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PAST PERFECT, FRAZA CONDITIONALA, MODUL IMPERATIV

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Continut: 1.Past perfect

2.FRAZA CONDITIONALA

3.Modul imperativ




1.Past Perfect

1.1.Past perfect simple

Se formeaza astfel:

- afirmativ I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + HAD + Verb (forma a IIIa)

Observatie to do – did – done = a face (vezi lista de verbe neregulate)

done – forma a IIIa (ca si la prezent perfect)

negativ I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + HAD NOT (HADN’T) + Verb (forma a IIIa)

- interogativ: HAD + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + Verb (forma a IIIa) ?

Observatie: Pentru verbele regulate se adauga terminatia „ed”.

Exemplu: Had they arrived by noon Ajunsesera la pranz ?

Yes, they had arrived by noon.

No, they hadn’t arrived by noon.

Se traduce in limba romana prin mai mult ca perfectul.

Exemplu I had (I’d) already finished my work by noon yesterday Imi terminasem deja treaba ieri la pranz.

She had prepared lunch before you came home Pregatise pranzul inainte sa vii tu.

Utilizare:

Pentru a exprima o actiune care a avut loc inaintea unui moment din trecut.

Pentru a exprima o actiune facuta inaintea altei actiuni din trecut (prima actiune ---- > Past Perfect, a doua actiune ---- > Past Simple

Se folosesc adverbele: as soon as, after, no sooner . than, hardly when

Atentie No sooner, hardly, scarcely duc la inversarea auxiliarului cu subiectul.

Exemplu Hardly had he finished lunch when phone rang Abia terminase masa cand a sunat telefonul.

No sooner had I opened my umbrella than the rain stopped. Nici n-am deschis bine umbrela, cand s-a oprit ploaia.

1.2.PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Se formeaza astfel:

- afirmativ I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + HAD + BEEN + Verb + ING

negativ I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + HAD NOT (HADN’T) + BEEN + Verb + ING

- interogativ: HAD + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + BEEN+ Verb + ING ?

Utilizare

pentru a exprima o actiune de lunga durata care a inceput inaitea unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut si s-a continuat pana-n acel moment / actiune.

Adverbe folosite How long (intrebare), since for (raspuns).

Exemplu: I had been waiting for ten minutes when he came.

Asteptasem 10 minute cand a venit el.

How long had youbeen walking when it started to rain ?

De cat timp va plimbati cand a inceput sa ploua ?

We had been walking since 9 o’clock (for three hours).

Ne plimbam de la 5 (de trei ori)

2.FRAZA CONDITIONALA

Este formata din 2 propozitii :

PP – principala - care exprima o actiune conditionata sau dorita si

PS – subordonata (conditionala) - care arata conditia cu care se realizeaza actiunea din principala.

Ordinea celor 2 propozitii nu e fixa, dar intre ele exista 3 reguli de concordanta.

REGULA I

In propozitia principala avem viitor iar in propozitia secundara (subordonata) avem prezent.

MAIN CLAUSE (propozitia principala)

IF

IF CLAUSE (propozitia conditionala)



FUTURE, PREZENT

IF

PREZENT

Observatie In engleza nu se pune viitor dupa IF, se traduce in romaneste prin viitor cu viitor.

Exemplu If I have mony , I’ll buy that car.

PS VS (Verb secundar)

Exista si o derivata a acestei reguli cu prezentul in ambele propozitii tradusa prin prezent.

Exemplu: If it rains , I get wet; I have no umbrella.

PP – future PS – prezent

Regula I exprima o conditie realizabila in viitor sau in prezent.

REGULA II

In propozitia principala avem Conditional prezent iar in PS (if) avem Past Simple

MAIN CLAUSE (propozitia principala)

IF

IF CLAUSE (propozitia conditionala)

PREZENT CONDITIONAL

IF

PAST SIMPLE

Exprima o conditie ireala, imaginabila, care este imposibila in prezent sau viitor.

Dupa „IF” in engleza NU se pune conditional.

Aceasta regula se traduce prin conditional prezent in ambele propozitii.

Conditionalul prezent se formeaza:

- afirmativ : I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + SHOULD / WOULD + Verb (inf.)

- negativ : I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + ( SHOULD / WOULD) not + Verb (inf.)

Exemplu: I would (I’d) go early. As pleca mai devreme.

I wouldn’t go early.

Trecutul se formeaza la fel dar verbul este cu terminatia ,,ed’’ pt. verbe regulate si forma a III a pt. verbe neregulate.

Observatie: La trecutul simplu verbul TO BE are 2 forme dar in fraza conditionala se foloseste numai forma WERE la toate persoanele.

REGULA III

In propozitia principala avem conditional trecut iar in PS avem PAST PERFECT.

MAIN CLAUSE (propozitia principala)

IF

IF CLAUSE (propozitia conditionala)

PAST CONDITIONAL

IF

PAST PERFECT

Exprima o conditie ireala, imaginara, imposibila in trecut.

Se traduce prin conditional trecut in ambele propozitii.

Conditionalul trecut se formeaza cu:

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + WOULD ( Should ) + have + Verb (+ ed sau forma a IIIa pentru neregulate).

Exemplu: He would have told you. Ti-ar fi spus.

He wouldn’t have told you. Nu ti-ar fi spus.

PAST PERFECT se formeaza cu:

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + HAD + Verb (+ ed sau forma a IIIa pentru neregulate)

Exemplu: If I had been you, I would have gone to the party.

Daca as fi fost in locul tau m-as fi dus la petrecere.

CONJUNCTII care introduc propozitia secundara:

IF (daca), (deoarece, intrucat, cand)

UNLESS (daca nu, doar daca), se foloseste cu propozitii in care exista deja alte cuvinte negative.

Exemplu: Don’t ask him to explain again unless you really don’t understand.

Nu-i cere sa-ti explice din nou decat daca chiar n-ai inteles.

IN CASE (daca, in cazul in care) exprima o precautie fata de ce s-ar intampla in viitor.

PROVIDED care are drept inlocuitor sau echivalent = ON CONDITION (cu conditia ca)



Exemplu: Tom can lend me his car provider (on condition) that I bring it back this evening.

Tom imi poate da masina cu conditia sa i-o aduc inapoi in seara aceasta.

Nu se traduce TRECUTUL SIMPLU si PAST PREFECT.

Timpul frazei e dat de propozitia principala.

3.MODUL IMPERATIV

Exprima un ordin, un indemn, o urare sau chiar un sfat.

Se formeaza astfel:

Pentru persoana I si a IIIa sing si plural se foloseste constructia:

Let + complement Acuz + Verb !

Exemplu: Let me explain you !

Let the boy play !

Pentru persoana a II a se incepe propozitia direct cu verbul.

Exemplu: Be quiet ! Taci ! Stai linistit !

Read londer ! Citeste cu voce tare !

Forma negativa se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului TO DO.

Exemplu: Do not let me wait for you ? Nu ma face sa te astept ?

Don’t do that ! Nu face asta !

Verbul to do la forma negativa se foloseste chiar si in cazul verbelor TO BE si TO HAVE.

Exemplu: Don’t be rude ! Nu fi nepoliticos !

Don’t have that behavior ! Sa nu te comporti asa !

Daca se doreste accentuarea in locul lui Don’t ----- > do not

APLICATII

Traduceti:

  1. Voi pleca mai devreme daca se va permite.
  2. Daca as fi in locul tau n-as cumpara rochia asta.
  3. Daca ai fi fost mai atent n-ai fi spart farfuriile.

In limba engleza:

  1. I’ll go earlier if I am allowed to.
  2. If I were you, I wouldn’t buy this dress.
  3. If you had been more careful you wouldn’t have dropped the plates.

Traduceti:

    1. I should like to have a talk with you.    As vrea sa stau de vorba cu tine.
    2. I should like to get that dictionary in exchange for the other one. As vrea sa capat dictionarul acela in schimbul celuilalt.
    3. She wouldn’t say such things. N-ar spune ea astfel de lucruri.
    4. You would like to have a look at my picture, wouldn’t you. Ai vrea sa-mi vezi tabloul, nu-i asa ?
    5. If she asked me I should tell her about my suspicion Daca m-ar intreba, i-as vorbi despre banuiala mea.
    6. We should go on a trip to Italy if we saved enough money Am face o excursie in Italia daca am economisi destui bani.
    7. If he were a dishonest man he wouldn’t pay you back. Daca ar fi necinstit, nu ti-ar restitui banii.
    8. If I hadn’t seen it myself I shouldn’t told worry Daca n-as fi vazut eu insumi, nu mi-as face griji.
    9. He wouldn’t wait for her if they hadn’t told him about her coming N-ar astepta-o daca ei nu i-ar fi spus de venirea ei.
    10. You should go and see the film. It’s very good. Ar trebui sa te duci ssa vezi fimul. Este f. bun
    11. They wouldn’t have refused you, if you had invited them to the cinema Nu te-ar fi refuzat, daca i-ai fi invitat.
    12. We shouldn’t have missed the train if we had hurried abit Daca ne-am fi grabit putin, n-am fi pierdut trenul.

PROVERBS

If you run after two hares you’ll catch neither.

If you sing before breakfast, you’ll cry before night.

If hope were not, heart would break.

If the mountain will not come to Mahomed, Mahomed to go to the mountain.

If you want a thing well done, do it yourself.



If wishes were horses, beggars would ride.

Observatii : Mahomed [m∂’homit]

hare [he∂] – iepure

beggar [beg∂] - cersetor

If my aunt had been a man, she would have been my uncle.

Hell is paved with good thoughts.

Lost time is never found again.

Many things grow in the garden that were never sown there.

When the belly is full, the music goes better

Men may meet but mountains never greet.

Saying is one thing and doing is another.

Seeing is believing.

You cannot eat your cake and have it. too.

When angry count a hundred.

The wind cannot be prevented from blowing.

When the cat is away the mice will play.

When I did well, I heard it never ! When I did ill I heard it ever.

He that never climbed never fell.

Listen at the keyhole and you’ll hear truth of yourself.

A friend in need is a friend in deed.

CONDITIONALE

Put these verbs in the right tense and translate:

v     If I (meet) Mary yesterday, I (tell) her about the performance.

v     I think it will rain tomorrow. What you (do) if it (rain) ?

v     It was a good thing it didn’t rain last sunday. But what you (do) if it (rain).

v     If I (be) Jane, I (stop) eating sweets.

v     Paul certainly (answer) the phone if he (be) at home.

v     I (be ) very happy if I (know) how to help Diana. But I’ve no idea.

v     If Cristine (hear) anything new this afternoon, wich i think she will, she (let) you know at once.

v     If you (lend) me 20 USD I (buy) the book on pets.

v     If he (work) harder and (stop) playng so much, he (be) one of the best pupils in the classroom.

v     If he (not hurry) he (not catch) the train.






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