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THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE – THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE
Formati perfectul prezent cu prezentul lui have + participiu trecut
Participiul trecut al verbelor regulate are aceeasi forma ca trecutul simplu: infinitiv + -ed.
Participiul trecut al verbelor neregulate variaza si trebuie memorat.
I / you / we / you / they have worked
He / she / it has worked
I / you / we / you / they have not worked
He / she / it has not worked
Have I / you / we / you / they worked?
Has he / she / it worked?
Interogativ negativ: Have they not (haven’t they) worked? Has she not (hasn’t they) worked?
I have – I’ve; you have – you’ve; he has – he’s; she has – she’s; have not- haven’t; has not – hasn’t
O actiune anterioara momentului prezent poate fi exprimata atat prin Past Tense cat si prin Present Perfect Tense. Dar, in timp ce Past Tense prezinta o actiune fara nici o referinta la momentul prezent, Present Perfect leaga actiunea din trectut cu prezentul. Prezentul perfect simplu se foloseste:
pentru o actiune in trecut, nu ne intereseaza momentul in care a avut loc ci rezultatele ei in prezent:
I have visited an interesting museum. (I still remember the things seen there)
pentru o actiune care continua in prezent si, poate, va continua si in viitor:
Many pupils have learnt in this school. (in the past, some children learnt here, in the present others are learning and, of course, in the future, other pupils will learn here, too)
pentru a exprima o actiune completa intr-un trecut foarte apropiat de prezent. Se foloseste cu: just, lately, recently, of late, latterly, till now, up to now, so far, up to the present, during the last week, the last few days, these twenty minutes, etc.
The train has just left.
We have not seen Jack lately.
pentru a desemna o actiune care se desfasoara intr-o perioada de timp incompleta. Se foloseste cu: today, this week, this month, this year, all day, all night, this night, etc.
Last week we wrote three letters, but this week we have written only one.
Daca this morning, all night, all evening exprima o perioada de timp completa, atunci folosim Past Tense:
I have seen a good film this morning. (we are before 12 o’clock at noon)
I saw a good film this morning. (we are in the afternoon or in the evening)
cu how long pentru a exprima o actiune care se extinde pana in prezent:
How long have you been ill? (you are still ill)
Dar cand este vorba doar de o actiune in trecut, avem:
How long did you stay in London last year?
How long had you known him when he died?
cu adeverbe de frecventa: ever, never, often, seldom, always, several times:
We have never visited New Yprk.
Have you ever been to the North Pole?
cu adverbele already si yet
La interogativ pot aparea amandoua, Already exprima surpriza ca actiunea s-a desfasurat deja:
Have you got up already?
Cu yet vrem sa aflam daca actiunea s-a terminat sau nu:
Have you got up yet?
Already poate sa apara in propozitii afirmative:
The student has already translated the lesson.
In propozitii negative, yet are sensul de nu inca:
Albert has not learnt the poem yet.
cu since si for
Since arata momentul, punctul, cand incepe actiunea care se extinde pana in prezent. Se traduce in limba romana prin din, de la, de cand
They have not seen Alice since 1989 / Christmas / she went to London.
For exprima perioada de timp care continua pana in prezent. In limba romana se traduce prin de atata…timp
These boys have been here for half an hour.
pentru actiuni trecute, fara mentionarea timpului:
Has Peter had lunch?
in ziare, stiri de televiziune, pentru a introduce o actiune care va fi descrisa prin Past Tense:
A terrible accident has happened; a car ran into a group of children and killed three of them.
Go si be sunt diferite ca sens:
Tony has gone to York. (a plecat si e inca plecat)
Tony has been to York. (a fost in vizita in York si acum s-a intors)
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS
Formati timpul perfect prezent continuu cu perfectul prezent al lui to be + -ing
I / you / we / you / they have been working
He / she / it has been working
I / you / we / you / they have not been working
He / she / it has not been working
Have I / you / we / you / they been working
Has He / she / it been working
Interogativ negativ: Have I not (haven’t I) been working? Has she not (hasn’t she) been working?
Forme contrase: I have – I’ve; he has – he’s; I have not – haven’t; he has not – hasn’t
Unele verbe nu pot fi folosite la timpurile continue.
I have known Jim for five years.
She has loved you since that day.
Prezentul perfect continuu se foloseste:
pentru actiuni care au inceput in trecut si continua pana in momentul prezent:
I have been waiting for an hour and the museum has still not opened!
pune accentul pe durata, pe continuitatea actiunii in prezent:
Mary has been watering the flowers for half an hour. (she is still doing the job)
Urmatoarele verbe se folosesc frecvent la perfectul prezent continuu: expect, learn, hope, live, sleep, look, sit, rain, stand, stay, teach, study, work, wait:
I have been learning English since I was a child.
Comparati urmatoarele propozitii:
I have been drinking tea since 5 o’clock. (actiune neintrerupta)
I have drunk three cups of tea since 5 o’clock. (cate cesti de ceai – numarul)
Puneti verbele din paranteza la trecutul simplu sau prezentul perfect:
1. I (live) in this city all my life. My parents come (here when they were very young. 2. It (rain) very much in this region in the spring, but it (not rain) much ever since. 3. We (see) the famous Heroes’ Monument several times so far. The last time we (see) it was two weeks ago. 4. Mr. Martin (teach) English from three o’clock to six o’clock. He’s no longer in the school. He (leave) half an hour ago. 5. We (have) a test almost every day this week. We (have) the first test on Monday morning. 6. The weather (be) terrible ever since last Sunday. It (rain) every day this week! 7. The plumber (be) here for the past two weeks. He (repair) the radiators in all the rooms. 8. We (learn) a great deal of English since we (come) to this school. 9. Our grandmother (be) with us for the last three months. She (go) away this morning. Mother (help) her with her packing before she left. 10. I (read) many books on cooking and now I can cook a lot of dishes. 11. Mr. Grant (have) a car for years but he (never drive) at night. 12. Mary (make) a lot of friends recently. 13. Tom always (play) in the park in front of his house when he was young. 14. Mr. Plumb (have) a lot of trouble with his car lately. He (repair) it twice so far. 15. “You (meet) Ann?” “Yes, we (meet) at the school festival two weeks ago.” 16. Mr. Barton is not here. He (go) out of town for the weekend. 17. This famous writer (write) several novels and last year he (write) a successful play. 18. The guests (have) a good time ever since their arrival. They (arrive) by plane three days ago. 19. The students (start) the exercise at 8 o’clock. They (not finish) it yet. 20. I (take) a lot of photographs this holiday but they are not as good as those I (take) last holiday. 21. Margaret (buy) a pretty dress for her birthday party. She (buy) it at the Unirea department store. 22. My friend Michael is in hospital because he (break) his leg: he (break) it two weeks ago in a car accident. 23. I’m sorry, I (forget) his telephone number. 24. I (read) nearly all Ivasiuc’s novels. Last week I (start) to read ‘The Water’ and I nearly (finish) it now. During the winter holiday I (read) ‘The Birds’. 25. Up to now I (understand) every lesson in the book. 26. No one (find) Barbara’s glasses yet. She (lose) them during the Physical Education lesson. 27. We (receive) his telegram at six o’clock yesterday. We (already, send) him a special delivery reply. 28. I (pay) the telephone bill at the beginning of the month. 29. Grandfather (never, fly) in a plane before. This month he (fly) twice. 30. Mr. Martin is my English teacher. He (teach) in our school for five years. He (graduate) from the University in 1970.
Puneti verbele din paranteza la trecutul simplu, prezentul perfect simplu sau continuu:
1. Since Michael last (visit) me, he (be) to many places. 2. Dan (wait)
for Henry since eight o’clock. It’s now half past eight, but Henry (not arrive)
yet. 3. Where (you, be) all this morning? It’s nearly noon now. 4. Where (be)
Paul this morning? I rang him up several times before noon. 5. I (never, read)
such a good book as this. 6. Mr. Brown (tell) William to go to the grocer’s
since breakfast, but he (not go) yet. 7. (you, ever, see) any bears? 8. As soon
as I (do) my homework I’ll watch television and then I‘ll go to bed. 9. I
(know) Peter for years; as a matter of fact I (know) him since I (be) a little
child. 10. Please excuse the disorder in the house. I (move) furniture. 11. How
long (you watch) television? We (watch) television since eight o’clock, but we
(talk) most of the time. 12. I still (not mend) the dress I (tear) last week.
13. I (phone) you for at least two hours. Where (you, be)? 14. We (watch) the
TV programme several times this week. 15. (you, meet)
1. have lived, came 2. rained, hasn’t rained 3. have seen, saw 4. taught, left 5. have had, had 6. Has been, has rained 7. has been, has repaired 8. have learnt, came 9. has been, went, helped 10. have read 11. has had, has never driven 12. has made 13. played 14. has had, has repaired 15. have you met, met 16. has gone 17. has written, wrote 18. have had, arrived 19. started, haven’t finished it yet 20. have taken, took 21. has bought, bought 22. has broken, broke 23. have forgotten 24. have read, started, have finished, read 25. have understood 26. has found, lost 27. received, have already sent 28. paid 29. has never flown, has flown 30. has taught, graduated
1. visited, has been 2. has been waiting, has not arrived 3. have you been 4. was 5. have never read 6. has been telling, hasn’t gone 7. have you ever seen 8. have done 9. have known, have known, was 10. have been moving 11. have you been watching, have been watching, have been talking 12. haven’t mended, tore 13. have been phoning, have you been 14. have watched 15. did you meet, did, haven’t met 16. has been crying, has cried 17. haven’t received, have already got 18. have you done, was 19. has often tried 20. has been working, came
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