practical experience in the PR field: my responsibilities were to greet the special guests and the press representatives at conferences, seminars and exhibitions organized by the agency. In addition, I have worked as a part-time guide for European students groups, for the past two years, at “RoTour”, in Bucharest. I have also accompanied some groups in Great Britain and I managed to do quite a good job as a guide. I have always been very interested in English history and geography. I am a student at the Faculty of Communication and Public Relations, David Ogilvy in Bucharest. My knowledge of English is quite good and I have a Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English, Grade A.

As I decided to pursue a career in tourism and also to improve and keep up with my English I think that the job that you offer would be the best option . The strides your company has taken in tourism marketing, namely the development of local tourism, by improving the image of Bucharest in foreign countries, has turned “City Tourist Office” into a leader in the tourist industry.

I would be happy to come to an interview at a date that is convenient to you and I hope that I will be considered fit for the job. If you want to contact me you can reach me a the following phone number: 0723 341277.

I am looking forward to hearing from you,

Yours sincerely,

Diana Nicolae

Practice

I. You have flown form Bucharest to New York and when you arrive there you find out that your luggage is not there. Write a letter of complaint (of about 150 words) to the Baggage Reclaim Office asking for information about your luggage and saying that if they don’t find your luggage you’ll ask for financial compensation.

II. Write to an English publishing firm asking for their latest catalogue.

UNIT V

MODERN CONDUCT IN 21st CENTURY EUROPE

Europe is growing in unison. The Euro is not the only unifying measure considered as such by the EU. Some might believe that European conduct must also be unified, some other people, such as Inger Wolf, consider the opposite. Respect for each and every one of us is one of the basic elements towards having a pleasant manner, it also implies respect for the customs and manners of all. The most important thing is to know to what extent foreign manners should be adopted. In order to be able to do this one might accept the fact that differences do exist. This may help us put ourselves into other people's shoes before taking the right decision.

Differences in behaviour are not only important for Europeans. All over the world, both minor and major differences concerning behaviour are considered to be of essential value. One small example concerning greetings by non-Europeans can be seen in Japan, where it is still customary to see the Japanese greeting each other by bowing. The inclination we see today is not as low as it used to be in Europe. However, it is based on hierarchy since a low ranking employee will have to bow lower than his superior and not before his superior has initiated the process. This ritual is difficult for Europeans to adopt, especially when rank is not clearly defined. On the other hand, it is very difficult for a Japanese to understand why a complete stranger should greet someone by touching their hands.

Adopting the form others use to greet is a basic step forward towards improving relationships, but it is not the only one. It is, however, fundamental for the development of both national and international relationships, and apparently, by not doing so many misunderstandings have occurred even within Europe. If we do so, the much talked about 'multicultural society' can move on from being just a worthless concept to being a valuable term that is full of life if we are willing to make this happen. Traditions, religious influence, morale, hierarchy, structures and the values, which are apparent in each country, lead to the manners of the nation as a whole. No one can doubt that these factors decisively condition behaviour, expectations and the feelings of the people.

In order to find differences concerning punctuality, one need not travel around the world. There are

many differences within Europe itself. What we can be certain of, however, is that nobody, especially in the business world, likes to have to suffer long delays. Nevertheless, the people of countries such as Spain, Greece, Italy, Poland, Austria, Russia and France are far more inclined to put up with small delays than the people of countries like Switzerland, Finland, Great Britain, Holland, Sweden, Hungary or Germany.

It is also very important to know how to address people. In Germany, as in many other European countries, when we address someone we use Mr. or Mrs. in front of that person's surname, whereas in Spain, France and Italy one can simply address that person with the words 'Mr.' or 'Mrs.' without any surname. Some customs are beginning to disappear, but still, in Inger Wolf's opinion, it is very difficult to foresee the future of manners and , more than that, he thinks that complete and total unity in as far as customs and the ways different feelings are expressed as well as how we show preference and dislike can never take place. Just as each person's mentality should be acknowledged, so should the mentality of each nation. European countries are aware of the differences in conduct, as they are of the unification they wish to reinforce upon the union by adopting different customs and making one unite code of conduct for all. Despite the changes that a great number of the rules of etiquette are going through, etiquette is only one small part of this new code.

(Adapted from ‘Differences Concerning Modern Conduct in 21st Century Europe’, Inger Wolf, IV

Congreso Internacional de Protocolo, 5,16 and 17 November 2001)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1. All the people from the European Union countries consider that differences in conduct should disappear as Europe is growing in unison.

2. The Japanese bow lower than the Europeans used to.

3. When speaking about the manners of a nation one should have in view its traditions, religion, morale, structures and values.

4. Inger Wolf considers that it is difficult to achieve a unity of manners.

II. Match the words in column A with their synonyms in column B.

A B

1. conduct a. speak, talk

2. extent b. fundamental

3. bow c. class, place

4. rank d. length

5. basic e. behaviour

6. address f. stoop

III. Match the words in column A with their antonyms in column B.

A B

1. worthless a. unimportant

2. pleasant b. valuable

3. unite c. undo

4. important d. unpleasant

5. do e. divide

IV. Fill in the blanks using the words given n Exercises II and III.

1. The carpet was badly stained, to such an that that you couldn't tell its original colours.

2. These facts are to an understanding of the case.

3. He owns one of the most collections of paintings.

4. They judge decided to release the prisoner early because of good .

5. He low not to hit his head on the low beam.

6. People like her a lot, especially because of her smile.

B. Grammar exercises

I. Fill the blanks with the definite, indefinite or zero article.

1. My neighbour is … hair stylist: let’s ask him for … about your hair.

2. We had .. soup, … fish and … chips for lunch.

3. Your travel agent gave us all … information you need about … hotels in our resort.

4. Mary was very tired, so she went to …bed quite early.

5. … person who suffers from … claustrophobia has .. dread of being confined in … small spaces.

5. How would you like to pay, by … check or … cash?

6. Do you take .. sugar and … milk in your coffee?

7. I’d love to go … university to listen to … lecture given by … professor Smith, but I have … meeting tonight.

8. We went to …hospital to visit Michael who was operated yesterday.

9. He got … good job. He told me they promised him … hundred … week.

10. On … Sundays I love to stay in … bed, drink … cup of … coffee and read … Sunday papers.

II. Identify and correct the mistakes in the sentences below.

1. Helen is vegetarian, she doesn’t eat a meat.

2. She went to the supermarket to buy a sugar, an loaf of bread and some coffee.

3. I have some money left: let’s have the dinner in a restaurant

4. Mike wants to become doctor.

III. Fill the blank spaces with the necessary article.

a). After (1) … awful accident he had (2) … last month, he spent (3) …month in (4) … hospital. He had (5) … room which had (6) … visitor’s bed in it, so his wife was able to spend (7) … lot of (8) …. time with him at (9) …hospital.

b.) We don’t go to (1) … cinema as often as we used to, because (2) … most of (3) … films that are made these days are so poor that they are not worth (4) … price of (5) … ticket, never mind (6) … trouble of getting there.

C. More exercises

I. Fill the blanks with the definite article (the) or zero article (no article).

1. When … Titanic was crossing … Atlantis she struck an iceberg. … captain ordered … crew to help … passengers into … boats.

2. He is a famous swimmer. He became known when he crossed … English Channel.

3. … Washington D.C. is … capital of … United States.

4. The best time to visit … Egypt is in … autumn.

5. We agreed to wait for him at … Victoria Station.

6. People say that you can buy almost everything at … Harrod’s.

7. She enjoys shopping from … Body Shop.

8. One of … oldest theatres in … London is … Globe.

II. Underline the correct form:

In (1. a/the/-) hot railway carriage there are two small girls and (2 a/the/-) small boy in (3. a/the) care of their aunt, and (4. a/the/-) bachelor who is sitting as far away from them as possible. (5-/The/-) children are bored with (6. a/ the/-) journey, and are consequently troublesome. Most of (7. a/the/-) remarks begin with “Why?’.(8. A/The?-) aunt tries to interest them by telling (9. a/the/-) story about (10. a/the/-) little girl who was god, and made friends with everyone on account of her goodness, and was finally saved from (11.a/the/-) mad bull by (12. a/the/-) number of rescuers who admired her goodness.

III. Identify and correct the mistakes in the sentences below..

1. This are some of the books I bought.

2. You’ve been telling me these for a long time. I don’t want to hear it any more.

3. Peter refused to go to those restaurant as he says it is very cheap.

4. I don’t like to say that, but I think you’re lying.

IV. Choose the correct form of the pronoun.

1. He cannot afford … to buy a new car.

A. - B. himself

2. Maria and Tom are very good friends. They help … when they have a project.

A. each others B. each other

3. She is very independent and she boasts that she can look after … .

A. herself B. her

4. He convinced … that he was right.

A. them B. themselves

5. I’m glad you managed to come to the party and I hope you enjoy … .

A. your B. yourself

V. Choose the correct answer; only one answer is correct.

1. This is the book … he pretends it’s his.

A. who B. that C. whom

2. … of these film would you like to see again?

A. What B. Which C. Who

3. … toy is this?

A. Whom B. To whom C. Whose

4. … do I have to address the letter?

A. To whom B. Whom C. Who

5. The teacher wanted to know … broke the window.

A. who B. which C. that

6. I want you to know that I will always remember … you did for me.

A. which B. what C. that

VI. Fill the blanks with appropriate particle of the phrasal verb make.

1. How did he make … while his wife was away.

2. He made … a cheque on her name.

3. Mary told me that Helen had made … the whole story.

4. Although the policeman made …he burglar, the burglar managed to make … the stolen jewels.

5. What a strange person she is. I can’t make her … .

D. Writing

Reports (1)

A report is a spoken or written account of something heard, seen, done, studied, etc.

If you write a report in English you have to take care to be very concise, practical and business-like.

The sentences should be clear, factual and contain only the necessary and relevant information. The report usually has the following parts:

Heading. You can begin the report with a heading or address it to a particular person or group, department, as you do in the case of a memo.

Introduction. You introduce the topic, stating what the report is about and where you gathered your information from.

Body. Contains the report in itself. You should divide the report into paragraphs that deal with the separate issues dealt with. You can give a subheading for each separate paragraph, or you can number them. It is a good point to quote people’s opinions, to show that you have thoroughly studied the topic. You can also mention negative points, report an impression. Try to avoid using the first person, rendering the report impersonal (e.g. use the personal pronoun it ).

Conclusion. The conclusion gives a summary of the matter under discussion. You can also give advice or recommendations, if you feel that it is necessary.

Useful words and expressions:

In order to prepare this report I interviewed/visited/spoke with/studied….

It appears that …

The majority of the people I interviewed think/consider …

According to … (use reported speech)

In general

Summing up/to sum up, in conclusion

In my opinion …

I think …

I would recommend….

Here is an example of a report

Heading

ACTIVE SPORTS CENTRE

Introduction

The purpose of this report is to assess the suitability of the “active Sports Center” as a possible future training base for the Dolphins Swimming Club”.

Body

Active Sports Center” is conveniently located, next to the airport. It is easily accessible by private transportation from most parts of the city and has ample free parking. Buses run between the sports center and the city center every half an hour, from 6 am to 11 pm.

Active Sports Center” offers an excellent range of facilities. The swimming pool is of Olympic size and is fully heated. It had a large spectator area and changing room with ample locker space and showers. The center also has a large, well- equipped gym. According to some of the people who come to this center, a bad point would be the fact that it has no cafeteria and there are no restaurants within walking distance. So, if you want to spend more hours there you have to bring your own packet lunch.

The pool can be available for sole use by the club on weekday mornings from 7 am to 8 am or on Monday and Wednesday nights after 9 pm. There is also the possibility of booking the pool for galas on occasional Saturday evenings. The gym is available from 8 am to 10 pm everyday. The cost of hiring the pool at special club rates is $ 200 per hour, compared to the $ 150 currently paid by the club to the City Baths.

Conclusion

On the basis of the points mentioned above, I consider that the “Active Sports Center” can be used for training the members of the “Dolphins Swimming Club”. Most important is the fact that it has an excellent meters pool of type used in top level competitions. The slight increase in the cost of hiring the pool is acceptable, in view of the fact that charges at the City Baths are due for revision in a month.

Alternative heading:

From: Maria Popa, assistant manager

To: Mr. Steve Johnson, World Travel Agency

Subject: Active Sports Center

Date: 17th April 1999

Practice

I. You have been asked by the Administrative Director to study situation of student accommodation in the campus: places available, the state of the dormitories, etc. Write a report of about 180 –200 words.

II. Your English pen friend is doing project on ways of spending the free time by the young generation in a foreign city and he has chosen yours. Write a report of about 200 words giving him all the necessary information about the clubs in your city.

UNIT VI

CASE STUDY

Read this text presenting a case study on rebranding the Hong Kong Post:

The importance of keeping staff on-board during a major identity change can never be underestimated. The Hong Kong Post Office learnt this when it went through its rebranding in 1997.

Staff morale or retention was not the main reason for making the changes. The Post Office, which was established there in 1841, had a very low labour turnover. Most staff tended to see it as a job for life, with postmen being well respected in the colony, as it was at the time.

One of the Post Office’s missions was to have ‘a highly motivated, satisfied and valued workforce’. But the main reason for the change was to get away from its image as being bureaucratic and to focus on customer friendliness.

Enterprise IG’s Hong Kong office was appointed to come up with a new name and identity and to manage the process of change. The naming was fairly straightforward – Hong Kong Post is punchier and did away with the archaic ‘office’. The rather British red and blue colours were dropped in favour of purple and green; and the old-fashioned stamp-like symbol was replaced with that of a hummingbird.

Given the amount of contact that its staff had with customers – in more than 100 branches and at every front door – internal communications of the changes should have been at the forefront of the management’s mind.



And while the rebranding was deemed a success, the management admits that in retrospect more effort could have been made to get the staff on board at an earlier stage.

For example, staff training in the new ways of the Post Office was not started until the new identity was unveiled. This meant that although customers could see a difference, they didn’t immediately experience one.

However, much was done during the identity process to include employees. Opinions were sought from staff unions, and perhaps most importantly, staff were consulted on their new uniforms.

More than 2,000 staff wore uniforms, and it was this part of the identity programme which particularly attracted their attention.

Enterprise IG’s uniform designer created a new look which was intended to be professional yet practical. Staff were consulted throughout the process, trying on samples and having their recommendations taken on board. For example, the polo T-shirt was swapped for a shirt, as these were stiffer, held their shape better and had a top pocket for the message cards that the postmen carry.

Since the introduction of the new uniforms, Debora Chatwin, of Enterprise IG in Hong Kong, says that she has spotted a new, younger breed of postal employee pounding the pavement. “Believe me, you can’t miss them now with their distinctive uniforms, which they clearly wear with a great deal of pride.

They’ve got these fabulous Gortex jackets and polar vests, as it does get chilly here in the winter,” she says. “Sure beats the uniforms they used to have which consisted of an itchy blue gabardine trouser made by the Correctional Services Institute! They looked like inmates!”

For the Hong Kong Post’s management, the core objective was to create a customer-oriented image.

However, a beneficial side effect was the improvement in morale and enhanced internal communications.

(Adapted from Dowdy, Clare, ‘Beyond Logos’)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):

1. The image of Hong Kong Post was changed because staff morale was low.

2. The staff were involved in the change from the very beginning.

3. Although a change in image was evident, the change in attitude came later.

4. The staff cared a lot about the way they looked.

5. The author believes that involving the staff in the changes is always beneficial.

II. Match the words in column A with their synonyms or definitions in column B:

morale not high or tall

low having a strong effect because it is clear and short

straightforward easy to understand, not complicated

punchy confidence, enthusiasm

to appoint to consider

to deem to see or notice a person or thing

to spot to choose for a job or position

to enhance to increase the quality or value of

III. Related Word Groups

Look at the definitions of several verbs describing movement:

to pound = to move with noisy steps

to creep = to move slowly, quietly and carefully, so as not to be heard

to limp = to walk slowly and with difficulty because of an injured leg

to stagger = to walk with weak, unsteady steps

to shuffle = to walk slowly without lifting your feet off the ground

Now put each of the following words in its correct place in the sentences below. Some changes in form may be necessary:

to creep / to limp / to pound / to shuffle / to stagger

1. The old woman ………..across the room, stopping from time to time to rest.

2. The thief…………in the room, hoping that no one was there.

3. He drank heavily at the pub and then………..home.

4. The heavy man was………..along the hall, making everyone look around.

5. After the race the trainer noticed that the runner was……….and called the doctor to look at her leg.

IV. Match the words from column A with their definitions from column B:

labour turnover firm, difficult to bend

to swap to give something to somebody and receive something in exchange

stiff a person living in a prison or in a mental hospital

itchy producing an uncomfortable feeling on your skin, making you want to scratch

inmate to think that an amount/size is smaller than it really is

to underestimate the rate at which employees leave a company and are replaced by other people

V. Read the text below and decide which answer, A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0):

Each year, approximately 140 American Advertising Federation affiliated colleges and universities participate in an annual ‘rite of passage’ for students interested (0)…….advertising. The National Student Advertising Competition is the most prestigious, difficult and comprehensive (1)………..all student advertising competitions. Winners at the 15 AAF regional competitions compete at ‘Nationals’ for the first place …………..(2). (3)………..teams solve a case study developed by the client. The judges include (4)…………….persons from the sponsoring company as well (5)…………advertising agencies and the media. They are constantly amazed (6)……….the quality of student presentations. Moreover, AAF-sponsoring clients (7)……..use the students’ ideas and may even (8)…………..some team members.

Example:

0. A. of B. in C. about D. for

1. A. of B. for C. into D. from

2. A. diploma B. prize C. gift D. certificate

3. A. Competitive B. Contestant C. Competing D. Competitor

4. A. successfully B. distinguished C. respectful D. distinguishable

5. A. of B. from C. as D. in

6. A. at B. with C. in D. of

7. A. currently B. at present C. presently D. actually

8. A. fire B. appoint C. discharge D. hire

B. More exercises

I. Decide whether the underlined nouns in this text should have a plural form. If you think a plural form is necessary, write it on the line. If a change in form is not necessary, write OK on the line:

(1) Esperanto seems perfect for a modern (2) age, when global (3) barrier are being torn down by free (4) trade, immigration and the Internet. Three quarters of the (5) word are from Romance languages and the rest from Slavic, Greek and Germanic (6) tongue. Unlike that other global (7) language, Esperanto puts everyone on a level playing field; native English (8) speaker make up only 10 percent of the world population, but they expect everybody else to be as articulate as they are. Esperanto is five (9) time easier to learn than English. As the language’s (10) popularity grew, so did fears.

adapted from ‘Newsweek’, August 11, 2003

(1) _____________ (6)_____________

(2) _____________ (7) _____________

(3) _____________ (8) _____________

(4) _____________ (9) _____________

(5) _____________ (10) ____________

II. Use the correct form of the verb in brackets to fill the blanks in the text:

As family life and work hours around the world ………..(1) (start) to look more American, eating habits are following suit. Family meals ………(2) (be) increasingly quaint traditions rather than daily habits. Teenagers have cars and go to the mall with their friends, where high-fat fast food ……..(3) (beckon). They enjoy the social environment and the chance to select their own food. The rapid spread of supermarkets ……..(4) (change) radically the way kids ………(5) (eat).

(Adapted from Newsweek

III. Choose the correct form to fill the blanks in the text:

A week ago (1) (the police/a police) claimed to have arrested a suspect in one of the (2) . (case/cases). Given the widespread assumption that the police (3) (is/are) incompetent, this has not calmed fears. The Interior Ministry, meanwhile, is getting anxious. With (4) . ( Ø /no) elections on the way in December, police are keen to show they are keeping (5) .(the public/the publics) safe.

IV. Use the correct form of the verb in brackets to fill the blanks in the text:

A. Statistics only (1) (hint) at the depths of the problem, since their rise often (2) ..(reflect) increased reporting of violence rather than an actual rise in attacks.

B. The people of Liberia (1) . (plead) for outside help to stop the chaotic civil war that since June (2) (kill) over 1,000 civilians. The biggest problems (3) (be) money and logistics.

V. Choose the appropriate verb form:

1. Someone is/are asking for Dr. Johnson. Can you see if he’s busy?

2. All students is/are requested to report to the front desk.

3. Each report has/have been checked carefully.

4. Some of the fabric is/are slightly irregular.

5. Each of the books was/were sold to unknown collectors.

6. Some of the toys was/were sent back because they proved to be dangerous to children.

7. One of the reporters was/were injured during the fight between the demonstrators and the police.

8. Both projects has/have been approved.

9. Every caller is/are given a tax-free bonus!

10. ‘Which book do you prefer?’

‘I don’t know, either seems/seem good’.

C. More exercises

I. Phrasal verbs: COME

Take a look at the following definitions:

come back to something = return to a subject

come down (about money, prices) = get lower

come out (of news, the truth) = become known

come round/around = become conscious again

come through (with something) = successfully do sth.

come up = happen

come up with = find or produce an idea, an answer

Now fill the blanks in the following sentences with phrasal verbs taken from the box. Some changes in form may be necessary:

come back to / come down / come out / come round/around / come through / come up /

come up with

1. After a long, exhausting meeting she finally……………a brilliant idea for the project.

2. The price of oil …………….after a maximum was reached last week.

3. The truth ……………..when several more witnesses testified before the jury.

4. She managed to…………with the project after some hard work.

5. You need to come over here. Something…………..!

6. She fainted and was taken to hospital, where she finally………..

7. Now that I covered these aspects, allow me to ………….what I said before.

D. Writing

Reports (2)

Here is one more example of a report:

This is a report a student wrote when she returned from a three-week study trip in Britain:

Heading

TO: Chris Dellay, the principal of the International Business College

FROM: Erin Catrell, student, second year

SUBJECT: study trip in Great Britain

Introduction

This report is intended to point out some aspects related to the study trip I took at the beginning of October.

Subheadings

Giving information

Quoting: ‘said’

Background information

There are many non-governmental organizations that offer students a whole range of study opportunities in colleges from Great Britain and EU countries under the Exchange Scheme. One of these is ‘Open Frontiers’, wishing to establish a strong and fruitful cooperation between participating colleges. Students who want to benefit from the scheme should fill out an application form, as long as they meet the selection criteria.

As most of the students in the program said, the three weeks spent in Britain were very instructive. The accommodation was excellent, in the houses of English families, which gave the students the possibility of becoming acquainted with the English life-style

Passive used

Studying

Classes were held at the ‘Devon Business College’. The teachers are highly professional and experienced. Students were given instant access to information through the search system of the virtual library. It was practically impossible not to be well informed or not to be able to finish a project for lack of information.

Mentioning a negative point

Problems encountered

There was no special study program for foreigners. Consequently, there were not many English classes, a fact that hindered the students from getting in-depth knowledge of English culture. Another weak point of the study program was the fact that no trips were organized. The students hardly had the chance to visit Devon or other parts of the country. This observation was included in the evaluation paper given to students.

Generalizing

Summary

Recommendation

Expressing personal

opinion

Conclusion

On the whole, the students’ assessment of the program is highly favorable.

Under the Exchange Scheme students are given the opportunity of getting into contact with other learning systems, which is always beneficial.

However, in my estimation the organizations in charge of the program should give due consideration to the cultural part of the exchange scheme.

Practice

Write your answers in 120-180 words in an appropriate style:

1. You are in charge of the faculty self-study center which has not received appropriate funding for some time. Write a report to the college principal explaining the problems you have and giving recommendations to improve the services offered to students.

2. An international organization is doing a project on the Romanian school system and has asked students to provide information about their courses, the distance learning system and any other particularities. Write your report.

UNIT VII

PR PRACTITIONERS FOR THE NEW MILLENIUM

What are the characteristics of the highest-ranking public relations professionalism in the coming millennium? Public relations began by drawing its talents from other crafts and professions, mainly journalism but also from advertising, law, sales and politics. PR will also continue to attract recruits from other fields- and will be richer for it. It will be easier for you to learn how to become a fine PR practitioner having studied, for example, medicine, than it will be for you to become a doctor after majoring in public relations at college. If you decide to study for a bachelor's degree in public relations, or a closely related field such as journalism or communications your second degree or course of study should be an alternative field that will enhance your career potential - for example, international affairs, business administration, political science or languages of the countries in which you are interested.

Such study will give an edge to your career. There are many excellent short courses in communications technique and theory which, along with workplace learning, will build on your studies to equip you to be an excellent practitioner.

The person who aspires to reach the pinnacle in international public relations will need to be multitalented, with wide experience, educationally qualified, a skilled communicator, a thoughtful and calculating strategist, technologically proficient, multilingual, avidly interested in current affairs, knowledgeable about political affairs in many countries, respectful of a variety of customs and etiquette, and experienced in working in a number of countries with a spell in general management.

To be technologically proficient means to be computer literate, to have sufficient command of technological developments and permanently keep up with the latest developments in this field.

Proficiency in foreign languages is an advantage, but, at the same time, it is not enough. You have to be able to master a language and also know what to say. When you participate in important business negotiations the best thing is to have an interpreter if you are not very fluent in that language.

It is essential that you keep up with current affairs through regular reading and viewing a selection of media.

Along with keeping abreast with current affairs, it is important that you familiarize yourself with the political structures in all key regions. Although ruling parties and their leaders may come and go, the constitutions and political characteristics of many countries do not change.

Respect for the customs and etiquette of each distinct society, country, nation or religion is essential.

Not only should the customs be learned, but they should also be practiced.

(Adapted from 'How to Manage Your Global Reputation. A guide to the Dynamics of International

Relations', revised and updated paperback edition , Michael Morlay, New York University Press, 2002.)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1. You can become a good PR practitioner only if you have a degree in communication.

2. Being technologically proficient means, among other things, being computer literate.

3. Always have an interpreter with you if you participate in important business negotiations.

4. If you want to be a very good specialist you need experience along with hard work in many fields.

II. Match the words form column A with their synonyms from column B.

A B

1. degree a. contemporary, present

2. skilled b. increase

3. enhance c. top

4. literate d. experienced, trained

5. current e. informed, educated

6. pinnacle f. academic title

Idiomatic expressions:

give somebody the (rough) edge of one's tongue: speak to somebody angrily, rudely, critically

give an edge to something: give a boost to

keep abreast

Reading practice.

THE SECRETS OF AUTISM

Not long ago autism was assumed to be comparatively rare, affecting as few as one in 10,000 people. The latest studies, however, suggest that as many as one in 150 kids age 10 and younger may be affected by autism or related disorders. The problem is five times as common as the Down syndrome and three times as common as juvenile diabetes.

No wonder parents are besieging the offices of psychologists and psychiatrists in their search for remedies. No wonder school systems are adding special aides to help teachers cope. And no wonder public and private research institutions have launched collaborative initiatives aimed at deciphering the complex biology that produces such a dazzling range of disability.

In their urgent quest for answers, parents are provoking what promises to be a scientific revolution. In response to the concerns they are raising, money is finally flowing into autism research, a field that five years ago appeared to be stuck in the stagnant backwaters of neuroscience.

Autism was first described in 1943 by John Hopkins, psychiatrist Leo Kanner, and again in 1944 by Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger. Kanner applied the term to children who were socially withdrawn and preoccupied with routine, who struggled to acquire spoken language yet often possessed intellectual gifts that ruled out the diagnosis of mental retardation. Asperger applied the term to children who were socially maladroit, developed bizarre obsessions and yet were highly verbal and seemingly quite bright. Clues that autism might be related to genes appeared both in Kanner’s and Asperger’s work. Researchers now believe that both Kanner and Asperger described two faces of a very complicated and variable disorder, one that has its source in a kaleidoscope of traits encoded in the human genome. The scientists have come to the conclusion that a number of up to 20 genes may be involved in autism, as it was pointed out in Molecular Psychiatry.

It is not merely possible, but likely that scientists will discover multiple routes – some rare, some common; some purely genetic, some not – that lead to similar end points. A decade from now there will almost certainly be more effective forms of therapeutic intervention, even autism drugs.

(Adapted from TIME magazine, July 15, 2002)

III. Read the questions below and find the correct answer.

1. It is assumed that autism affects young children due to:

A. the way they were treated by their families.

B. the fact that they develop bizarre obsessions.

C. its genetic roots.

2. Autism was first identified by:

A. Asperger.

B. Kanner.

C. Molecular Psychiatry.

3. It is believed that scientists could find a cure of autism in the next decades because

A. of the study of human genes.

B. of non genetic studies.

C. a combination of the two.

4. People are preoccupied with finding a cure for autism because:

A. the number of persons affected by it has dramatically increased.

B. they are interested in the study of the human genes.

C. schools have problems in coping with children affected by this disorder.

B. More exercises.

I. Column A has the first half of a sentence whereas column B contains the other half. Match the two halves so as to form meaningful sentences, linking them with relative pronouns.

A B

1. Take the road … a. went on the tour complained about the guide.

2. The woman … b. I bought for my daughter are too short.

3. He is the man … c. is signposted to Leeds.

4. None of the people … d. sat next to me cried all the time.

5. The jeans … e. I have the greatest admiration.

II. Put commas in the following sentences where necessary. In which of the sentences can the relative pronoun be omitted?

1. A key is a device which is used for locking doors.

2. Predeal which is a mountain resort is famous for its ski slopes.

3. The house in which we lived when I was a child was damaged by the storm.

4. The woman who lives next door has three dogs.

5. Mary who was very curious kept asking questions.

6. An old man, who looked very tired, knocked at the door.

7. The train which leaves from platform 11 is a fast rain.

8. The assistant who sold us the car was very good at his job.

C. Writing

Articles

Articles, like reports discuss a particular topic, but they are aimed at different readers. An article is written for a newspaper or a magazine and is meant to make a certain topic interesting for the readers. It is usually based on an interview, a narration, a description, personal opinion or a combination of these. It should catch the reader’s attention, be captivating and make the reader want to read it. It is important to know the target reader so as to choose the most appropriate style and register.

Structure

The heading. One of the most important steps is that of choosing the heading. Using an eye catching headline might convince the reader to buy the newspaper/magazine in order to read the article. The heading can be a dramatic word or phrase, a summary of the story, a question, a quotation, etc.

The body. Divide the article into paragraphs for different aspects of the story, to help the reader follow your ideas. Begin with an interesting introduction – a quotation, an example, a question, etc.

Adapt the tone of the article to the age and interests of the readers. Use humour if you think it is necessary. You can make the article more lively if you attract the reader into a dialogue with you, giving the impression that the reader is an active participant in the story. Give specific examples, quotations.

Ending. The ending usually contains a general, overall comment and a conclusion. We decided to give as an example an article written by a third year student.

Heading

Studying Successfully: A Beginner’s Guide

Introduction

It’s hard being a new student, but it’s even harder to study for all those exams and you only have a few weeks left. As you want to be of help we thought of giving you some tips on how to study fast and successfully.

Body

We’ll begin with part one of 4.

First of all, you have to think about all the facilities that can help you achieve your goals. You should get to know the school library just as well as you know your best friend. In fact, you should forget about your best friend. There’s no

time for that right now, but keep him/her close as you’ll definitely need a friend in part 2.

Secondly, you should bear in mind that the park of the school campus is the best place for studying, if you are a lover of nature.

Thirdly, you should know that if you need a true friend you’ll find it in the multimedia laboratory, where you can update your knowledge and gain more information at the same time, If these places are already known to you then you’re on the good track . If not, it’s not too late to do something about it.

Part 2 is where your friend comes into action. If you’re lucky you have that someone to really stand by you, then part of your work is done. The first rule of studying successfully is having fun while doing it; and who’s better at keeping entertained than your best friend?

If you’ve got the books and the friend, you are close to the end (of the studying process, of course), All you have to do is to follow two more steps.

Part 3 is about study methods. The best and easiest method is planning ahead and not being stressed by an exam. If you have the guts, you can try the ‘last minute method’.

Don’t worry, you can do anything if you have the three key ingredients: study books, will power and ammo. Not real ammunition, just some unconventional pain killers. They can come in the shape of almonds, peanuts, honey, milk, eggs and green tea. This is what you need to stay in shape and get through those late-night hours of studying.

The ‘last minute method’ is a learning marathon, which can sometimes take up to three whole days without too much sleep. As there is the danger of getting bored, you can try a little trick: change your position regularly. Thus you can study while lying or sitting up in bed, or listening to some music.

Another helping tip is to read diagonally. Don’t read the whole page, just try to focus on the most important ideas. If you can’t learn for a longer period try to take a nap, but for not more than 30 minutes, so that you can keep in good shape.

The last and most pleasant moment is when you finally can stand up, and close your book, but don’t throw it against the wall, you might need it. Don’t just stand there and stare at the wall! Go take a refreshing shower, eat a healthy breakfast, dress appropriately and go to school to face the exam.

You’re ready and most certainly capable to win the battle.

Conclusion

So, to sum up, there are various ways of studying. All you have to do is to choose one of them and tailor it to your needs, Good luck!

UNIT VIII

THE PR CAMPAIGN

Read this text about the PR campaign:

Planning the Campaign

The first task in planning is to clarify the objectives and goals of the PR program. If you have a clear statement of objectives and goals, you will be able to evaluate the success of your campaign because you can measure how close you came to achieving them or by how much you surpassed what you expected.

A clear delineation of publics is something you should be sure of before planning your strategy.

It will give you a key to the tactics you can employ to make your strategy succeed. Part of your strategy is deciding the most effective way to reach each public. What does each public need to know? How is the best way to say it? What would be the most likely way to get that public’s attention? This is where creativity makes the difference – the creative use of words or symbols, an original approach to the medium.

Choosing the Theme and Media

Deciding on the theme may come about in a number of ways – from several persons brainstorming together, from one person’s idea, from the adaptation of someone else’s successful idea.

Whenever a team member asks: “Could I tell you about my idea?” encourage him or her to talk.

Criticism kills creativity. Stimulate people to share ideas – no matter how wild – by encouragement and enthusiasm. A good theme won’t save a poorly executed campaign, and a bad idea won’t be saved by a well-oiled campaign. Remember you can also pretest. Pretesting works for ideas as well as completed materials.

Your choice of media depends on the publics you want to reach, among other things. What is a unique way to reach a special public? What media have not been used before but could be? Someone, after all, was the first to use bumper stickers and skywriting.

The creative use of the media is also important. Cereal companies that began advertising in the comics might have been laughed at by those advertising in women’s pages, but the comic-page advertisers knew who their real consumers were and how to reach them. The PR person has to be careful about the complementary use of advertising and publicity. Advertising is a definite, scheduled event that appears along with whatever planned activities it is designed to promote. Publicity is an indefinite event that cannot be guaranteed to appear but will likely happen if the planned activities are newsmaking enough.

Only people with extra time to spend are exposed to mass media. The more active people are, the less time they spend with mass media. To reach the involved, you need to use specialized publications because that is where people actively seeking information on a subject go. However, if you are aiming at a low involvement, and perhaps just want exposure to an issue, then a mass medium is appropriate, especially one like television, which forces audiences to process information.

Remember, though, that the public you most want to reach might not be there, and the effort or expense may be wasted.

Setting Goals and Timetables

Goal achievement estimates, like timetables, need be no more elaborate than a marked calendar, but it is imperative that the deadlines be realistic. Ask yourself: “What can be achieved within the time periods designed for my goals?” Try to finish work ahead of schedule rather than have to explain why you are behind. It is necessary to retain enough elasticity in the schedule so you can take advantage of opportunities and make changes.

Contingency Planning

Unhappy possibilities always have to be kept in the back of your mind. A PR director will get help in contingency planning from his or her staff. The staff will not only make creative suggestions and come up with good alternative proposals, but they will support the project.

Finally, remember that the director should evaluate accurately and honestly what each individual can best contribute to the project, once it is accepted by management and implementation of the campaign begins.

(Adapted from Newsom, Doug, Scott, Alan, Turk, Vanslike Judy, ‘This is PR’)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Look at the text and find the words which mean the same as:

- to succeed in doing something after trying hard, to accomplish (paragraph 1)

- to be better than, to do something better than somebody else (para. 1)

- a detailed description (para. 2)

- to have the intended result, not fail (para. 2)

- that works very well (para. 3)

- look for, try to get, search for (para. 6)

- correctly (para. 8)

II. Decide whether the following sentences are true (T) or false (F):

1. In order to be effective, you need to be aware of your public.

2. It is better not to consider unreasonable suggestions when designing a campaign.

3. The cereal companies advertising in comics were successful because they identified their public correctly.

4. According to the text the main difference between advertising and publicity is that advertising is highly controlled.

5. If you target businessmen with an interest in your field, you should choose television to promote your products.

6. The text suggests that following an exact schedule is the best way to avoid unpleasant events.

III. Related Word Groups

Compare:

You arrive home, but you arrive at the station or in a city and you arrive at a conclusion/an agreement

You reach a summit (it involves effort) and you reach a decision/settlement

You get to the mall

You achieve an aim

You succeed in doing something

You manage to do something

Now put the following words in their correct place in the sentences below. You may need some words more than once. Some changes in form may be necessary:

arrive / reach / get / achieve / manage

Example: He finally achieved his aim – he broke the Olympic record.

1. The day of the race finally……….and she could prove she was indeed a champion.

2. How do I …..to the stadium from here?

3. After long talks they finally ……….an agreement on the future development of the project.

4. They will………..in Athens after a two-hour flight.

5. They………..to deal with their problems and are ready to work as a team.

6. Has she………in finishing the book on time?

IV. Use the word given in capitals at the end of the line to form a word which fits in the space on the same line:

Example: Public relations involves programming, communication and COMMUNICATE

feedback from the publics affected.

Public relations is essential in today’s complex world. Its practitioners

operate on two distinct levels: as advisers to their clients and as

technicians performing a (1)……………. of functions. MULTIPLE

Today’s generation has an understanding of human (2)………….. BEHAVE

far greater than ever before. Yet, ironically, (3)……………., UNDERSTAND

lack of comprehension and antagonism abound in the world.

Our tools far surpass our (4)…………….to use ABLE

them. Time after time, a crisis or conflict is caused by (5)……… FAIL

to communicate effectively.

(Wilcox, Dennis, Ault, Philip, Agee, Warren , ‘Public Relations Strategy and Tactics’)

V. Read the text below and decide which answer, A, B, C or D best fits each space:

In a much-quoted article that has (1)………the test of time, Hyman and Sheatsley codified the major reasons (2)…………..many information campaigns fail:

I. There are large groups in the population who admit that they have (3)……….or no interest (4)……..public issues.

II. People tend to expose themselves to material that is compatible (5)………….their prior attitudes.

(Cutlip, Scott, Center, Allen, Broom, Glenn, ‘Effective Public Relations’)

1. A. fought B. stood C. sat D. resisted

2. A. which B. of C. why D. for

3. A. a small B. little C. small D. a little

4. A. into B. of C. on D. in

5. A. with B. for C. in D. between

VI. Complete the sentences with the appropriate modal or modal equivalent:

1) A young captain saw the Rebel artillery, but he……….(couldn’t/cannot/needn’t/shouldn’t) get near his own battery to warn his soldiers.

2) He was too sick to be hungry, and he was thirsty in that stuffy room, but he……..(didn’t have to/couldn’t/didn’t need to/cannot) rise from the floor.

3) “I’m sorry, but I …………(can’t/don’t have to/should/could) help you now. I’m sick with the flu and I want to go home and get some sleep”.

4) She finally decided that she’d leave, because there was nothing she ……..(needn’t/could/will/shall not) do for him.

5) One out of every four cases on the police list is closed before a solution ….(can/should/need/must) be found.

B. More exercises

I. Choose the correct answer, a or b, to fill the blanks in the following sentences:

1. ……(a. Will/b. Shall) I help you? I know you must finish the paper until Monday.

2. I (a. can/b. may) read German books now, after all the classes I attended.

3. …..(a. Would/b. May) you be so kind as to tell everyone I’m here?

4. ……(a. Will/b. Need) you write that report as soon as possible? It must be published today.

5. I ……(a. may /b. will) help you with those books, I really want to!

6. ……(a. May/b. Need) I use your book? I left mine back home.

7. If you ……(a. could/b. can) speak fluent Japanese, join our team. You will get the chance to meet new people and travel a lot!

8. ……(a. Would/b. Can) you be so kind as to give John a message? I’m in a hurry, I cannot stay any longer.

9. …….(a. Shall/b. Must) I help you with the project? I really don’t mind, I’ve finished mine.

10. ……(a.Will/b. Shall) you come over some day to see Julie? She’s 2 years old now!

11. I ……(a.will/b. could) be happy to accompany you to the ball.

II. Choose the correct variant, a, b, c or d:

1.Some time ago I……run for ten miles, but now I’m not fit.

a) can b) could c) might d) will

2.You…order books on the Internet, you don’t have to go to a bookstore anymore.

a) need b) must c) can d will

3.She…..walk alone anymore so she called her daughter to help her.

a) shouldn’t b) needn’t c) won’t d) couldn’t

4.“….we visit your aunt today?” “Oh, yes, let’s”.

a) must b) shall c) will d) need

5.You ……….take one of the pens here, look, the notice says you are allowed to.

a) may b) need c) shall d) will

III. Complete the second sentence with the appropriate modal or modal equivalent so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. You may need the negative form of some of the verbs:

Here’s advice on how to avoid counterfeit drugs:

1) It is advisable to buy pills from a reputable source.

You…………buy pills from a reputable source.

2) Remember that your pharmacist is able to give you advice.

Remember that your pharmacist..give you advice.

3) It is forbidden to buy medications from online stores which are not licensed.

You..buy medications from online stores which are not licensed.

4) The law requires you to report counterfeiting to the manufacturer.

You ..report counterfeiting to the manufacturer.

5) If you are not careful, it is probable that you will die.

You.die if you are not careful.

IV. Fill the blanks in the following sentences with words taken from the box. You may need some of

them more than once and you may not use others at all:

to / at / on / over / about / of

1. This ad is aimed…….a younger audience, so we need to be careful about the music we choose.

2. You needn’t be upset about her choice, she just took advantage …….an opportunity.

3. Their well-oiled campaign really contributed……the success of the project.

4. She should have been more careful………the team she chose.

5. They were exposed……..a lot of criticism after they lost the elections.

V. Phrasal verbs: GIVE

Take a look at the following definitions:

give away = give sth. to sb. because you no longer need it/want it

= betray e.g. Her soft voice gives her away: she is afraid of him.

give back = return sth. to the owner

give in = accept defeat, unwillingly agree to sb.’s demands

give off = produce a smell/sound

You give out information to people

give up = stop doing sth.

Consider the following expressions with ‘give’, as well: give (sb.) a smile, give sb. a hand, give sb. A call, give a speech, give sth. a try, give sb. a hard time, not give sth. a second thought

Now fill the blanks in the following sentences with phrasal verbs taken from the box. Changes in form may be necessary:

give away / give back / give in / give off / give out / give up

1. They had an argument and he finally…………because he knew she was right.

2. She convinced him to……………the money to charity because he had not earned it honestly.

3. There was some food in the fridge…………a bad smell.

4. Paul handed her the letter. She read it carefully and then …………it ………….to him.

5. She was not feeling well so she…………smoking some weeks ago.

6. They wanted to promote a new brand so they………….leaflets in the supermarket.

C. Writing

For and Against

In a written examination you may be asked to consider the various aspects of a subject before giving a well-balanced view on it. You should take some time before writing to make a list of pros and cons that will help you organize your essay.

You should begin your essay with a general statement of the problem or with a definition that helps the reader become familiar to the topic. The paragraphs to follow should give the reader the chance to see the two sides of the same coin. Remember to begin a new paragraph when you want to introduce new aspects and to use connectives to link the paragraphs. You should end with weighing up the points outlined in the paragraphs. An overall comment will help the reader come to a decision about the topic as well.

This is the work of a student who was asked to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning:

Introducing the topic

Have you ever considered becoming an e-learner? E-learning is a process in which students and teachers are separated in time and in space and the interchange takes place due to the use of communication vehicles such as the Internet, TV, radio, mail and fax.

Points in favour

Supporting details

Connectives

The biggest advantage of an online course is that your classroom and instructor are (theoretically) available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. You can get announcements, access notes, review assignments, take practice quizzes, discuss questions, chat with fellow students and study any time you want. You make your own schedule, except when you have deadlines for certain projects.

Furthermore, you can study any time you want, with whoever you want, wearing anything you want. Another advantage is that you have a direct pipeline to the instructor via e-mail: you can get your questions answered directly. Many students aren’t comfortable asking questions in class for fear of looking stupid. The Internet can cure that fear.

Points against

Listing reasons

However, there are disadvantages to having interactive courses on the Internet. In the first place, while alphabet and grammar are fairly standardized in every language, in the computer world this couldn’t be further from the truth and

possibly will never happen. Secondly, notebooks are too big and heavy for convenient use; hand-helds have such a small display that they are practically useless for serious studying. Books can be read even in a subway. Last but not least, hands-on or lab work is difficult to simulate in a virtual classroom.

Balancing the

argument

In conclusion, we live in an ever-changing world that is ripe for new developments. The ability to learn new information or a new skill whenever you want and wherever you want offers far greater opportunities for education than ever before.

Practice

Write your answers in 120-180 words in an appropriate style:

1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of living in a city.

2. Which are the advantages/disadvantages of working while still being a student?

3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of studying abroad.

UNIT IX

CAREER TIPS FOR CANDIDATES

Read this text giving some general suggestions for your job search:

Cover Letter Tips

How you write your cover letter is as important as the message it delivers. Your letter is an example of how well you communicate, and effective communication is a key element to finding a job, because employers consider the way in which you express yourself as one way to evaluate and foresee your ability to be successful in the job. (1)……………………………. If necessary, make a phone call, visit the library or use the Internet to find out the name and title of the person who does the hiring. Always remember to sign your letter. If you forget this, the employer may feel like you’ve sent a form letter.

How to Prepare for a Job Interview

You may not find this very easy, but you must get as much key information as you can about the company, its products and its customers. (2)………………………… There might be other sources of information on the Web, especially if the company is publicly traded. We can guarantee that you will make a good impression at your interview by doing a little homework beforehand.

Job Interview Types

There are different types of job interviews in which you may participate during the hiring process:

A screening interview is meant to weed out unqualified candidates. Interviewers will work from an outline of points they want to cover, and will look for inconsistencies in your resume and challenge your qualifications. You are supposed to provide answers to their questions. (3)…………………….. That information could work against you.

Telephone interviews are merely screening interviews meant to eliminate poorly qualified candidates so that only a few are left for personal interviews. You might be called suddenly, or perhaps a telephone call to check on your resume might turn into an interview. Your mission is to be invited for a personal face-to-face interview.

Stress interviews are a deliberate attempt to see how you handle yourself. The interviewer may be sarcastic or argumentative, or may keep you waiting. Do not say, “This can’t be happening to me!”

Rather tell yourself: “This must be an attempt to unnerve me!” (4)……………………. Calmly answer each question as it comes, ask for clarification if you need it and never rush into an answer.

In a one-on-one interview, it has been established that you have the skills and education necessary for the position, and the interviewer would like to see if you will fit in with the company, and how your skills will complement the rest of the department.

Committee interviews are a common practice. You will face several members of the company who have a say in whether you are hired. You may be asked to demonstrate your problem-solving skills.

The committee will outline a situation and ask you to formulate a plan that deals with the problem. You don’t have to come up with the ultimate solution. (5)……………………

A group interview is usually designed to uncover the leadership potential of prospective managers and employees who will be dealing with the public. A subject is introduced and the interviewer will start the discussion. The goal of the group interview is to see how you interact with others and how you use your knowledge and reasoning powers to win others over.

Making a Good Impression

Before the Interview

It is important to be positive and think of the interview as a conversation, not an interrogation.

During the Interview

You should show self-confidence and answer the interviewer’s questions in a clear voice. You must avoid negative body language, such as frequently touching your face, folding or crossing your arms, avoiding eye contact.

After the Interview

Don’t think that you might have given better answers or that some of your remarks might have seemed a little too extreme. (6)………………………… You may have appeared unfit for the position, but remember that you should always turn a weakness into a strength. Take each interview as a chance to practice interview skills and learn how to come across confidently.

(Adapted from the Internet, www.google.com - “Career Tips for Candidates”)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Six sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences A-F the one which fits each gap (1-6):

A. Don’t take it personally.

B. If possible, talk to people who work at the company.

C. Concentrate on the following interview, not on your mistakes.

D. Never volunteer any additional information.

E. The interviewers are looking for how you apply your knowledge and skills to a real-life situation.

F. Whenever possible, address your cover letter to the individual who is responsible for filling the position

II. Match the questions you may be asked during an interview with the advice on how to best answer them. There is an example at the beginning (0):

Common Interview Questions

By rehearsing interview questions, you’ll become more familiar with your own qualifications and will be better prepared to demonstrate how you can benefit an employer. Some examples:

Questions:

0. ‘What is your major weakness?’

1. ‘Do you prefer to work by yourself or with others?’

2. ‘Why did you leave your last job?’

3. ‘What can you tell me about yourself?’

4. ‘Why do you want to work here?’

5. ‘What are your best skills?’

6. ‘What are your future plans?’

Answers:

A. Make a short, organized statement of your education, professional achievements and professional goals.

B. It is important to answer this question clearly and with enthusiasm. Show the interviewer your interest in the company.

C. Be honest. The interviewer will likely check your references.

D. List them, then give examples where you have demonstrated these skills.

E. The ideal answer is one of flexibility. However, be honest. Give examples describing how you have worked in both situations.

F. Let the interviewer know that you are ambitious enough to plan ahead. Be as specific as possible about how you will meet the goals you have set for yourself.

G. Be positive; turn a weakness into a strength.

Example: 0-G

III. Look at the following sentences and choose the best synonym for the word ‘responsible’:

guilty / in charge of / sensible

1. Those responsible for the accident will be prosecuted.

2. She was a responsible, mature manager.

3. He was responsible for the project implementation.

IV. An argumentative person is someone who often argues.

e.g. Because she is argumentative she has a lot of enemies.

Now look at the following sentences and find synonyms for the verb ‘argue’:

1. They used to argue a lot so no one was surprised when they broke up.

2. When the boss brought up the idea that the project should be abandoned because of high costs, she argued that costs could be cut and she won him over.

V. Related Word Groups

Look at the definitions of several verbs describing ways of speaking:

To scream, to shout have similar meanings. Other synonyms are: shriek, yell

to scream = to give a loud cry because you are frightened/hurt

to shout = to say something in a loud voice, angrily or when you want to get somebody’s attention

to whisper = to speak in a low, quiet voice so as not to be heard by other people

to stammer = to speak with difficulty, repeating sounds and words

to tell = to give information

To speak, to talk have similar meanings

e.g. Speak louder, I cannot hear you.

‘What is she talking about? I have never heard about the project she mentions!’

Now put each of the following words in its correct place in the sentences below. Some changes in form may be necessary:

whisper / scream / stammer / shout / tell

1. She was…………with pain.

2. She……….at him to run when she saw the police cars.

3. ‘What are you trying to do?,’ he ………….., looking around to see if someone was listening.

4. The children were laughing at him because he was…………

82

5. ‘I am so very tired!’ ‘……..me about it!’

B. Exercises

I. Complete the sentences with the appropriate modal or modal equivalent:

1) His story ……… (might/need/can/had to) easily have ended when the doctors decided to send him home.

2) “I…………. (must/may/need/have to) have a case for you, but I’m not sure yet”.

3) It is not possible for him to have solved so many cases! He…… (should/must/shall/need) be lying.

4) She wanted to inform him that she……… (might/must/need/had to) have a case for him.

5) There were two options left: Angie and Bart ……. (should/would/could/may) take their son home, or the doctor could contact a specialist in Cleveland.

6) He was a doctor, so he….. (couldn’t/can’t/must/might not) have known that the wound was going to cost him his leg.

II. Replace the underlined words with the appropriate modal. Write the modal on the line on the right:

1. When he was a child he didn’t know how to speak English. ____________

2. I promise to do well in the test next week. ___________

3. He refuses to help me with my homework. ___________

4. I’m sure he is tired – he traveled all night by train. ___________

5. I intend to tell them the truth. ____________

III. Fill the blanks in the sentences below with the correct modal:

1. A few years ago I …speak French fluently but I haven’t practiced much lately.

2. The lights are off in the Robinsons’ house: they….be out. I cannot think of any other possibility.

3. Mr. Johnson is a tall, dark-haired man, so that short gentleman over there….be him!

4. She… climb the stairs to her bedroom anymore, so she moved downstairs.

5. It….get quite warm in the city in spring.

6. “…we eat out tonight?” “Yes, nice suggestion, that would be very nice!”

C. More exercises

I. Fill the blanks in the sentences below with words taken from the box to form full questions:

to whom / by whom / how much / how often / can / what does / how

Asking Questions During a Job Interview

At most interviews, you will be invited to ask questions. Prepare good questions. Here are some examples:

1. ‘………you please tell me how your career has developed at XYZ Corp?’

2. ‘………..do the position and the department contribute to the overall company mission and philosophy?’

3. ‘………..characteristics best describe individuals who are successful in this position?’

4. ‘………the position offer exposure to other facets of your organization?’

5. ‘………does this position report?’

6. ‘………….decision-making authority and autonomy are given to new employees?’

7. ‘……….are performance reviews given? ……….. are they given?’

Phrasal verbs

II. Match the following phrasal verbs taken from the text on the job search with their definitions. There is an example at the beginning:

Example:

to weed out to get rid of things that are not good

to rush into to get someone’s support by persuading them

to win over to discover something, to learn information

to look for to act hastily, without thinking carefully about it

to find out to try to find a particular thing/person

III. Phrasal verbs: TURN

Take a look at the following definitions:

turn against = stop liking sb. or sth.

turn away = send away, refuse to admit

turn down/up the volume; turn on/off the lights

turn down = refuse to consider a proposal, reject a person

turn in = take an offender to the police

turn into = make sth. become sth. different

turn out = prove to be

turn to = go to sb. for help

turn up = be found by chance, happen by chance

Now fill the blanks in the following sentences with phrasal verbs from the box. Changes in form may be necessary:



turn against / turn away / turn down / turn in / turn out / turn to / turn up

1. The thieves hoped to get away but somebody recognized them and …….them……… .

2. The public opinion………..the government after its decision to increase taxes.

3. She was about to be fired because she had lost the project, but the document finally ……….. .

4. She………..his invitation to visit Paris after they had a terrible fight.

5. The exam………..to be more difficult than we had expected.

6. Many refugees were……..at the border because the government feared a conflict could break out in the area.

7. She…………her friends for help when she most needed it.

D. Writing

Opinion essay

In a written examination you may be asked to express your opinion on certain topics. This task is meant to test not only your ability to draw on personal experience or general knowledge, but also to order your ideas in well-built paragraphs.

While in a for or against essay you are invited to discuss various aspects of a subject and conclude with a balanced view on it, in an opinion essay you should take sides and express your views and feelings about a topic. You may be given a statement and be asked to agree or disagree with it or you may be asked directly for a personal opinion.

You should first present briefly some aspects of the subject and then take up the points and develop your argument. You should clearly state your own opinion and then support it with examples and further explanation. Illustration can help you build a powerful argument, especially with abstract topics.

You should also use contrast in order to underline your own opinion: present other people’s opinions about the same topic and say why they are wrong. A list of phrases to use when introducing opposite points of view is given below:

Showing the other side of the picture

It is said that……….

It’s popularly believed that……….

It is often alleged that…………

Many people believe that….

People think that……., but they couldn’t be further from the truth.

People often claim that….., but……..

People argue that…………, but they don’t realise that……….

Contrary to popular belief, it is a fact that…………

The conclusion should be a restatement of your views. You can sum up your arguments by rephrasing the opinion stated in the introduction. This way you can make sure that the reader will understand your point of view.

This is the work of a third year student:

Friendship or love – which is the more important relationship?

Introducing topic

Expressing personal view

It is known that when people interact, friendship and love are likely to arise. Both concepts refer to harmonious relationships that individuals might experience in their lifetime. It is often thought that they are separated by a slight difference. Irrespective of the degree to which they identify with each other, I find them both essential for a meaningful living.

Presenting another view

A lot of people think that love stems from very good friendships. According to this theory, friendship acts like a sort of solid foundation that is supposed to get the couple through the best of times and the worst of times. Sometimes it even ends up being all that is left when the fire of passion has disappeared. Therefore it is a well-spread belief that friendship is the more valuable of the two.

Contradicting that belief

Supporting own opinion

Restating own view

No matter how important stability might turn out to be, one cannot ignore the fact that intensity often manages to swing the balance in the opposite direction. And it is undeniable that what love might lack in consistency, it more than makes up for in strength. Ranging from the

flashing first-sight love to blizzards that literally tore up lives throughout history, this feeling hasn’t ceased to show its immense potential.

Consequently, I believe that one should reformulate the question by stressing a possible way of happily combining the two for a truthful living.

Practice

Write your answers in 120-180 words in an appropriate style:

1. Should students still be evaluated through written exams?

2. ‘Emigration is the best solution for graduates’. How far do you agree with this statement?

3. Express your opinion on the following topic: ‘We watch too much TV’.

UNIT X

CAREER OPORTUNITIES IN ADVERTISING

Advertising is a creative, fast-paced, high profile business. The main function of an advertising agency is to use both imagination and strategic planning to develop memorable advertisements that promote sale for the client company. There are advertising areas in which people can find their niche. Account Management, Account Planning and Creative are just some of them.

Account Management

Account Management is the division of an advertising agency, which has to oversee the execution of all the aspects of an advertising campaign and manage the firm's relations with its clients.

Assistant Account Executive. As an Assistant AE you have to assist the AE with all his or her duties. You are supposed to work directly with your supervisor to develop campaign strategies, communicate client needs to the Creative, Market Research teams, and conduct analysis of the advertising spending and consumer habit. Working with different members of the other advertising departments will help you learn how to manage clients and their accounts, plan advertising strategies and obtain information.

As part of the Account Management group you should help your firm develop successful advertising strategies and oversee important accounts.

Account Planning

Account Planning focuses on ensuring the consumer's perspective is fully considered when advertising is developed. Account planners spend a lot of time researching consumer psychology and behaviour, competitive sales, demographics, etc. in an effort to study how consumers use marketing communications and to devise new ways of pitching information. There is not a clear career path to the position of account planner. Some people come from a marketing research background, while others enter from outside of advertising. If you want to do this job you need to interpret and synthesize information, create new insights and communicate findings in a useful manner.

Creative

The Creative department is responsible for translating the business and strategies (developed by the client company and the Account Management) into creative advertisements for the client's products.

The Creative team is comprised of Art Directors (who design the visual aspects of each ad) and copywriters (who write the slogans and text within an ad). Once the client approves their ideas, the creative team develops and produces all the elements of the advertisement.

(Adapted from 'Career Opportunities in Advertising', The University of Texas at Austin,

Communication Career Services, from the Internet)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Choose the correct answer A, B or C:

1. Advertising is a creative business

A. because it is responsible for developing advertisements that promote the product of a client.

B. because it works with clients.

C. because everybody can find a job.

2. As an Assistant AE you are supposed to:

A. help all the other departments.

B. be the helping hand of your boss.

C. to supervise only the important accounts.

3. The Account planners' job is to:

A. find the best solutions in order to find out how a product is sold on the market.

B. study the point of view of the consumer when developing an ad.

C. think about developing an advertising campaign.

4. A copywriter is a person who:

A. writes copies of the ad.

B. copies the ad.

C. writes the text of an ad.

II. Choose the correct meaning of the following words and expressions.

1. pitch information a. collect information

b. express it in a particular style.

c. sharpen information

2. oversee a. supervise

b. see from above

c. see repeatedly

3. develop a. devise

b. make smaller

c. generate, produce, make something grow gradually

4. high-profile a. noticeable way of behaving/acting so as to attract public attention.

b. placed high so as to be seen from profile

c. being full of himself/herself

III. Fill each blank with one of the words given above.

1. You must employ someone to the project.

2. He is a politician and he is very careful with his image.

3. A good account planner should find a way of .

4. We … the project from one of Tom's ideas.

IV. Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B.

1. assume a. a distinguishing quality or characteristic

2. acquire b. an upset of normal function

3. besiege c. to suppose something to be a fact

4. cope with d. exclude by decision

5. disorder e. to crowd around; to close in on

6. rule out f. to get or gain by one’s effort

7. trait g. to deal with problems

B. Exercises

I. Choose the correct answer according to the meaning.

1. Drivers … always use the seat belt even if they drive into the city.

A. can B. must C. have to

2. To stay alive, people … breathe oxygen.

A. should B. need C. must

3. You … finish this project or you’ll not be admitted in the exam.

A. must B. mustn’t C. may

4. You … come if you’re too tired.

A. mustn’t B. don’t have to C. can’t

5. Maria is very upset. You … have scolded her.

A. shouldn’t B. couldn’t C. needn’t

6. Tom … studied for the exam and he wouldn’t have had any problems.

A. must have B. could have C. should have

7. You … shout. I can hear you very well, I’m not deaf.

A. don’t have to B. mustn’t C. haven’t

II. Identify and correct the mistakes in the sentences below.

1. If we want to get there on time we’d rather take a taxi.

2. Can you be so rude? You’ve made her cry her heart out.

3. Helen’s new shoes are too tight. She must have tried them before buying them.

4. You may go to him and apologise for breaking his window.

5. You could watch the movie tonight. I highly recommend it.

Phrasal verb ‘look’.

Look after oneself/somebody: take care of oneself/somebody

Look ahead: think about what is going to happen in the future

Look at something: examine something closely

Look down on somebody/something: regard with contempt

Look for: search

Look forward to something/doing something: anticipate something with pleasure

Look in (on/at) somebody: make a short visit to somebody’s house/a place

Look into: investigate

Look out (in the imperative): be careful; watch out

Look over something: inspect or examine something

Look through somebody: deliberately ignore somebody

Look up: raise one’s eyes

Look something up: search for a word or a fact in a dictionary or reference book

Look up to somebody: respect

Exercise.

Choose the correct answer A, B, C or D. Only one answer is correct.

1. She looked … from her book when I entered the room.

A. up B. for C. after D. at

2. Who will look … your dog while you’re on holiday?

A. ahead B. after C. on D. out

3. She has always looked … to her father.

A. after B. forward C. up D. through

4. She was still angry with him, so when she met him she just looked … him.

A. for B. up C. through D. on

5. When you travel on a crowded bus look … for pickpockets.

A. for B. after C. on D. out

6. The police are looking … the kidnapping.

A. for B. into C. through D. in

7. The doctor will look … again this evening.

A. into B. in C. after D. up

C. Writing

The Argumentative Essay

An argumentative essay is concerned almost entirely with ideas. The most important requirements of an argumentative essay are the ability to reason and the capacity for arranging ideas in logical order. Here are a few tips that are useful when writing an argumentative essay:

The aim of the essay. Your aim is to present a view point, so you argue pro and against an idea, a fact; you are not obliged to persuade .If you want to persuade you have to argue in such a way as to convince the reader to agree with you. If you have a problem you should argue in such a way as to solve it. You can discuss a problem without necessarily coming to solution.

Defining the attitude. The meaning of a subject is very clear in an argumentative essay; it also should be made very clear from the beginning. The difficulty that you encounter when writing an argumentative essay is not in interpreting the subject, but finding the best way of tackling it. Therefore, before starting to write the essay you should try to define your attitude, what you want to do, in fact. Do you want to argue for and against, present your viewpoint without taking sides. Argumentative topics are usually provocative, so it will not be difficult to decide on the way you want to argue.

Subject-matter. It is very important not only to know the subject, but also to know how well you can use it. It is better to use a few facts well than to use a lot without contributing to the aim of the essay. There is the danger of writing purely factual prose that looks like articles in an encyclopedia.

Facts should be used only to provide the framework for ideas, theories, speculations. The correct presentation of facts is as important as the facts themselves. You should also take care so as to avoid confusion between actual fact and mere opinion.

Treatment. There are two forms of argument: inductive and deductive.

Inductive argument: you begin with a general statement and then present the facts to prove it.

Deductive argument: you infer one statement from another, starting from a general idea to get to a particular one. You must ensure that your essay is balanced and you deal with both sides of the argument. The technique that best enables you to present your case in the best way is to consider the other side of the case first.

Each paragraph should contain a main idea and the sentences should be closely related to each other. Transitions between paragraphs should be smooth; you should warn the reader beforehand that you intend to deal with another aspect of the matter, so that your essay will come as a well balanced and organized.

Introduction. You begin with something you want to prove or to explain. The introduction should clearly show the way in which you intend to define your attitude. The whole argument that will follow will be built on the initial premise given in the introduction.

Development. The first one or two paragraphs should be devoted to a consideration of the other side of the case before presenting your views. The following paragraphs should add new and important elements to your argument.

Conclusion. In your conclusion you may restate your initial premise.

Devices used.

- Illustration. An abstract idea will always become clear if you give a definite example to illustrate it. Once you have given the illustration it is easier to draw a conclusion.

- Contrast. If you present both sides of the case you should use contrast in the framework of the essay.

Style. If you want your essay to have the effect you want you should keep your English as simple and direct as possible. The best way to do this is to tackle subjects you know best. It is best to avoid using the first person except in cases when you are specifically asked to give your personal opinion.

Planning. It is best to make a full plan before starting your essay. If you are not very familiarized with writing argumentative essays it is best that when planning, to leave a wide margin on the left-hand column, note your ideas in any order they occur to you so as you can use them later, when you write the essay. Each paragraph outline should contain a central thought and a few subsidiary ideas related to it.

In order to help you better understand how to write an argumentative essay we have selected an essay written by one of our students.

Heading

A Country’s Freedom Fighter is Another Country’s Terrorist

Introduction

People have always had their own agendas. Despite creating discomfort and unhappiness to others, people have always sought their own well-being. It is our nature to do so, and in harsh conditions of emotional psychological and physical stress, we become dangerously similar to savage animals.

Development

In the light of recent terrorist events, covered or not by the media, one has to stop and wonder which side of the imaginary or real battleground people are fighting for good. The truth is no one ever fights for good, as no one fights for evil. I am using these terms in their technical, or rather biblical sense, to portray the two extremes of existence. But the truth is we never touch these extremes – for they do not exist in pure, undeniable form. Each one of us has his or her own ideas and principles of what is good and what is evil and in a place where different cultures are either forced or choose by themselves to live together, such principles are bound to be bent and misunderstood.

Making a list of traditional habits that are viewed as polite in some cultures and impolite in others would be pointless, as it would be far too long and the subject is known and accepted widely. But the same applies to life principles.

Some believe in god, others do not. There is no real way of explaining who is right, for proof does not exist. But the situation goes beyond religion. Political powers seeking their own interests or their country’s interests are viewed well by those who benefit from it and are blamed by those who will have to suffer.

This has happened throughout history as the Roman Empire spread vastly in the name of Rome, as Napoleon conquered country after country, and as Hitler’s armies destroyed lives in the name of the ideal race.

Conclusion

It is rather strange, however, that most people will agree over the fact that no two people are truly identical, even in the case of identical twins, so then why won’t the world accept that no two people have the same views on life? And, if the entire world can agree that murder is evil and love id good, why is it so hard to agree on everything else in-between?

UNIT XI

THE POWER OF DECOYS

An outing with your local real estate agent can illustrate the powerful impact of a decoy. At the realtor's office, you are shown pictures and given descriptions of many homes - beautiful split-levels, roomy ranches, an old Victorian. After determining your needs the agent drives you to some homes you 'might find of interest'. The first stop is a tiny two-bedroom house sitting on a narrow lot. The house needs a new coat of paint; the interior is in disarray; the linoleum in the kitchen is buckling; the living room carpet is worn; the master bedroom is so small that an average-sized bedroom suite just won't fit.

When the realtor tells you the asking price, you exclaim, 'Holly cow! Who'd be dumb enough to pay so much money for this shack?' But this dilapidated house may influence you to buy another house more readily and to buy it at a much higher price than you might normally have been willing to pay. How can this come about? We can clarify the process by looking at an experiment on students. The students were asked to make decisions such as the following:

Which would you select (a or b)?

a. Nutri-burger : a tofu burger that is very good on nutrition but only average on taste.

b. Tasti-burger: a hamburger that is very good on taste but only average on nutrition.

For some decisions, a decoy was given as an additional option. A decoy is an alternative that is inferior to other possible selections. For example:

Which would you prefer (a, b or c)?

a. Nutri-burger: the tofu burger described above

b. Tasti-burger: the hamburger described above

c. Bummer-burger: a hamburger that is only good on taste (as opposed to very good). No reasonable person would select this inferior burger. If you wanted a lunch that tasted great, you would select option b, the very-good-tasting Tasti-burger. If you wanted nutrition, you would go for the Nutriburger.

In the above mentioned study the decoy was never selected. But that doesn't mean that its presence as an option wasn't influential. The decoy influenced the students' choice by contrast effects.

If an object is contrasted with something similar but not as good, or not as pretty, or not as tall, it is judged to be better, prettier, taller than would normally be the case. If a man of normal height is in the company of midgets, he seems very tall. If he were a member of a professional basketball team, he would seem very short. In the study on consumer decision-making, two contrast effects occurred that made the Tasti-burger look more attractive. The presence of a decoy made the very-good-tasting Tastiburger appear to be better tasting and the average-tasting Nutri-burger to be even worse tasting. In other words, the decoy 'spread apart' the Tasti- and Nutri-burgers on the dimension of taste.

Decoys come in a variety of shapes and sizes. A presidential candidate may select a vice-presidential running mate of lesser stature to enhance the positive perception of his qualities.

The lesson to be learned from research on decoys is that the context makes the difference. Judgment is relative, not absolute. Depending on the context, objects and alternatives can be made to look better or worse. Often we do not pay much attention to the influence of context., much less question the validity of the alternative presented. This greatly enhances the power of 'context-makers', such as politician, advertisers, journalists, etc. The context they set can pre-persuade us by influencing our perceptions and judgments; we are thus lulled into decisions we would not normally make.

(Adapted from 'Age of Propaganda. The Everyday Use and Abuse of propaganda', Pratkins, Anthony & Aronson, Elliot)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1. The realtor will use a decoy to make his client buy the house the realtor wants.

2. Bummer-burger was the burger preferred by most students.

3. A decoy is just an additional option.

4. Context is used to influence our perceptions and judgments.

II. Choose the correct meaning of the following words and phrases.

1. dumb a. blind

b. clever

c. stupid

2. dilapidated a. falling to pieces

b. taken apart

c. stolen

3. enhance a. inherit

b. increase

c. decrease

4. fit a. provide

b. bring

c. appropriate

5. lull a. change one's mind

b. calm somebody by deception

c. rock

6. outing a. short, pleasant trip

b. date

c. taking out

7. disarray a. undressed

b. misplaced

c. disorder

8. realtor a. person who buys and sells houses for others

b. person who is realistic

c. person who buys houses for himself/herself

9. buckled a. hunched

b. crumpled

c. worn

10. shack a. chess

b. former ruler of Iran

c. roughly built house or hut

III .Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1. If I see him I (tell) … you called.

2. The table will collapse if you (stand) … on it.

3. If you eat the whole cake you (be) … sick.

4. If I lend you $ 100 when (you, repay)… me?

5. If he (be) … late we’ll leave without him.

6. What would you do if your house (burn …)?

7. She (open) … the door unless she knew who it was.

8. She (open) … the door unless she had known who it was.

9. If he (be)… sent to prison would you visit him?

10. I (offer) … to help if I knew I was any use.

11. I (stop) … if I had realized that you needed a lift.

12. If I’m ready when he calls he (take) … me with him.

13. If I had been ready when he left he (take) … me with him.

14. I would have taken a taxi if I (know) … when the meeting was.

15. “What is that man saying?”

“I (tell) … you if I knew Chinese.

IV. Identify and correct the mistakes in the sentences below.

1. If you didn’t sneeze he wouldn’t have known we were there.

2. If she wouldn’t have a headache she would come with us.

3. If you’ll speak more slowly I might be able to understand you.

4. If you’ll heat water it boils.

5. If he asked you will you accept?

6. I wouldn’t have believed it if I didn’t see it with my own eyes.

7. What would you do if you find a burglar in your house.

8. What happens if I’ll press this button?

9. You might get pneumonia if you stayed out in the rain without an umbrella.

10. The newspaper (print, not) … the story if it were not true.

V. Choose the correct answer.

1. If I … more help I could call my friends.

A. need B. had needed C. will need

2. If you … to my advice you wouldn’t be in this mess right now.

A. listened B. had listened C. listen

3. Unless you … all of my questions, I can’t do anything to help you.

A. answered B. answer C. don’t answer

4. I might have won the game if I … a few more minutes.

A. had B. would have C. had had

5. If I could speak English, I … next year studying in Great Britain.

A. will spend B. would spend C. had spent

6. If I … in an accounting firm, I would work in a bank.

A. weren’t working B. didn’t working C. hadn’t worked

7. I think we’re lost. We wouldn’t … if we had had a map.

A. got lost B. have got lost C. had got lost

VI. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

1. I’m very tired. I wish I (hadn’t worked/didn’t work) so much.

2. Helen feels sick. She wishes she (hadn’t eaten/didn’t eat) so much.

3. I wish I (have/had) more money.

4. I wish you (couldn’t/wouldn’t) speak so loudly.

5. I hope you (‘ll finish/finished) the project on time.

6. My feet hurt, if only we (had/would have) some money to take a cab.

VII. Identify and correct the mistakes in the sentences below.

1. Enjoy your holiday. I hope you had a good time.

2. I’m hungry. If only I’ll have something to eat.

3. If only I ‘ll have more time.

4. I wish you told me about the party. I would have come, too.

5. I wish I can swim.

6. They wish they had leaved earlier.

Phrasal verb ‘take’.

take somebody aback =shock; take by surprise

take after somebody =resemble one’s mother or father on appearance or character

take against somebody/something =dislike

take something away =buy a cooked meal at a restaurant and carry it away to eat it (in USA take something out) at home

take something away from something =subtract

take something back: a.) agree to receive goods previously bought in the shop

b.) retract

take in: a.) allow somebody to stay in your house sometimes for payment

b.) make a garment narrower

c.) deceive, fool somebody

take off =(of an aircraft) leave the ground and begin to fly

take on: a.) become popular

b.) employ somebody

c.) decide to do something

take out a.) invite/escort somebody to a restaurant, theatre

take to =take refuge in (a place)

take up: a.) continue a story that has been left unfinished

b.) adopt something as a pastime activity

Exercise.

Choose the correct answer A, B or C. Only one answer is correct.

1. The plane took … despite of the weather.

A. up B. for C. off

2. Rosalind takes … her mother.

A. in B. after C. up

3. You’ve lost a few kilos and I think you skirt need to be taken … .

A. to B. in C. up

4. He didn’t realize she was a burglar. He was taken … by her appearance.

A. in B. for C. aback

5. Their song has really taken … .

A. up B. off C. on

6. The passengers took … the lifeboats when the Titanic hit an iceberg.

A. for B. up C. to

7. She came home late and didn’t have time to cook so she took something from a nearby … restaurant.

A. away B. off C. after

8. How are things going between you and Harriet? Have you taken her … yet?

A. up B. out C. away

9. She was taken … by his insolent remark.

A. in B. aback C. after

10. I take … what I said about you.

A. back B. after C. in

C. Writing

Reviews.

A review is an article in a newspaper or magazine in which someone presents his/her views on a book, film, play, show, etc. The purpose of a review is to give factual information as well as personal opinion on that subject. A review usually contains the following elements: an overview, pros and cons and the verdict. Sometimes the writer of the review may decide not to use all these three parts, describing an aspect of the subject and comment immediately on its weak and strong points, before commenting on another aspect of the subject..

The Overview represents a description of the subject.

Useful words and expressions:

The book/film/show contains deals with/details/presents/describes

The book/show/script/play is written

directed

played

Books: - chapter Plays: - act Film: - script

- page - scene - actor/actress

- plot - stage - supporting actor/actress

- character - costumes - soundtrack

The pros and cons present comments on the successful and unsuccessful features of the subject.

Useful words and expressions.

really amusing

extraordinary attractive

most interesting boring

beautiful predictable

stunning while

superb whereas

original despite

brilliant

The verdict sums up your opinions, feelings and also recommendations.

Useful words and expressions.

all in all in conclusion

to sum up in the last analysis

in the end

on balance,

We decided to select one of our students’ film review as an example for you:

Heading

WHAT WEIGHS 21 GRAMS?

Overview

“They say we all loose 21 grams at the exact moment of our death. Everyone. The weight of a stack of nickels. The weight of a chocolate bar. The weight of a humming bird. What is lost? What is gained?” These are the words with which Paul Rivers (one of the three main characters, played by Sean Penn) concludes “21

grams”, the latest movie directed by Alejandro Gonzales Innaritu. But is this explanation of the title a resolution to the three-story-lined intricate plot that leaves you wondering as much about your own fate as about that of the characters?

The pros and

cons

“21 grams” is another confirmation of what director and producer Alejandro Gonzales Innaritu proved at the 2000 Cannes Festival when he won an award for “Amores Peros”. Among other things, it confirms the fact that his movies are reenactments of his belief that life is too complex and haze-like to be illustrated in a one-way linear plot.

Therefore, one of the things that makes this movie puzzling is precisely the intricate plot which is divided in three story lines that are apparently unrelated, but which at a certain point fuse inside each other revealing what subsequently turns out to be an unexpectedly complex and winding whole. Furthermore, the three narratives are not simply alternating and ultimately intertwining; they are split into several disparate scenes seemingly put together randomly for the viewer to decipher and rearrange in a rational way. This whole undertaking is not just a smart but futile trick to confuse the viewer; it is a metaphor that attempts to illustrate how complicate, obscure and notalways- rational the strings of real life sometimes are.

On the one hand, we have the story of Paul Rivers (Academy award-nominee Sean Penn), a college professor diagnosed with a final disease whose only hope of surviving is a heart transplant, and who continuously falls from resignation into despair and back again. On the other hand, we have Jack Jordon (Academy award winner Benicio del Toro), an ex con striving to male ends meet with the aid of his new-found devotion to God but who should, instead, offer at least a small part of that dedication to his family.

And last, we have the story of Christina Peck (award-winning actress Naomi Watts), mother and wife whose entire is broken to pieces when a terrible accident takes her family away. How do these stories mingle together to recreate a meaningful whole?

They do that in the same manner that life itself is usually stopped by a meaningful event and then rearranged in a seemingly chaotic order according to that particular event.

The verdict

The puzzle-like but incredibly inspired script (written by Guillermo Arriaga) and the smart montage are not the only reasons why you should see the movie.

“21 grams” is also worth being seen because of Sean Penn’s superb performance (also in “Mystic River” and “I am Sam” or Benicio del Toro (“Traffic”, “Snatch”) revealing his best while portraying the ex con who falls from total devotion to God to total hatred (watch the scene where he burns his tattoos with crucifixes on his wrists), also because of Naomi Watts (Mulholand Drive”, “The Ring”) doing a great job embodying the loving mother and wife who falls into the limbs of drugs and alcohol seeking complete oblivion.

“They say we all loose 21 grams at the exact moment of our death”. Is that the premise on which the whole discourse of the movie lies its foundation or the conclusion? Watching the movie may not give you the answer.

UNIT XII

CREATIVITY

Read this text discussing creativity:

Many people seem to think that creativity is producing the Big Idea – an idea from nowhere so clever and so profound that it defines creativity But the instant Big Idea does not exist.

Creativity, and its task of generating ideas, is essentially incremental. Ideas come through a series of small steps or moves. They build upon each other to produce the final idea. The trick Rather than the creative idea being an instant revelation, it will more likely be characterized by a haphazard series of moves, steps and linkages. to creativity and creating new ideas is not how you think up the instant Big Idea, but rather what you can do to generate little ideas, which can later be combined in some way to be presented as a Big Idea.

So how has the notion of the Big Idea come about? One explanation may be that it is much more convenient to believe great creative people somehow intuitively and instantly arrive at Big Ideas rather than recognize that creativity can be a messy, unglamorous and protracted process. Great discoveries were often achieved more by chance than from being the result of someone’s Big Idea.

Inventions are perfected by step-by-step improvements, and each step is itself an invention.

The myth of the instant Big Idea is a fundamental point for public relations practitioners to consider about creativity. Practitioners work in an environment where their clients or management may at times demand an instant Big Idea for the task in hand. Yet, no idea lives in a vacuum: practitioners will need to educate their peers if they want them to fully understand – and manage – the creative dimension in their work. Understanding the so-called ‘Big Ideas’, the different types of thinking processes used, and the context of lateral thinking, are crucial to being creative. So let us take a look at the myth of left-brain/right-brain theory:

As a result of the work by the Nobel prizewinner Professor Roger Sperry, the theory of right and left sides of the brain was advanced, in which major intellectual functions were split between different parts of the brain. On the left side, it was believed, were the logical, rational and controlling aspects to our thinking, while the right side was said to control our inspirational and creative thoughts.

It was argued that different people’s skills were linked to the different hemispheres of the brain dominating an individual’s performance. More creative people were seemingly right-side dominated; others who were more analytical but less creative were described as left-side dominated.

However, left-brain/right-brain theory has since been undermined by research that shows mental skills being distributed throughout the brain. Both sides of the brain are activated, no matter what task you put to them. What is important in developing our skills as creative public practitioners is not so much where specific thinking skills are located in the brain but the fact that at least two specific modes of thought can be identified.

Convergent thinking, the so-called left-sided thinking, is the intellectual ability to logically evaluate, criticize and choose the best idea from a selection of ideas. Divergent thinking, the apparent right-sided thinking, is the ability of the intellect to think of many original, diverse and elaborate ideas.

By having a clear understanding of the distinction between the two types of thinking, a practitioner can make far more productive use of time, and employ techniques to greater effect, generating more and varied creative ideas that offer added value, which is the fundamental element of anything that is defined as creative.

(Adapted from Green, Andy, ‘Creativity in Public Relations’)

A. Reading and vocabulary

I. Fill the blanks with information taken from the text. You will need to change the adjectives into nouns:

The Theory of Roger Sperry

Left side of the brain Right side of the brain

Intellectual functions/skills (1)………………… (5)………………….

(2)………………… (6)………………….

(3)…………………

(4)…………………

II. Look at the text and find the words which mean the same as:

- happening by chance (paragraph 2)

- which doesn’t cause problems, suitable (para. 3)

- unpleasant, not easy to deal with (para. 3)

- lasting longer than usual/necessary (para. 3)

- to require, to need (para. 4)

- someone of the same age/status as you (para. 4)

- divided (para. 5)

- to make something less effective, to weaken gradually (para. 6)

- giving a lot of details, complicated (para. 7)

- to use a particular method (para. 7)

III. Decide whether the following sentences are true (T) or false (F):

1. Being creative means having sudden inspiration that helps you solve a problem.

2. People find it difficult to admit that creativity is likely to be the result of hard work.

3. PR practitioners should defend the idea that they can be instantly creative.

4. Awareness of the theory of two modes of thought is likely to help PR practitioners be more efficient.

IV. You are going to read a fragment from a book called ‘Web Production for Writers and Journalists’, written by Jason Whittaker. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A – E for each part of the article. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Example: 0-1

0. Make your navigation controls consistent

A. Less is more

B. Three golden rules for Internet design

C. Frontload important material

D. Evaluate new technologies

E. Always consider your audience

1. Create a template design and then stick to it, so that visitors aren’t confused as they move between pages. You may need different buttons on each page, but try to locate links in the same place.

2. Clarity, interactivity and download times. The most exciting and attractive site in the world will become a lot less interesting and attractive if users have to wait half an hour for pages to download.

Visitors want a site that is a pleasure to use, simple to navigate through and loads quickly in their browsers.

3. Bear in mind that most people do not have a 19', or even a 17', monitor capable of displaying 1024x768 resolutions or higher, running the latest browser on the fastest PIII or G4 with a leased line.

4. Don’t overload your page with fonts, graphics and animations. Not only can these take longer to download, too many cause your site to appear messy.

5. Visitors tend to work through web pages very quickly unless something grabs their attention, so you should place important material near the beginning.

6. Just because something is available on the Web does not mean that it is automatically worth placing on your site. Test new ideas and technologies before using them on your site.

V. Related Word Groups

Look at these expressions with parts of the body:

drag your feet/heels = you don’t hurry to do something because you don’t want to do it

have a chip on your shoulder = easily become offended because of unpleasant past experiences

have a clear/cool head = think clearly in a difficult situation

have two left feet = be very clumsy

have your hands full = be very busy

make/pull a face = change your expression to show your feelings

not see eye to eye = always disagree with sb.

pull somebody’s leg = make fun of sb.

put your foot in your mouth = make an embarrassing or upsetting remark

twist somebody’s arm = persuade sb. to do sth. they don’t want to do

Now put each of the following words in its correct place in the sentences below. Some changes in form may be necessary:

shoulder / mouth / arm / leg / hand / foot / eye / tight-fisted / head / face / heel

1. You welcome somebody with open……….

2. When you are upset you need a………to cry on.

3. When you are not generous you are……….

4. When you wish somebody good luck you say: ‘Break a ……!’

5. He seemed head over…….in love.

6. You say that a situation gets out of………when it becomes impossible to control.

7. You get cold ……. when you are afraid to do something you planned to do.

8. When you can’t understand something you can’t make…….nor tail of it.

9. When you are the apple of somebody’s ……. you are loved very much by that person.

10. I got bored at the party – the same old ……

11. Did you read this somewhere or did you just hear it by word of………?

VI. Choose the correct form of the verb:

1) He has been requested/has being requested to attend the conference.

2) He is saying/is said to be a good opera singer.

3) The event will be organized/will being organized soon.

4) She was been served/has been served by several waiters.

5) They had being showing/had been shown the new machines at the exhibition.

6) At that time the coast was hitting/was being hit by the hurricane.

7) A treasure chest was found/was been found off the coast of India.

8) The first floor of that building is been repaired/is being repaired now.

9) They said they would be forced/would been forced to pay back the money.

10) New merchandise will being purchased /will be purchased next week.

VII. Complete the second sentence with the appropriate auxiliaries/modals so that the sentence has a similar meaning to the first sentence. You may need a negative form of the auxiliary/modal:

1) He has collected 330 photographs in a book.

330 photographs …………collected in a book.

2) His teacher had to teach him how to take pictures.

He………….taught how to take pictures.

3) If these images hadn’t been published, people might have forgotten the events.

The events………………forgotten if the images hadn’t been published.

4) He hopes that people will not forget tragedies like this.

He hopes that tragedies like this……….. forgotten.

5) Newspapers did not allow photographers to take pictures that cast the government in a bad light.

Photographers ……….allowed to take pictures that cast the government in a bad light.

6) He knew he could saw a small hole in the floor of his family’s single room.

He knew a small hole…………sawed in the floor of his family’s single room.

7) His colleagues warned him that the authorities would criticize him for several hours.

His colleagues warned him that he ………..criticized by the authorities for several hours.

8) No one found his negatives, but the officials no longer allowed him to take photographs.

No one found his negatives, but he………allowed to take photographs any longer.

9) They knew that the Guards might brutalize the people.

They knew that the people………..brutalized by the Guards.

10) People were hitting the high officials with stones.

High officials ……….hit with stones.

B. More exercises

I. Choose the most appropriate verb form (a or b) to fill the blanks in the following sentences:

1. They …… (a. had been chosen/b. had being chosen) from among a group of experts.

2. The secret document ……(a. was modified/b. was been modified) several times before the company president finally signed it.

3. She …..(a. was been called /b. has been called) by several reporters this morning.

4. The project ……(a. was been developed/b. was being developed) by the team that John Ashcroft had chosen.

5. They ….(a. had been found/b. had found) in the forest before being taken to the closest hospital.

6. They …..(a. were being interviewed/b. were interviewing) when the bomb went off.

II. Choose the correct variant, a, b, c or d:

1. The flowers must…….. regularly.

a) have watered b) be watered

c) being watered d) been watered

2. Money should…….to those poor families.

a) being given b) been given

c) be given d) have given

3. When you come back in Rome, we……..informed by our business partners.

a) shall been b) shall have

c) shall being d) shall be

4. The offers of several law firms ……turned down in that competition.

a) have b) been

c) were d) being

5. The problem………..in the meeting tomorrow.

a) will have debated b) will be debated

c) will been debated d) will be being debated

6. The guests ……..very well during their stay at the hotel.

a) have looked after b) have been looking after

c) were looked after d) were looking after

7.Several jewels….from the hotel safe yesterday around noon.

a) have stolen b) were stolen

c) stole d) were stealing

8. They……promised a nice gift.

a) being b) been

c) have been d) were been

9. So far the Robinsons…several times by their neighbours.

a) were sued b) sued

c) were being sued d) have been sued

III. The sentences in each pair have the same meaning. Complete the verbs in the second sentence:

1) They built that house several years ago.

That houseseveral years ago.

2) They will bring the dessert in a moment.

The dessert in a moment.

3) They haven’t done anything to improve the situation.

Nothing..to improve the situation.

4) They had given her a present for her birthday.

She..a present for her birthday.

5) Someone left the door open last night.

The door..open last night.

6) That driver had hit three cars.

Three cars ………… by that driver.

7) No one has found the solution to that problem.

The solution to that problem ……..

8) The waiters are serving the supper now.

The supper……… now.

9) Someone has suggested that the meeting should be held in the auditorium.

It……. that the meeting should be held in the auditorium.

10) No one ever heard of the politician again.

Nothing…… ever of the politician again.

11) They gave Lauren some money for her drawing.

Lauren……. some money for her drawing.

12) They requested that the experts should inform the President on the latest developments.

The experts ….. to inform the President on the latest developments.

13) You have to return the books before the date imprinted on the page.

The books ….. before the date imprinted on the page.

14) People asked John to deliver his speech.

John …. to deliver his speech.

15) They will have sold that coat by the time we return with the money.

The coat……. by the time we return with the money.

IV. Put one of the following prefixes in each space in the sentences below. You may use some prefixes more than once:

im- / ir- / non- / il- / dis- / in- / mis- / un-

Example: He had an unglamorous victory at the Olympics.

1. It’s …likely that she will compete again after her accident.

2. The director decided that the project had been …..managed and appointed another team to implement it.

3. After the restoration works the building was ….recognizable.

4. His questions were considered …..relevant by the judge.

5. Although he had very good credentials he was considered …mature and was not offered the position.

6. What they were trying to do was definitely …….legal.

7. He called at an ….convenient time and couldn’t find her.

8. Leave out the ….essential elements, we do not have time to go into details.

9. They had a ….understanding some time ago.

10. He was completely …satisfied with his job, so he decided to apply for a position in a different company.

V. Phrasal verbs: PUT

Take a look at the following definitions:

put aside = save money

= disregard

put away = put sth. in the place where it is usually kept

put down = write sth., make a note of sth.

put off = delay doing sth.

put on clothes/weight

put out a fire

put up with sth./sb. = accept sth./sb. annoying, tolerate

Now fill the blanks in the following sentences with phrasal verbs taken from the box. Changes in form may be necessary:

put aside/ put away / put off / put up with

1. He………her nagging because she is a very good secretary.

2. She………her book when she heard the bell and opened the door.

3. They ………..their differences and made up.

4. They decided to…………the meeting because the CEO was sick.

5. They…………..some money for their holiday.

C. Writing

Narration

In a written examination you may be asked to write about an event or to tell a story. It is better for you to build your narration around a main event and to use your own experience so as to make your story more interesting to the reader.

It will be easier for you to set the scene if you point out where and when the event happened and who was involved in it. Remember that we usually use Past Progressive and Past Perfect to set the background of a story. When you relate the events (remember to tell them in the order in which they happened and to include some time links to help the reader) you should use the Past Simple. It is always useful to employ a range of adjectives and adverbs as well to describe the actions and the feelings you had.

You should end your story by describing the outcome of the event or why it influenced you.

This is how a student chose to write about ‘The Adventure of a Lifetime’:

Opening

Keeping the reader in suspense

I have never felt so frightened as I did in an ascent in the Rarau Mountains. I knew that mountain climbing can be dangerous but nothing could have prepared me for what was about to happen.

Background

I had arranged with a friend to climb to the Trei Brazi Cabin and then to Saint Stephen Monastery. But my friend had a minor car accident and did not arrive as planned. I decided to climb on my own. The sky was clear and it was very cold. I should have known better, this was a sign of incoming bad weather.

New paragraph for the main stage

Events in sequence

Time links

I bravely started the ascent. After an hour or so, a strong wind started to blow and terrible rain clouds gathered in the sky above me. At that time I did not know what was about to be unleashed. I told myself that this would be just another autumn rain and that I would have no problem reaching the cabin. Later nature, unpredictable as it is, proved that I was wrong. Suddenly, the weather became bitterly cold and it started to rain heavily. A horrendous storm began. I had to lie on the ground, otherwise the wind would have carried me away. Just imagine yourself lying down on drenched ground, your clothes so soaked that you feel the cold in your bones. Then try to imagine the wind rumbling against the trees and you will know how I felt. I thought I would never make it alive.

Nevertheless, finally the storm stopped and I, stumbling and barely moving my feet, tried to reach the cabin. After an hour or so I saw some flickering lights which became brighter as I moved towards them. I had arrived at the cabin.

Ending

The impact on the narrator

The years have passed and what I felt that afternoon seems to gradually disappear from my memory. I have never blamed the mountain for what happened. The experience just made me more cautious. Now I know that when you try to reach higher there are moments when you have to stop and rest for a while.

Practice

Write your answers in 120-180 words in an appropriate style:

1. Write about your first day at work.

2. Write about a pleasant experience you had.

3. Write a story ending as follows: ‘I knew I had made a mistake’.







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