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THE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE – THE PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Gramatica

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THE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE – THE PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS

THE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE




Forma

Formati prezentul simplu folosind indicativul. Adaugati s sau es pentru persoana a III-a singular la afirmativ.

Afirmativ

I / you / we / you / they – work

He / she / it – works

Negativ

I / you / we / you / they – do not work

He / she / it – does not work

Interogativ

Do - I / you / we / you / they - work?

Does – he / she / it – work?

Negativ-Interogativ

Do I not work? Do you not work? Does he not work? Etc.

Forma contrasa:

Do not = don’t

Does not = doesn’t

Utilizare

Prezentul simplu se foloseste:

pentru activitati repetate, obisnuite, permanente.

We go to school every morning. (repetata)

Father smokes too much. (obisnuita)

Jane works in a big factory. (permanenta)

pentru actiuni care sunt adevaruri general valabile.

Ice melts in the sun.

The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.

cand se vorbeste despre orare si programe fixe, cu sens de viitor.

The film starts at 10.30. (will start)

The championship starts next Saturday.

The train leaves at 8.00. (will leave)

pentru a introduce un citat; in comentariile sportive; in proverbe, zicatori; in prospecte de medicamente, retete si instructiuni de folosire a diverselor aparate.

Shakespeare says: “Not marble, nor the gilded monuments/ of princes shall outlive this powerful rhyme.” (Sonnet 55) (citat)

The goal-keeper passes to Maradona, but Hagi intercepts; Hagi to Lacatus and he shoots and it’s a goal! (comentarii sportive)

Despair gives courage to a coward. (proverb)

First, I take the potatoes and slice them. Then, I slice the tomatoes, fry the onion…. (retete)

Nota

Adverbele de frecventa sunt deseori folosite pentru a sublinia repetarea. Cele mai comune adverbe de frecventa sunt: usually, always, never, ever, often, seldom, rarely, sometimes, generally, occasionally.

Pentru a sublinia repetarea unei actiuni se mai poate folosi adverbul every in combinatie cu anumite cuvinte ce definesc momente in timp: every day/week/month/year etc.

THE PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Forma

Formati prezentul continuu cu    to be + …ing

Afirmativ

I am working

You are working

He / she / it is working

We / you / they are working

Negativ

I am not working

You are not working

He / she / it is not working

We / you / they are not working



Interogativ

Am I working?

Are you working?

Is he / she / it working?

Are we / you / they working?

Interogativ-Negativ

Am I not (aren’t I) working? Are you not (aren’t you) working? Is he not (isn’t he) working?

Forma contrasa este uzuala in engleza vorbita.

I am = I’m

You are = you’re

It is/ he is/ she is = it’s/ he’s/ she’s

It is not = it isn’t sau it’s not

We are not = we’re not sau we aren’t

They are not = they’re not sau they aren’t

Utilizare

Prezentul continuu se foloseste:

pentru actiuni care se petrec in momentul vorbirii.

Kate is at school. She is reading a book.

Pete is at home with mum. He is playing.

pentru actiuni care se petrec in preajma momentului vorbirii, dar nu neaparat in momentul vorbirii; cu today these days this term at the moment etc.

Beatrice isn’t studying English this year. She wants to concentrate on another foreign language.

pentru a exprima un aranjament anume intr-un viitor apropiat.

What are you doing tomorrow?

pentru a exprima viitorul, in special cu verbe de miscare: to come, arrive, go, leave.

Our friends are arriving tomorrow.

He is going to London on Friday

cu always (insemnand “prea mult”) pentru a exprima iritarea.

Your children are always running on my lawn.

I can’t stand him; he’s always interupting me.

pentru a exprima o actiune temporara.

We usually go to work by bus, but today we are going by cab.

pentru actiuni in desfasurare intr-o perioada limitata in preajma momentului vorbirii.

John is looking for a job.

pentru actiuni care indica o schimbare sau trecerea de la o stare la alta.

Is your English improving?

The traffic is getting worse and worse in Tokyo.

The children are growing up very fast.

Nota

Cu prezentul continuu se folosesc adverbele now si just, dar ele nu sunt mentionate cand sensul lor este subinteles.

Look, the children are sleeping!

Verbe care nu se folosesc la timpul continuu:

verbe de perceptie: to feel, hear, notice, see, smell, taste.

Cand verbele de perceptie isi schimba sensul, ele pot fi folosite la timpul continuu.

To see

A avea o intalnire fixata, un interviu

I am seeing my dentist on Friday.



Jane is seeing the manager now.

A face o vizita.

Mary is seeing the sights so she will be a little late.

To see about (a face aranjamente).

Our form master is seeing about the trip to the mountains.

To see to (a aranja ceva, a verifica).

The mechanic is just seeing to the engine of our car.

To see somebody off/up/down/out/ (a conduce pe cineva).

Tom is seeing his grandfather off at the railway station now.

A avea halucinatii.

I’m seeing things.

To hear

A primi stiri despre ceva sau cineva.

I’m hearing interesting things about our new neighbour.

A audia (in cadrul judecatoriei).

The judge is hearing the witness.

To feel

A avea o anumita senzatie.

The doctor is feeling the patient’s arm.

To smell – to taste

Actiune voluntara

The girl is smelling the flowers in the garden now.

My mother is tasting the soup as she wants to feed the baby.

verbe care exprima activitati mentale: to agree, belive, distrust, doubt, find, foresee, forget, guess, imagine, know, mean, mind, remember, recognize, recollect, regard, suppose, think that, trust, understand.

To forget

O pierdere graduala a memoriei.

I’m forgetting figures.

To think

A se gandi la ceva ( nu se exprima nici o opinie).

What are you thinking about? I’m thinking about our new teachers.

To mind

A avea grija de cineva (to look after).

At the moment Ann is minding her sick mother.

verbe care exprima dorinta: to desire, intend, want, wish.

verbe care exprima atitudini, sentimente, stari emotionale: to abhor, adore, detest, dislike, displease, like, love, hate, please, prefer.

verbe care exprima posesiunea: to belong to, have, hold, keep, owe, own, possess.

verbe care exprima o stare, o conditie: to appear, be, consist of, contain, differ, deserve, equal, resemble, seem, suit

verbe diverse: to compare, expect, matter, result from, suffice.

Exercitii:

Puneti verbele din paranteza la prezentul simplu sau continuu.

1. I (go) out to get the evening paper. 2. ….. this book (belong) to you? 3. You (always, beat) me at chees! 4. What time (usually, get up) you…? 5. Everybody (like) summer. 6. We (go) to the circus this evening. 7. I (have) an appointment with my dentist at 5 o’clock. 8. Jane (make) all her clothes herself. 9. All the students in this class (read) English well. 10. I (know) what you (mean). 11. The park (look) beautiful in spring. 12. Hey! You (drink) from my glass! 13. I must go, mother (wait) for me. 14. The train (arrive) at the North Station at 6.30. 15. Don’t disturb her, she (feed) the baby. 16. I can’t go away; I (see) the Manager at the beginning of next week. 17. During the week we generally (get up) early. 18. I (hope) our school team will win the football match. 19. Our aunt (come) to see us this afternoon. 20. I (not approve) of your behaviour. We (get) a lot of snow in the mountains in winter. He (fly) from Bucharest to Sibiu tomorrow. 23. John (forever, boast) of what he has done. 24. They (want) to see you for a minute. 25. He (walk) to hospital every day. 26. She (move) her books into her new bookcase. 27. He usually (speak) his mother tongue, but today he (speak) English. 28. You (drink) coffe or tea? 29. You (understand) the Present Tenses in English? 30. He (play) the piano like a professional musician. 31. You can’t speak to Mary now; she (sleep). 32. I (not hear) what you (say). 33. It’s autumn. The leaves (turn) yellow and (fall) down. 34. I (wear) a raincoat because it (rain). 35. Something (burn) in the oven, I (see) that smoke (come) out of it. 36. We (not drink) tea with milk in our country. 37. We (spend) next week with our parents; we (go) on a trip with them. 38. You (go) to town this afternoon? 39. My friend (come) to see us next month. 40. Here (come) our long waited for teacher!

Cheia exercitiului:

1. am going 2. does this book belong 3. are always beating 4. do you usually get up 5. likes 6. are going 7. am having 8. makes 9. read 10. know – mean 11. looks 12. are drinking 13. is waiting 14. arrives 15. is feeding 16. am seeing 17. get up 18. hope 19. is coming 20. do not approve 21. get 22. is flying 23. is forever boasting 24. want 25. walks 26. is moving 27. speaks; is speaking 28. are you drinking 29. do you understand 30. plays 31. is sleeping 32. don’t hear; are saying 33. are turning; are falling 34. am wearing; is raining 35. is burning (can) see; is coming 36. do not drink 37. are spending; are going 38. are you going? 39. is coming 40. comes.






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