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BUSINESS AND THE ENVIRONMENT CURS ENGLEZA
I. Reading Session
The wind of change
the eve of the new millennium there are growing signs that the world may be on
the edge of an environmental revolution at least comparable to the political
revolution that swept
For the first time since the oil age
began, the world has the technology to wean itself from petroleum coming from
the politically volatile
In the new economy, which Brown calls an eco-economy, renewable energy- a combination of wind turbines, solar cells, hydrogen generators and fuel cell engines- will replace climate-disrupting fossil fuels; urban transportation systems will be centred not around the car, but on high-tech transit systems.
It is becoming increasingly clear that the global economy is out of sync. with the earths ecosystem, as evidenced by collapsing fisheries, shrinking forests, expanding deserts or eroding soils. This can also be seen in the earths changing climate as rising temperatures lead to more destructive storms, melting glaciers, and rising sea levels. However, the needed restructuring of the global economy has already begun and is gaining momentum.
Renewable energy sources
Nowhere is the new economy more
visible than in the energy sector. The shift from the fossil fuel era to the solar/hydrogen
era can be seen in the contrasting growth rates of these energy sources in
recent years. During the last decade, the use of wind power grew by 26 percent
a year, solar cells by 20 percent, and geothermal energy by 4 percent annually.
In contrast, oil expanded by only 1 percent a year and coal use declined by 1
percent annually. For example, the Danish government has banned the
construction of coal-powered plants. From 1995 to 2000, world wind electric
generation expanded nearly fourfold, a growth rate previously found only in the
The use of solar cells is also
expanding rapidly. In remote villages or in certain other inaccessible areas
throughout the world investing in solar cell installation may be cheaper than
buying candles. At the end of 2000, nearly 1 million homes worldwide were
getting their electricity from solar cells. With the new solar cell roofing
material developed in
Raw materials recycled/reused
also means a change in the materials. The challenge is to shift from a linear
flow-through economy to a comprehensive recycling economy. Progress is being
made on this front, but nearly enough, though some countries are advancing. For
example, 58 percent of
Economic decision makers at all
levels government leaders, corporate planners, investment bankers and
individual consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the need not to
strive for economic development at the expense of the environment. Sometimes it
is learnt the hard way. For example, in mid-August 1998, there were several
weeks of record flooding in the
(Ready For Business, Editura Universitara, Bucuresti, 2004, pp. 97-99)
II. Build your vocabulary
A. Match the words 1-15 expressing environmental concepts to their definitions a-o.
a. balance of natural relationships in the environment
b. types of animals/plants in danger of no longer existing
c. steady rise in average world temperature
d. chemically radioactive wastes, dangerous to health/environment
e. warming of the earths surface caused by pollution
f. rain made acid by gases from factories
g. carbon dioxide gas from cars, factories etc.
h. Waste capable of undergoing decomposition
i. Destruction/clearing of forests
j. Perfectly clean/unspoilt/untouched area
k. Coal, oil etc
l. Reduction in quantity of zone by chemicals (from refrigerators, aerosols etc.) released on earth
m. Places where animals live and breed whic are decreasing in size
n. Change in the weather/climate
o. Type of animal/plant no longer existing
B. Give the Romanian equivalent of the following concepts on environmental issues:
Best available techniques
Company environmental policy
Low-lwvwl radioactive wastes
Ozone layer depletion
Sustainable development indicator
Transboundary air pollution
III. Focus on language: THE PASSIVE VOICE
Soda Bottles to Synchilla Fleece
Bottles are brought to the local recycling centre. The plastic is converted into small pieces and chopped into flakes. The flakes are melted and shaped into fine fibres. The recycled fibres are shipped to the mill. They are made into clothes known as PCR synchilla clothing.
Voice is the grammatical category specific to the verb that expresses the rapport between the predicative verb on the one hand, and the subject and object of the predicative verb on the other hand. There are two voices in English: the active voice and the passive voice. The verb is in the active voice when the grammatical subject performs the action: Lucy (subject) has written (verb) a letter (object). The verb is in the passive voice when the grammatical subject bears the action performed by the object: This letter (subject) has been written (verb) by Lucy (object).
We form the passive with verb to be and the past participle of the main verb.
Past Tense Continuous
Modals +be +p.p
Intel produces millions of chips every year.
Our supplier is shipping the goods next week.
The government raised interest rates by 1%.
He was asking me some difficult questions.
They have chosen the new design.
They had chosen the new design.
He will have delivered the parcels.
We can arrange a loan within six days
Millions of chips are produced every year.
The goods are being shipped next week.
Interest rates were raised by 1%.
I was being asked some difficult questions.
The new design has been chosen.
The new design had been chosen.
A press briefing will be given tomorrow.
The parcels will have been delivered.
A loan can be arranged within six days.
The object in the active sentence moves to the front in the passive sentence and becomes the subject.
We form negatives and questions in the same way as in active sentences:
The new design hasnt been chosen.
Has the new design been chosen?
USES of the PASSIVE VOICE:
1) Focus on important information; when the person who carries out the action is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context.
very large proportion of world oil production is generated in the
Deutsche Post AG will offer investors share price discounts and bonus shares as part of its planned initial public offering. These incentives will be offered to retail investors in EU countries who make an early subscription. (Here the writer wants to give information about the incentives. Who will do the action (offer) is not important or not known.
2) Systems and processes; we often use the passive to talk about systems, processes and procedures:
First of all the finished products are checked for quality, and then they are packed and sent out from our warehouse. After dispatch we allow customers to follow the progress of their order on our INTRANET. Finally, we get a digital image of the signature of the person who receives the goods, so that this can be checked later, if necessary.
3) When we refer to an unpleasant event and we do not want to say who is to blame.
A lot of mistakes have been made. (Instead of You have made a lot of mistakes)
Only transitive verbs (verbs followed by an object) can be changed into the passive.
E.g.: Grandma knitted my jumper. (Transitive verb)
My jumper was knitted by Grandma.
We use by + agent to say who or what carries out the action. We use with +instrument/material/ ingredient to say what the agent used: The pancakes were made by Claire. They were made with eggs, flour and milk.
The agent is often omitted in the passive sentence when the subject of the active sentence is one of the following words: people, one, someone/somebody, they, he, etc.
Somebody has rearranged the furniture.
The furniture has been rearranged.
The agent is not omitted when it is a specific or important person or when it is essential to the meaning of the sentence.
The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
A new law has been passed by the government.
The verbs think, believe, say, report, know, expect, consider, understand, etc. are used in the following passive patterns in personal and impersonal constructions.
Active: People believe that he lied in court.
Passive: It is believed that he lied in court.
He is believed to have lied in court.
Active: They expect him to arrive soon.
It is expected that he will arrive soon.
He is expected to arrive soon.
The goods . in transit.
This advert .by thousands of people every day.
The project . by the end of the month.
Fifty retail outlets over the last year.
All of our IT systems .
Our order until we receive payment.
Design send back distribute offer put outsource analyse
First, we carefully select a sample of people to ask. Then the questions . by a small team within the department. Next, the questions into sequence and grouped together by topic. After that, we print the questionnaire and it .. to everyone in the sample. Of course, not all the forms .. to us, but we try to collect as many as possible.
Sometimes a small gift to people who return the form, as an incentive. Finally we enter all the results onto a spreadsheet, and the information .. by the marketing department. If we are using a very large sample the distribution and collection .. to an external company.
The Academy Awards Presentation .. (first/organise) in 1929 and since then, it ..(hold ) every year. The presentation (attend) by those at the top of the film industry and .. (watch) on TV by millions of viewers who want to see who (present) with the golden statue which .(desire) by everone in the motion picture world.
The voting for the Academy Awards .. (conduct) secretly and the results ..(not reveal) to anyone until the envelope .. (open) on stage in front of the audience. Awards (give) for the best individual or collective work and ..(separate) into different categories. Up to five nominations (make) in each category. The awards, which .. (know) as Oscars, ..(consider) to be the highest honour anyone in the film industry can . (give).
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